115 Women’s Rights Essay Topics

🏆 best essay topics on women’s rights, 🎓 most interesting women’s rights research titles, 💡 simple women’s rights essay ideas, ❓ women’s rights research questions.

  • Abortion: Women’s Health as Their Integral Right This paper will elaborate on the thesis that a woman should have the right to abortion as the best ethical decision to ensure her physical and psychological health.
  • Women Role in the Civil Rights Movement The civil rights movement was the second wave of feminism after the first one, which had taken place during the earlier half of the twentieth century.
  • Women’s Rights Movement in the Anti-Discrimination Activities The women’s movement is not just about the gender issue. It is a significant part of the common activity aimed at the protection of any discriminated group.
  • The Ethics of Abortion: Women’s Rights The argument about the legitimacy of abortion has been in existence for quite a while. The proponents of prohibiting abortions are nowadays labeled as the pro-life movement.
  • Canadian Abortion Laws and Women’s Rights Section 251.9 of Canada’s Criminal Code prohibited abortions and was not constitutional since it violated women’s right as spelt out in the Charter of Human Rights and Freedom.
  • Gender Equality and Women’s Rights The issue of gender equality in society has gained popularity in the course of the precedent century with the rise of the feminist movement and women’s struggle for equal rights.
  • Women’s Rights in Chopin’s, Updike’s, Auburn’s Works Not many of us think about the way life was hundred, or fifty, or even ten years ago. Even less of us ponder on the topic of the change in society, for example, human rights.
  • Female Genital Mutilation: Moral Decay and Women’s Rights Nowadays the practice of Female Genital Mutilation still exists in Asia, Middle East, Africa and in some local communities all over the world.

  • Sociology of Power and Women’s Rights History At some point in humanity’s early history, women were equal to men, if not superior. The paper evaluates the social evolution of women in relation to the sociology of power.
  • Globalization’s Role in Improving Women’s Rights On the one hand, globalization unites people and makes them follow the same standards or use similar opportunities.
  • Rape Shield Laws and Women’s Rights in Canada This paper argues that for all its controversy, the rape shield has had a positive impact on women’s rights in Canada.
  • Global Politics: Women’s Rights, Economy, Globalization Globalization is a critical phenomenon in global politics. It is the integration of the people of the world through economic, socio-cultural, and technological forces.
  • Abortion as a Legal Women’s Right Abortion has become a very sensitive issue in society because of the impact it has on most societies, especially in matters relating to morality and public health.
  • Betty Friedan and Her Contribution to Fight for Women’s Rights Friedan’s movement not only changed the rules of society to provide equal opportunities for women but also empowered women to believe in themselves and strive to be the best.
  • Women’s Demands: Seneca Falls in 1848 and Civil Rights Movement No matter the amount of difference between the demands of women at Seneca Falls in 1848 with the demands of women in the 1960s-70s, at the fundamental demand they were the same.
  • Women Have the Right to Decide Whether to Have an Abortion One of the controversial and ambiguous topics is the right to abortion as a phenomenon that has always caused significant public resonance.
  • The Controversy About Abortion Prohibition and Women’s Rights The ability to access abortion and contraception is a basic human right for women, yet prohibitions are being put on these rights.
  • Women Have the Right to Decide the Abortion This work aims to describe abortion as a controversial phenomenon that always causes significant public resonance.
  • Abolitionist and Women’s Rights Movements During the 19th century, the abolitionist movement was developing in the United States, which set itself the goal of putting an end to slavery.
  • Muller v. Oregon and Women’s Rights Advocacy The case Muller v. Oregon was discussed in the context of women’s rights protection in the early 20th century. This document is the most compelling evidence of legal procedures.
  • Women’s Rights. Miss Representation Documentary I selected the film “Miss Representation” because the topics of women’s rights and gender equality are interesting to me.
  • Women’s Rights: Suffrage Movement The research argues that understanding the connection between the anti-slavery movement and the women’s suffrage movement is instrumental in realizing the core of both movements.
  • The Women’s Rights: The Movement for Equal Society This essay will reflect on how the current state of Women’s rights was shaped throughout the movement’s equal society history.
  • Evolution, Not Revolution: Gender Law and Women Rights in Saudi Arabia Saudi Arabian government should enact policies that promote women to take professional courses such as engineering, medicine among others.
  • Prenuptial Agreements and Islamic Women’s Rights in the US and UK This paper focuses on the US and the UK, where the interpretation and resolution of Islamic prenuptial agreements present a conflict in both state courts and the religious court.
  • Muslim Women’s Rights: Misunderstood
  • Emily Murphy: Canadian Women’s Rights Activist
  • Women’s Rights and the Early American Republic
  • Anne Bradstreet and Phyllis Wheatley: Pioneers for Women’s Rights
  • The Early Women’s Rights Movement and the Men’s Mockery of It
  • Women’s Rights and the Social Status Within Saudi Arabia and Iran
  • The Fight for Women’s Rights in American History
  • Women’s Rights and Empowerment
  • Black Suffrage and Women’s Rights
  • Women’s Brain Drain and Gaps in Women’s Rights in the US
  • First Women’s Rights Convention Held in 1848
  • Latvia: Education and Women’s Rights
  • Muslim Women’s Rights Today
  • Women’s Rights Organizations and Human Trafficking
  • 1848 Women’s Rights Convention
  • Women’s Rights: How Small Strides Were Made During the Renaissance
  • Chairman Mao and Women’s Rights in China
  • Slavery, Women’s Rights and Inequality in America
  • Women’s Rights During the Victorian Era
  • The 1960s and 1970s’ Women’s Rights Movement
  • Women’s Rights, Working Hours, and the 1908 Case of Muller v.s Oregon
  • The Women’s Rights and Government Responsibility in the United States of America
  • Early Civilization Women’s Rights
  • Pride and Prejudice and Women’s Rights in the Nineteenth Century
  • Lucy Stone and the Awsa’s Affect on American Women’s Rights
  • How Far Women’s Rights Have Come?
  • Women’s Rights vs. Men Rights During the Iranian Revolution
  • Aristotle and Islam: Two Views of Women’s Rights
  • Women’s Rights and the Impact of Technology
  • The Enlightenment Period and the Value of Women’s Rights
  • Alice Paul’s Fearless Fight for Women’s Rights
  • Gender Equality and Women S Rights in Yemen
  • The Economics and Politics of Women’s Rights
  • Women’s Rights During the Cold War
  • Gender Wage Gap and Women’s Rights
  • The Taliban’s War Against Women: Women’s Rights Inhumanly Denied
  • Women’s Rights Are Limited and Suppressed in Indian Society
  • Women’s Rights and Latin America
  • Can the Law Secure Women’s Rights To Land in Africa?
  • Globalization, Labor Standards, and Women’s Rights: Dilemmas of Collective Action in an Interdependent World
  • Post-1900 International Women’s Rights
  • Feminism and the Women’s Rights Movement in America
  • Reconstruction Through Black Suffrage and Women’s Rights
  • The Fight for Women’s Rights During the Cold War
  • Women’s Rights Speeches Throughout Time
  • The Fight for Women’s Rights in Saudi Arabia
  • Women’s Rights and the Great Awakening
  • Women’s Rights During French Revolution
  • How and Why Did Women’s Rights to Property and Marriage Change in China Between 960 and 1400?
  • Chinese Women’s Rights and the Impact of Christianity
  • The Necessity for Women’s Rights Worldwide
  • Oppression Isn’t Sexy: Women’s Rights in the 21st Century
  • Women’s Rights and Abolitionism
  • Radical Feminism: Radical Feminists Think They’re Advocating for Women’s Rights
  • Pregnant Women’s Rights and Fetuses’ Rights
  • Abortion and Women’s Rights in the United States
  • Female Genital Mutilation in Ethiopia and Respect Women’s Rights
  • Women’s Rights and the U.S. Constitution’s Fourteenth Amendment
  • Post-Taliban Women’s Rights and Government Implementation
  • Can the Law Secure Women’s Rights to Land in Africa?
  • Why Did the Women’s Rights Movement Emerge in the USA During the 1950s and 1960s?
  • What Type of Issue Is Women’s Rights?
  • What Are Current Women’s Rights Issues in America?
  • What Are Some Issues That Are Considered Women’s Rights Issues?
  • Is Women’s Rights a Global Issue?
  • Why Women’s Rights Lost Ground at the End of World War Two?
  • Is There Any Problems With Women’s Rights in Saudi Arabia?
  • What Are Women’s Rights in the Taliban?
  • What Are Women’s Rights Like in Saudi Arabia?
  • Why Did the Taliban Ban Women’s Rights?
  • What Women Can and Can’t Do in Saudi Arabia?
  • What Has Afghanistan Done for Women’s Rights?
  • Does Saudi Arabia Support Women’s Rights?
  • When Did the Women’s Rights Movement Start in India?
  • What Does the UN Do for Women’s Rights?
  • Who Is the Head of Women’s Rights in the UN?
  • How Did the Wars Affect Women’s Rights?
  • What Did the Women’s Rights Fight For?
  • What Did Women’s Rights Accomplish?
  • What Were Three Major Events in the Women’s Rights Movement?
  • Who Fought for Women’s Rights?
  • What Is the Most Important Event in Women’s Rights History?
  • When Did the Women’s Rights Movement First Become an Issue?
  • How Betty Friedan and the Women’s Rights Movement Helped Women Across the World?
  • How Far the Women’s Rights Movement Come?
  • How Margaret Fuller and Fanny Fern Used Writing as a Weapon for Women’s Rights?
  • What Was the Women’s Rights Movement Called?
  • Why Do We Celebrate Women’s Rights Day?
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380 Powerful Women’s Rights & Feminism Topics [2023]

Are you looking for perfect feminist topics? Then you’ve come to the right place. With our help, you can be sure to craft a great essay. Here, you can find feminist topics for discussion, feminism research topics and other ideas and questions for students.

Our specialists will write a custom essay on any topic for 13.00 10.40/page

Some people think all feminists hate men. It couldn’t be further from the truth! Feminists are people of all genders who believe that they are socially and politically equal. Thanks to their achievements, women’s rights around the world are progressing.

If you want to contribute to the discussion, this article has what you need. Here, our custom writing experts compiled:

  • Creative feminism topics for your paper,
  • Tips to help you pick the perfect topic.

Let’s dive right in!

🔝 Top 10 Feminism Essay Topics

  • ✅ How to Choose a Topic

⚖️ Top 10 Women’s Rights Essay Topics

🔬 top 10 feminism research topics.

  • 📜 Women’s Rights History Topics
  • 💪👩 Feminism Topics
  • 📚 Feminist Theory
  • 👩‍💻 Women Empowerment
  • 👩‍🎓 Women’s Studies
  • 🏥 Abortion Topics
  • 🙅‍♀️ Domestic Violence

🔍 References

  • The 4 waves of feminism
  • Liberal vs. radical feminism
  • What is feminist psychology?
  • Feminist views on trans rights
  • Why ecofeminism is important
  • How has feminism changed culture?
  • Feminism interactions with socialism
  • The effects of liberal feminism on the society
  • Civil rights movement’s influence on feminism
  • The main proponents of feminist standpoint theory

✅ How to Choose a Feminism Topic

Picking the right topic is a crucial first step for any assignment. Check out these tips for a little starting help:

  • Formulate your topic as a question , such as “What makes Alice Schwarzer a controversial feminist figure?” This trick will help you clearly determine what your essay will be about.
  • Compile a keyword list . Once you have a general idea of what you want to work on, think of related words and phrases. For example, if our area of interest is “ Feminism in America , ” some of our keywords might be women’s suffrage movement , Fifteenth Amendment, birth control . You can use them to outline your research.
  • A concept map can be a helpful brainstorming tool to organize your ideas. Put your area of interest (for instance, women empowerment ) in a circle in the middle. Write all related concepts around it, and connect them with lines.
  • Stay clear from overused themes . Writing on popular subjects might be tempting. But can you offer a unique perspective on the issue? Choose such topics only if your answer is “yes.”
  • Make sure there is enough information available . Sure, an essay on the role of women in 17th century Tongan culture sounds exciting. Unfortunately, finding good sources on this topic might prove difficult. You can refer to subjects of this kind if you’re researching a thesis or a dissertation.

Now you’re ready to find your perfect topic. Keep reading and let one of our exciting suggestions inspire you.

  • Gender bias in driving
  • Girls’ education in Afghanistan
  • Women’s political rights in Syria
  • Women’s land ownership rights
  • Overincarceration of women in the US
  • Resettlement of women refugees: risks
  • Abortion rights in conservative countries
  • Reproductive rights and HIV among women
  • Honor killings as women’s rights violation
  • Access to cervical cancer prevention for women of color
  • Gender equity vs. gender equality
  • Adverse effects of child marriage
  • #Metoo movement’s impact on society
  • Environmental crisis as a feminist issue
  • The importance of women’s education
  • Is gender equality a social justice issue?
  • Why is teen pregnancy dangerous?
  • How can gender biases be lessened?
  • Ethics of artificial reproductive technologies
  • Legacy of women’s suffrage movement

📜 History of Women’s Rights Topics

The history of women’s rights in America is long and full of struggles. The US is still far from having achieved complete equality. And in many developing countries, the situation is even worse. If you’re interested in the feminist movements and activists who paved the way thus far, this section is for you.

  • The role of women in the first American settlements.
  • Why weren’t women allowed to serve in combat positions in the US army until 2013?
  • What happened at the Seneca Falls Convention?
  • Elizabeth Cady Stanton and Women’s Suffrage in America.
  • Discuss the impact of Sojourner Truth’s Ain’t I a Woman? speech.
  • Explore gender equality in 20th century Britain.
  • Trace the timeline of events that led to the 19th amendment.
  • Why was the invention of the pill a milestone in the fight for equal rights?
  • The legacy of Amelia Earhart.
  • What was The Bitch Manifesto ?
  • Outline the history of women in American politics.
  • The role of women in the Civil Rights Movement.
  • How did the Comstock Laws affect the struggle for women’s rights?
  • How did Ruth Bader Ginsburg fight against gender discrimination in the US?
  • In what ways did the introduction of Islamic law improve women’s rights in Arabia?
  • Artemisia Gentileschi: forerunner of feminism.
  • In 2016, the first woman president was nominated by a major US party. Why did it take so long?
  • Explore the origins of witch trials in Europe.
  • What did Molly Dewson achieve?
  • The history of women’s rights in Russia vs. England.
  • How did WWI influence the fight for equality?
  • What were the goals of the Women’s Trade Union League?
  • The effects of the Equal Pay Act.

Cheris Kramarae quote.

  • Study the connection between women’s health and rights throughout history.
  • When did women receive the right to own property in America? Why was it important?
  • Debate the role of women in history of theater.
  • In the past, Russia was one of the first European countries to introduce women’s suffrage. In 2016, it decriminalized domestic violence. What led to this change?
  • Women in the workforce: the long road towards equal work opportunities.
  • Minna Canth: the history of women’s rights activism in Finland.
  • Who were “The Famous Five”?
  • Why was Japan quicker to enact equality laws than its European counterparts?
  • The role and visibility of women writers in the 19th century.
  • What problems did the National Organization for Women face?
  • Discuss the foundation and impact of the Redstockings. Did they reflect the general attitude of women towards liberation at the time?
  • Who or what was responsible for the failure of the ERA?
  • The role of women in Ancient Greek communities.
  • Alice Paul and the Silent Sentinels: how did they contribute to establishing the right to vote for women?
  • Why was Betty Friedan’s The Feminine Mystique critical to the progress of feminism in the 20th century?
  • The presidential candidacy of Victoria Woodhull.
  • What was the purpose of the Hull House? How did it advance women’s rights?
  • Why did Elizabeth Cady Stanton oppose the Fifteenth Amendment?
  • Lucy Stone’s influence on the abolitionist and women’s rights movements.
  • Discuss the significance of literature for the success of the suffragist movement in America.
  • Slavery: compare women’s and men’s narratives.
  • How Frances Ellen Watkins Harper’s speeches and poetry changed the world.
  • Emmeline Pankhurst as the central figure of the UK’s suffragette movement.
  • Why did it take so long for suffragette movements around the globe to gain traction?
  • From a historical perspective, why weren’t women’s rights the same as human rights?
  • Trace the development of women liberation in Morocco.
  • Investigate the founding of women’s day.

👩👍 Feminism Topics to Research

Feminism is a global phenomenon. That’s why it’s not surprising that the term has many definitions. What to consider sexism? What can we do about it? How important is the concept of gender? Those are central questions feminists around the world seek to answer. Feminism’s areas of study include politics, sociology, and economics.

  • Compare feminist issues on a global scale.
  • What distinguishes radical feminists from liberal ones?
  • Black feminism: is it a separate movement?
  • When does “being a gentleman” become sexist?
  • Is feminism always anti-racist?
  • What do we need gender concepts for?
  • Feminism in Islamic countries.
  • How do gender stereotypes form in children?
  • Why are societies around the globe still struggling to achieve full equality?
  • The effects of gender-oriented politics.
  • Can men be feminists? (Consider Chimamanda Ngozi Adichie’s We Should All Be Feminists )
  • How did the patriarchy develop?
  • Would a matriarchal society be more peaceful than a patriarchal one? Draw your conclusions from real-life examples.
  • Compare and contrast Judith Butler and Alice Schwarzer.
  • Effectiveness of provocative methods in feminism.
  • What’s the problem with unisex bathrooms in restaurants and bars?
  • Discuss the prejudice transgender people face. What should we do about it?
  • Why are reproductive rights a crucial issue on the way to equality?
  • Describe various types of feminism.
  • How can hairstyle function as a political statement?
  • Which feminist movements are most prevalent in Asia?
  • Trace the history of feminism.
  • What’s the “pink tax,” and why should it be abolished?
  • Discuss Audre Lorde’s feminism.
  • How does feminist research methodology influence education?
  • Sexism in advertising: why is it still a problem?
  • What are the goals of Girls Who Code?
  • The role of literacy politics in achieving gender equality.
  • Stay at home moms: are they a step back on the feminist agenda?
  • Explore the origins of color-coding pink and blue as girl and boy colors, respectively.
  • Are beauty pageants harmful to women’s positive body image?
  • The problem of ableism in intersectional feminist movements.
  • What is identity politics, and why is it important?
  • New Zealand’s Prime Minister, Jacinda Ardern, recently introduced her new cabinet. Of the 20 people who serve in it, eight are women, five Maori, three belong to the minority Pasifika, and three are queer. Is it what all future cabinets should strive for?
  • What makes racism a feminist issue?
  • Describe how objectification works and why it is harmful.
  • A history of women inventors who didn’t get credit for their innovations.
  • Female circumcision as an example of women’s oppression disguised as a cultural tradition.
  • The infantilization of women: origins and effects.

Infantilization of women.

  • Define how feminism influences science.
  • How does one avoid gender bias when raising a child?
  • What popular ideas about feminism are myths?
  • Gender inequality in politics of India and Iran .
  • What is the definition of ecofeminism? Describe its merits.
  • How do men benefit from feminism?
  • Why do we need gender equality in language?
  • Problems of reconciling religion and the LGBT community.
  • More and more fitness clubs introduce “women’s hours.” Some bars are only open for women. They claim to do this to create safe spaces. What’s your position on this development?
  • Anti-feminism: is it a movement for the far-right?
  • The impact of #metoo on work culture.

📚 Feminist Theory Topics to Look Into

Feminist theory criticizes how culture perpetuates misogyny. The best way to look at it is to divide feminism into three waves:

  • First-wave feminism (the late 1700s – early 1900s). It includes the women’s suffrage movement.
  • Second-wave feminism (the 1960s – ’70s.) Key points are equal working conditions and feminist political activism.
  • Third-wave feminism (1990s – today). It encompasses not only women but all marginalized groups.

Take a look at culture from a feminist perspective with our topics:

  • Discuss the concept of feminism in Barbie Doll by Marge Piercy.
  • Explain the success of Gillian Armstrong’s Little Women.
  • What inequalities between men and women does Mary Wollstonecraft mention in A Vindication of the Rights of Women ?
  • Masculinity and femininity in William Somerset Maugham’s Of Human Bondage.
  • An existentialist view: how Simone de Beauvoir influenced the feminist discourse.
  • The role of women in Chimamanda Ngozi Adichie’s Americanah.
  • Discuss the power dynamics between men and women in the Terminator series.
  • How does rap music perpetuate traditional concepts of masculinity?
  • Daisy’s character in The Great Gatsby through a feminist lens.
  • Write about the depiction of women and the patriarchy in Mad Men.
  • What distinguishes the third wave of feminism from the other two?
  • Women’s history and media in Susan Douglas’ Where the Girls Are .
  • What is the goal of gynocriticism?
  • Possibilities of sisterhood in Hulu’s TV show A Handmaid’s Tale.
  • Sylvia Plath’s The Bell Jar : where does Esther Greenwood see her place in society?
  • Feminist perspectives in Virginia Woolf’s A Room of One’s Own.
  • Compare and contrast how the characters in Mulan react to the protagonist as a woman vs. a man.
  • Life stages of women in Alfonso Cuarón’s Roma .
  • Why were feminists unhappy about Prado’s exhibition Uninvited Guests ?
  • Sexuality and society in Céline Sciamma’s Portrait of a Lady on Fire .
  • Gender expectations in The Little Mermaid .
  • Feminist concepts and issues in Netflix’s Thirteen Reasons Why .
  • Challenging traditional femininity: independence and rebellion in Thelma and Louise.
  • The target audience of Mad Max: Fury Road is stated as male. Yet, the central character of the film Furiosa is a strong rebel woman. Does this make it a feminist movie?
  • Persepolis : what it means to grow up as a liberal woman in Iran.
  • Blockbuster movies have an enormous reach. Does it obligate them to support feminist issues?
  • Marjorie Liu’s Monstress : what does it tell us about feminism?
  • The Berlin Film Festival announced that they would no longer crown the best actor and actress. Instead, they honor the best performance in either a leading or supporting role. What are the consequences of this?
  • What does it mean to criticize an art piece from a feminist point of view?
  • Compare and contrast the portrayal of women in horror movies throughout the years.
  • Analyze Donna Haraway’s A Cyborg Manifesto . Why does the author use the cyborg metaphor? What arguments does it help bring across?
  • How do black women characters in Toni Morrison’s novels experience society?
  • What makes various awards an important instrument of feminism?
  • Analyze Katniss Everdeen archetype in Hunger Games.
  • Many classic children’s stories include outdated depictions of women and people of color. Because of this, some people are demanding to ban or censor them. Do you think this is the right way to tackle the problem?
  • What does the term “male gaze” mean, and why is it a problem?
  • The role of the body in feminist aesthetics.
  • Discuss the impact of women philosophers on renowned male scholars of their time.
  • What distinguishes feminist art from other art forms?
  • Debate the political dimension of using women in body art.
  • Does the message in Lemonade make Beyoncé a feminist icon?
  • Why are misogynist song lyrics still widely accepted?
  • How did Aretha Franklin’s music impact the Civil Rights Movement in America?
  • Oscar Wilde’s The Picture of Dorian Gray from a queer theoretical perspective.
  • Objectification in film: analyzing Rachel’s character in The Dark Knight.
  • Investigate the Star Wars’ representation problem. How did the franchise develop into a battleground for diversity?
  • Misogynist vs. psycho: feminist aspects of David Fincher’s Gone Girl.
  • Was the diversity in Spider-Man: Into the Spider-Verse a good thing?
  • The cultural significance of strong female characters.
  • Examine the concept of femininity in William Golding’s Lord of the Flies.

👩‍💻 Women Empowerment Topics to Write About

Women were excluded from crucial work areas such as the military and politics for a long time. This situation is changing now. Empowerment programs encourage women to seek professions in typically male-dominated areas. Do you want to research ways of increasing women’s control over their choices? Check out the following topics:

Receive a plagiarism-free paper tailored to your instructions.

  • Joan of Arc as a leadership idol.
  • The role of She Should Run in encouraging women to run for political positions.
  • What should we do about higher education barriers for African American women?
  • Examine current trends in women’s empowerment.
  • Importance of the women’s empowerment principles.

Virginia Woolf quote.

  • How can businesses use the Gender Gap Analysis Tool to promote equality in their companies?
  • Why is there such a big gap between committing to advancing equality and corporate efforts to implement women’s empowerment programs?
  • What business practices need to change so that men and women benefit from work programs equally?
  • Analyse the reasons behind poor body image among young women.
  • How does the transition from cash to digital payrolls help empower women in developing countries?
  • What challenges do large companies face when it comes to gender equality?
  • How does making fashion a circular economy impact women?
  • Discuss what everyone can do to empower the women in their community.
  • Why is it important to demand fair pay?
  • The impact of Reese Witherspoon’s media company Hello Sunshine.
  • What does it mean to be empowered?
  • The influence of climate change on gender equality.
  • Women in leadership positions: the rhetoric and the reality.
  • Social stigma and family planning: the work of HERproject in Kenya.
  • CARE: why providing women with access to clean water is crucial for empowerment.
  • How do you teach a girl that she can make a difference?
  • Achievements of the global Women Deliver Conferences.
  • How does Pro-Mujer help underprivileged women in Latin America?
  • Why is workplace health a particular concern for women empowerment?
  • What can businesses do to bridge the financial inclusion gender gap?
  • Debate how strengthening women’s social position helps fight discrimination against all kinds of marginalized groups.
  • Analyze the various benefits of women empowerment.
  • Fighting gender stereotypes in the 21st century.
  • The connection between a lack of women in politics and missing programs to support marginalized groups.
  • What are patriarchal taboos that keep women from seeking power?
  • How can a gender perspective on resilience activities assist businesses in finding ways to combat climate change?
  • What methods does the #WithHer movement use to raise awareness of violence against women?
  • The Spotlight Initiative: training sex workers to escape violence in Haiti.
  • Define the gender digital divide.
  • What’s the problem with the female gendering of AI assistants?
  • Criticize the Gender Empowerment Measure.
  • What role does the internet play in empowering girls?
  • Compare the Gender Parity Index in the US and South Africa.
  • How is Every Mother Counts working to decrease deaths related to pregnancies?
  • Debate the reliability of the Gender Development Index.
  • Child Marriage: the impact of Girls Not Brides.
  • What are the political and social constraints that hamper women’s empowerment in Nigeria?
  • How can you encourage women to give public speeches?
  • How does e-learning help women worldwide gain independence?
  • Explore the influence of the women’s rights movement on anti-descrimination activities.
  • Challenges of women entrepreneurship in Mauritius.
  • Labibah Hashim as an inspirational figure for women empowerment in Lebanon.
  • How did Malaka Saad’s magazine al-Jens al-Latif inspire women to educate themselves in the Arab world?
  • The development of sexual harassment policies in East Africa.
  • How does microfinance in South America help women to start businesses?

👩‍🎓 Interesting Women’s Studies Topics for an Essay

Women’s or gender studies is an interdisciplinary science. It combines research from many fields, such as economics, psychology, and the natural sciences. Key aspects are women’s experiences and cultural as well as social constructs surrounding gender.

  • What is velvet rope discrimination?
  • The IT sphere is comparatively modern. Why does it still have such a gender gap problem?
  • Is paid maternity/paternity leave a fundamental right for workers?
  • How do we break the glass ceiling in today’s society?
  • Discussing social taboos: postnatal depression.
  • Women in religion: why shouldn’t women be priestesses?
  • The queer of color critique: history and theory.
  • Should feminists be against supporting care policies?
  • Does foreign aid benefit women entrepreneurship in Sub-Saharan Africa?
  • Gender bias in criminal justice.
  • What does legalized prostitution mean for sex workers?
  • Does “stealthing” make otherwise consensual sex nonconsensual? Should this practice have legal consequences?
  • The Immortal Life of Henrietta Lacks : a gendered analysis.
  • Rojava: give an overview of the egalitarian feminist society.
  • The role of women in modern nation-building processes.
  • How do we include transgender athletes into sex-segregated competitive sports?
  • Discuss the significance of gender in the euthanasia debate.
  • Chivalry and capital punishment: why are women who commit murders less likely to be sentenced to death?
  • Why do men have less confidence in women’s abilities than in men’s?
  • Are hijabs always a symbol of oppression?
  • Write about the role of feminism in international relations.
  • Universal basic income: changing perspectives for women.
  • Gamergate: what does it tell us about some men’s view on the video game industry?
  • Discuss the social construction of gender roles.
  • What is benevolent sexism, and why is it a problem?
  • The military seems to be especially notorious when it comes to discriminating against LGBT people. Where might this originate from?
  • Many army officers don’t hide that they don’t want women to serve. Why do women still do it? Why should they?
  • The Eurovision Song Contest gave drag queen Conchita Wurst an enormous audience. How did she use this opportunity?
  • Why are men who wear typically female clothing stigmatized?
  • How have The Guerilla Girls shaped the art world in the past 30 years?
  • Healthcare: what challenges do transgender patients face?
  • Femme invisibility: discrimination inside the LGBT community.
  • How did the idea develop that gay men and lesbians have to act and look a certain way to be considered queer?
  • The history of sodomy laws in the US.
  • “The Squad” as an example of the current success of left-wing women in politics.
  • Should women use their attractiveness to get what they want?
  • Are the careers of women scientists more affected by turmoil than those of their male counterparts?

Some of the most important female scientists.

  • Do children’s toys restrict gender criteria?
  • Many drugs are only tested on male subjects. How does this affect women?
  • Enumerate some qualities that are seen as positive in men and negative in women. Why do you think this happens?
  • Discuss the significance of the “Transgender Tipping Point.”
  • The meaning of “home” and home spaces for women over the centuries.
  • How do gender relations influence lawmaking?
  • Analyze queer narratives from post-soviet states. How do gender norms in these countries differ from those in your community?
  • Transgender representation in media: views of Viviane Namaste and Julia Serano.
  • Nuclear power between politics and culture: a feminist perspective.
  • Women guards in national socialist concentration camps.
  • What reasons do women have for sex tourism?
  • The problem of eurocentrism in European education.
  • Explore the connection between citizenship and race.

🏥 Abortion Topics to Research

For some, abortion is a fundamental healthcare right. Others view it as a criminal act. Many conservative governments continue to restrict the access to this procedure. Because of this discrepancy, abortion remains a fiercely debated topic all around the globe. Consider one of these thought-provoking ideas:

  • Why was Roe v. Wade such a landmark decision?
  • Discuss why some CEOs step up against abortion bans.
  • Abortion in transgender and intersex people.
  • From a biological point of view, when does life begin?
  • What signs should indicate that it is too late to terminate the pregnancy?
  • Who influenced the abortion debate before Roe v. Wade?
  • Is abortion morally wrong? If so, does that mean it’s always impermissible?
  • Under what circumstances is terminating a life justified?
  • Who or what defines if a being has the right to life or not?
  • Analyse the access to abortion clinics as a policy issue.
  • Reproductive rights and medical access in Sub-Saharan Africa.
  • People terminate pregnancies, whether it’s illegal or not. Why would one still outlaw abortions?
  • Investigate the occurrence of forced abortions during China’s one-child policy.
  • Is the fetus’ right to life more important than the mother’s right to have control over her body?
  • What rights are more essential than the right to life?
  • Discuss women’s health as their integral right.
  • Should there be restrictions on abortions?
  • Can better access to contraceptives reduce the number of abortions?
  • At what point does a fetus become a human being?
  • Is selective abortion ethical?
  • Germany’s paragraph 219a prohibits the display of information on abortion services. In 2019, the government decided to revise it, and now patients can consult a list provided by the department for health education. Is this compromise enough?
  • What is the moral status of a human embryo?
  • Should pregnancy terminations be free for low-income women?
  • Is the criminalization of abortion discrimination?
  • The social and psychological impact of pregnancy terminations on families.
  • Should the man have a say in whether the woman has an abortion or not?
  • What non-religious persuasive arguments against abortion are there?
  • Are there good and bad reasons for ending a pregnancy?
  • Should it be required for teenagers to have their parents’ consent for the procedure?
  • Examine the arguments of pro-life movement.
  • Analyze how the public’s attitude towards abortion has changed over the past 50 years.
  • Is withholding access to abortions a violation of human rights?
  • After week-long strikes, the Polish government has delayed its proposed abortion ban. Is this a victory for the local feminist movement?
  • Compare and contrast the various legal abortion methods.
  • Analyze A Defense of Abortion by Judith Jarvis Thomson.
  • How is abortion viewed in Eastern vs. Western countries?
  • Describe potential health issues surrounding late-term pregnancy terminations.
  • How can we prevent unsafe abortions?
  • What complications can occur during the abortion process?
  • Debate the impact of the March for Life.
  • Discuss whether women should have an abortion if diagnostics show fetal abnirmalities.
  • What does Planned Parenthood do, and why is the organization important?
  • Should Helms Amendment be repealed?
  • How does the Hyde Amendment impact women of color in particular?
  • Is forcing a woman to carry out an undesired pregnancy morally permissible?
  • Mexican newspaper coverage on issues surrounding abortions.
  • What are the possible health consequences of an abortion?
  • Reproductive justice and women of color: the history of SisterSong.
  • Compare organizations that offer information on abortions.
  • How is the topic of abortion approached in Jason Reitman’s film Juno ?

🙅‍♀️ Domestic Violence Topics for a Paper

Domestic violence comes in many shapes, and it’s not always directed against women. It traumatizes not only the victim but the whole family. The long-term impacts on the victims are catastrophic, too. If you want to write a research paper on this topic, be sure to steel yourself before starting your reading.

  • How did the COVID-19 lockdowns influence domestic violence cases?
  • Domestic violence in closed religious communities.
  • Does the type of abuse differ if the perpetrator is a man or a woman?
  • Compare the problem of spousal abuse in the US, Asia, and Africa.
  • Why do many victims choose not to report their cases of domestic violence?
  • From a psychological perspective, why does abuse happen?
  • Domestic violence prevention: the role of parental communication.
  • Should a person with a history of abuse have custody over their child?
  • Why are men more likely to resort to violence than women?
  • Identify risk factors that can lead to elder abuse.
  • Trace how the frequency of reports on domestic violence has changed in your community over the past 30 years.

Domestic abuse is characterized by the following pattern.

  • Why do some victims choose to stay with their abusive partners?
  • What actions would you classify as domestic abuse?
  • Domestic violence and feminism in Bell Hooks’ theory.
  • Cultural perspectives on domestic violence: Saudi Arabia vs. Japan.
  • What do different religions say about IPV?
  • If a victim kills its abuser to escape the violence, what legal consequences should they face?
  • Examine the legislature of different states concerning marital rape.
  • The social and legal concept of consent in marriage.
  • Domestic violence and integrity among women of color.
  • Abuse in teenage relationships.
  • Common psychological characteristics of a person who commits parricide.
  • Effects of emotional neglect on a child’s mental development.
  • Discuss the effectiveness of art therapy for victims of domestic violence.
  • The significance of Oregon v. Rideout.
  • Explore the link between spousal and animal abuse.
  • What is the Battered Woman Syndrome?
  • Analyze different forms of domestic violence using case studies.
  • Study the psychology behind victim blaming.
  • How do mental illnesses and domestic violence affect each other?
  • What are the signs of coercive control? How can one get out of it?
  • The problem of control in gay relationships.
  • How does one develop Stockholm Syndrome, and what does it entail?
  • Analyze the discourse surrounding domestic violence in Hong Kong.
  • The pseudo-family as a sociological concept.
  • Compare cases of domestic violence in military and religious families.
  • What is compassionate homicide, and how does the law deal with it?
  • If a juvenile delinquent was abused as a child, should that lessen their sentence?
  • Parental abduction: why do parents feel the need to kidnap their children?
  • Domestic violence: new solutions.
  • Is one sibling bullying the other a form of domestic abuse?
  • How do communities typically respond to domestic violence?
  • Explore the link between women’s suicide and abuse.
  • What can healthcare specialists do to identify victims of violence more effectively?
  • What are the economic and social consequences of leaving an abusive relationship?
  • How does Netflix’s show You portray the relationship between a stalker and his victim?
  • Treatment of perpetrators of domestic violence.
  • Why do some people repeatedly end up in relationships with IPV?
  • What are the main motives for femicides?
  • Discuss the psychological aggression men and women suffer during separation processes.

With all these great ideas in mind, you’re ready to ace your assignment. Good luck!

Further reading:

Just 13.00 10.40/page , and you can get an custom-written academic paper according to your instructions

  • 560 Unique Controversial Topics & Tips for a Great Essay
  • 480 Sociology Questions & Topics with Bonus Tips
  • 182 Free Ideas for Argumentative or Persuasive Essay Topics
  • A List of 450 Powerful Social Issues Essay Topics
  • 147 Social Studies Topics for Your Research Project
  • 255 Unique Essay Topics for College Students [2023 Update]
  • 229 Good Dissertation Topics and Thesis Ideas for Ph.D. & Masters
  • 150 Argumentative Research Paper Topics [2023 Upd.]
  • Feminism: Encyclopedia Britannica
  • Picking a Topic: University of Michigan-Flint
  • Women’s History Milestones: History.com
  • Women Rising: Women’s Activism That Has Shaped the World as You Know It: UN Women
  • Topics in Feminism: The University of Sydney
  • Four Waves of Feminism: Pacific University
  • Feminist Philosophy: Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy
  • Women’s Empowerment: BSR
  • Women Empowerment: United Nations Populations Fund
  • Women’s & Gender Studies Research Network: SSRN
  • Gender Studies: UCLA
  • Key Facts on Abortion: Amnesty.org
  • Abortion Ethics: NIH
  • New Perspectives on Domestic Violence: Frontiers
  • Domestic Violence against Women: Mayo Clinic
  • What Is Domestic Abuse?: United Nations
  • Feminist Research: SAGE Publications Inc
  • Topic Guide: Feminism: Broward College
  • Facts and Figures: Economic Empowerment: UN Women
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Open Access

Peer-reviewed

Research Article

Twenty years of gender equality research: A scoping review based on a new semantic indicator

Contributed equally to this work with: Paola Belingheri, Filippo Chiarello, Andrea Fronzetti Colladon, Paola Rovelli

Roles Conceptualization, Formal analysis, Funding acquisition, Visualization, Writing – original draft, Writing – review & editing

Affiliation Dipartimento di Ingegneria dell’Energia, dei Sistemi, del Territorio e delle Costruzioni, Università degli Studi di Pisa, Largo L. Lazzarino, Pisa, Italy

Roles Conceptualization, Data curation, Formal analysis, Funding acquisition, Methodology, Visualization, Writing – original draft, Writing – review & editing

Roles Conceptualization, Data curation, Formal analysis, Funding acquisition, Methodology, Software, Visualization, Writing – original draft, Writing – review & editing

* E-mail: [email protected]

Affiliations Department of Engineering, University of Perugia, Perugia, Italy, Department of Management, Kozminski University, Warsaw, Poland

ORCID logo

Roles Conceptualization, Formal analysis, Funding acquisition, Writing – original draft, Writing – review & editing

Affiliation Faculty of Economics and Management, Centre for Family Business Management, Free University of Bozen-Bolzano, Bozen-Bolzano, Italy

  • Paola Belingheri, 
  • Filippo Chiarello, 
  • Andrea Fronzetti Colladon, 
  • Paola Rovelli

PLOS

  • Published: September 21, 2021
  • https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0256474
  • Reader Comments

9 Nov 2021: The PLOS ONE Staff (2021) Correction: Twenty years of gender equality research: A scoping review based on a new semantic indicator. PLOS ONE 16(11): e0259930. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0259930 View correction

Table 1

Gender equality is a major problem that places women at a disadvantage thereby stymieing economic growth and societal advancement. In the last two decades, extensive research has been conducted on gender related issues, studying both their antecedents and consequences. However, existing literature reviews fail to provide a comprehensive and clear picture of what has been studied so far, which could guide scholars in their future research. Our paper offers a scoping review of a large portion of the research that has been published over the last 22 years, on gender equality and related issues, with a specific focus on business and economics studies. Combining innovative methods drawn from both network analysis and text mining, we provide a synthesis of 15,465 scientific articles. We identify 27 main research topics, we measure their relevance from a semantic point of view and the relationships among them, highlighting the importance of each topic in the overall gender discourse. We find that prominent research topics mostly relate to women in the workforce–e.g., concerning compensation, role, education, decision-making and career progression. However, some of them are losing momentum, and some other research trends–for example related to female entrepreneurship, leadership and participation in the board of directors–are on the rise. Besides introducing a novel methodology to review broad literature streams, our paper offers a map of the main gender-research trends and presents the most popular and the emerging themes, as well as their intersections, outlining important avenues for future research.

Citation: Belingheri P, Chiarello F, Fronzetti Colladon A, Rovelli P (2021) Twenty years of gender equality research: A scoping review based on a new semantic indicator. PLoS ONE 16(9): e0256474. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0256474

Editor: Elisa Ughetto, Politecnico di Torino, ITALY

Received: June 25, 2021; Accepted: August 6, 2021; Published: September 21, 2021

Copyright: © 2021 Belingheri et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License , which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

Data Availability: All relevant data are within the manuscript and its supporting information files. The only exception is the text of the abstracts (over 15,000) that we have downloaded from Scopus. These abstracts can be retrieved from Scopus, but we do not have permission to redistribute them.

Funding: P.B and F.C.: Grant of the Department of Energy, Systems, Territory and Construction of the University of Pisa (DESTEC) for the project “Measuring Gender Bias with Semantic Analysis: The Development of an Assessment Tool and its Application in the European Space Industry. P.B., F.C., A.F.C., P.R.: Grant of the Italian Association of Management Engineering (AiIG), “Misure di sostegno ai soci giovani AiIG” 2020, for the project “Gender Equality Through Data Intelligence (GEDI)”. F.C.: EU project ASSETs+ Project (Alliance for Strategic Skills addressing Emerging Technologies in Defence) EAC/A03/2018 - Erasmus+ programme, Sector Skills Alliances, Lot 3: Sector Skills Alliance for implementing a new strategic approach (Blueprint) to sectoral cooperation on skills G.A. NUMBER: 612678-EPP-1-2019-1-IT-EPPKA2-SSA-B.

Competing interests: The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

Introduction

The persistent gender inequalities that currently exist across the developed and developing world are receiving increasing attention from economists, policymakers, and the general public [e.g., 1 – 3 ]. Economic studies have indicated that women’s education and entry into the workforce contributes to social and economic well-being [e.g., 4 , 5 ], while their exclusion from the labor market and from managerial positions has an impact on overall labor productivity and income per capita [ 6 , 7 ]. The United Nations selected gender equality, with an emphasis on female education, as part of the Millennium Development Goals [ 8 ], and gender equality at-large as one of the 17 Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) to be achieved by 2030 [ 9 ]. These latter objectives involve not only developing nations, but rather all countries, to achieve economic, social and environmental well-being.

As is the case with many SDGs, gender equality is still far from being achieved and persists across education, access to opportunities, or presence in decision-making positions [ 7 , 10 , 11 ]. As we enter the last decade for the SDGs’ implementation, and while we are battling a global health pandemic, effective and efficient action becomes paramount to reach this ambitious goal.

Scholars have dedicated a massive effort towards understanding gender equality, its determinants, its consequences for women and society, and the appropriate actions and policies to advance women’s equality. Many topics have been covered, ranging from women’s education and human capital [ 12 , 13 ] and their role in society [e.g., 14 , 15 ], to their appointment in firms’ top ranked positions [e.g., 16 , 17 ] and performance implications [e.g., 18 , 19 ]. Despite some attempts, extant literature reviews provide a narrow view on these issues, restricted to specific topics–e.g., female students’ presence in STEM fields [ 20 ], educational gender inequality [ 5 ], the gender pay gap [ 21 ], the glass ceiling effect [ 22 ], leadership [ 23 ], entrepreneurship [ 24 ], women’s presence on the board of directors [ 25 , 26 ], diversity management [ 27 ], gender stereotypes in advertisement [ 28 ], or specific professions [ 29 ]. A comprehensive view on gender-related research, taking stock of key findings and under-studied topics is thus lacking.

Extant literature has also highlighted that gender issues, and their economic and social ramifications, are complex topics that involve a large number of possible antecedents and outcomes [ 7 ]. Indeed, gender equality actions are most effective when implemented in unison with other SDGs (e.g., with SDG 8, see [ 30 ]) in a synergetic perspective [ 10 ]. Many bodies of literature (e.g., business, economics, development studies, sociology and psychology) approach the problem of achieving gender equality from different perspectives–often addressing specific and narrow aspects. This sometimes leads to a lack of clarity about how different issues, circumstances, and solutions may be related in precipitating or mitigating gender inequality or its effects. As the number of papers grows at an increasing pace, this issue is exacerbated and there is a need to step back and survey the body of gender equality literature as a whole. There is also a need to examine synergies between different topics and approaches, as well as gaps in our understanding of how different problems and solutions work together. Considering the important topic of women’s economic and social empowerment, this paper aims to fill this gap by answering the following research question: what are the most relevant findings in the literature on gender equality and how do they relate to each other ?

To do so, we conduct a scoping review [ 31 ], providing a synthesis of 15,465 articles dealing with gender equity related issues published in the last twenty-two years, covering both the periods of the MDGs and the SDGs (i.e., 2000 to mid 2021) in all the journals indexed in the Academic Journal Guide’s 2018 ranking of business and economics journals. Given the huge amount of research conducted on the topic, we adopt an innovative methodology, which relies on social network analysis and text mining. These techniques are increasingly adopted when surveying large bodies of text. Recently, they were applied to perform analysis of online gender communication differences [ 32 ] and gender behaviors in online technology communities [ 33 ], to identify and classify sexual harassment instances in academia [ 34 ], and to evaluate the gender inclusivity of disaster management policies [ 35 ].

Applied to the title, abstracts and keywords of the articles in our sample, this methodology allows us to identify a set of 27 recurrent topics within which we automatically classify the papers. Introducing additional novelty, by means of the Semantic Brand Score (SBS) indicator [ 36 ] and the SBS BI app [ 37 ], we assess the importance of each topic in the overall gender equality discourse and its relationships with the other topics, as well as trends over time, with a more accurate description than that offered by traditional literature reviews relying solely on the number of papers presented in each topic.

This methodology, applied to gender equality research spanning the past twenty-two years, enables two key contributions. First, we extract the main message that each document is conveying and how this is connected to other themes in literature, providing a rich picture of the topics that are at the center of the discourse, as well as of the emerging topics. Second, by examining the semantic relationship between topics and how tightly their discourses are linked, we can identify the key relationships and connections between different topics. This semi-automatic methodology is also highly reproducible with minimum effort.

This literature review is organized as follows. In the next section, we present how we selected relevant papers and how we analyzed them through text mining and social network analysis. We then illustrate the importance of 27 selected research topics, measured by means of the SBS indicator. In the results section, we present an overview of the literature based on the SBS results–followed by an in-depth narrative analysis of the top 10 topics (i.e., those with the highest SBS) and their connections. Subsequently, we highlight a series of under-studied connections between the topics where there is potential for future research. Through this analysis, we build a map of the main gender-research trends in the last twenty-two years–presenting the most popular themes. We conclude by highlighting key areas on which research should focused in the future.

Our aim is to map a broad topic, gender equality research, that has been approached through a host of different angles and through different disciplines. Scoping reviews are the most appropriate as they provide the freedom to map different themes and identify literature gaps, thereby guiding the recommendation of new research agendas [ 38 ].

Several practical approaches have been proposed to identify and assess the underlying topics of a specific field using big data [ 39 – 41 ], but many of them fail without proper paper retrieval and text preprocessing. This is specifically true for a research field such as the gender-related one, which comprises the work of scholars from different backgrounds. In this section, we illustrate a novel approach for the analysis of scientific (gender-related) papers that relies on methods and tools of social network analysis and text mining. Our procedure has four main steps: (1) data collection, (2) text preprocessing, (3) keywords extraction and classification, and (4) evaluation of semantic importance and image.

Data collection

In this study, we analyze 22 years of literature on gender-related research. Following established practice for scoping reviews [ 42 ], our data collection consisted of two main steps, which we summarize here below.

Firstly, we retrieved from the Scopus database all the articles written in English that contained the term “gender” in their title, abstract or keywords and were published in a journal listed in the Academic Journal Guide 2018 ranking of the Chartered Association of Business Schools (CABS) ( https://charteredabs.org/wp-content/uploads/2018/03/AJG2018-Methodology.pdf ), considering the time period from Jan 2000 to May 2021. We used this information considering that abstracts, titles and keywords represent the most informative part of a paper, while using the full-text would increase the signal-to-noise ratio for information extraction. Indeed, these textual elements already demonstrated to be reliable sources of information for the task of domain lexicon extraction [ 43 , 44 ]. We chose Scopus as source of literature because of its popularity, its update rate, and because it offers an API to ease the querying process. Indeed, while it does not allow to retrieve the full text of scientific articles, the Scopus API offers access to titles, abstracts, citation information and metadata for all its indexed scholarly journals. Moreover, we decided to focus on the journals listed in the AJG 2018 ranking because we were interested in reviewing business and economics related gender studies only. The AJG is indeed widely used by universities and business schools as a reference point for journal and research rigor and quality. This first step, executed in June 2021, returned more than 55,000 papers.

In the second step–because a look at the papers showed very sparse results, many of which were not in line with the topic of this literature review (e.g., papers dealing with health care or medical issues, where the word gender indicates the gender of the patients)–we applied further inclusion criteria to make the sample more focused on the topic of this literature review (i.e., women’s gender equality issues). Specifically, we only retained those papers mentioning, in their title and/or abstract, both gender-related keywords (e.g., daughter, female, mother) and keywords referring to bias and equality issues (e.g., equality, bias, diversity, inclusion). After text pre-processing (see next section), keywords were first identified from a frequency-weighted list of words found in the titles, abstracts and keywords in the initial list of papers, extracted through text mining (following the same approach as [ 43 ]). They were selected by two of the co-authors independently, following respectively a bottom up and a top-down approach. The bottom-up approach consisted of examining the words found in the frequency-weighted list and classifying those related to gender and equality. The top-down approach consisted in searching in the word list for notable gender and equality-related words. Table 1 reports the sets of keywords we considered, together with some examples of words that were used to search for their presence in the dataset (a full list is provided in the S1 Text ). At end of this second step, we obtained a final sample of 15,465 relevant papers.

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https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0256474.t001

Text processing and keyword extraction

Text preprocessing aims at structuring text into a form that can be analyzed by statistical models. In the present section, we describe the preprocessing steps we applied to paper titles and abstracts, which, as explained below, partially follow a standard text preprocessing pipeline [ 45 ]. These activities have been performed using the R package udpipe [ 46 ].

The first step is n-gram extraction (i.e., a sequence of words from a given text sample) to identify which n-grams are important in the analysis, since domain-specific lexicons are often composed by bi-grams and tri-grams [ 47 ]. Multi-word extraction is usually implemented with statistics and linguistic rules, thus using the statistical properties of n-grams or machine learning approaches [ 48 ]. However, for the present paper, we used Scopus metadata in order to have a more effective and efficient n-grams collection approach [ 49 ]. We used the keywords of each paper in order to tag n-grams with their associated keywords automatically. Using this greedy approach, it was possible to collect all the keywords listed by the authors of the papers. From this list, we extracted only keywords composed by two, three and four words, we removed all the acronyms and rare keywords (i.e., appearing in less than 1% of papers), and we clustered keywords showing a high orthographic similarity–measured using a Levenshtein distance [ 50 ] lower than 2, considering these groups of keywords as representing same concepts, but expressed with different spelling. After tagging the n-grams in the abstracts, we followed a common data preparation pipeline that consists of the following steps: (i) tokenization, that splits the text into tokens (i.e., single words and previously tagged multi-words); (ii) removal of stop-words (i.e. those words that add little meaning to the text, usually being very common and short functional words–such as “and”, “or”, or “of”); (iii) parts-of-speech tagging, that is providing information concerning the morphological role of a word and its morphosyntactic context (e.g., if the token is a determiner, the next token is a noun or an adjective with very high confidence, [ 51 ]); and (iv) lemmatization, which consists in substituting each word with its dictionary form (or lemma). The output of the latter step allows grouping together the inflected forms of a word. For example, the verbs “am”, “are”, and “is” have the shared lemma “be”, or the nouns “cat” and “cats” both share the lemma “cat”. We preferred lemmatization over stemming [ 52 ] in order to obtain more interpretable results.

In addition, we identified a further set of keywords (with respect to those listed in the “keywords” field) by applying a series of automatic words unification and removal steps, as suggested in past research [ 53 , 54 ]. We removed: sparse terms (i.e., occurring in less than 0.1% of all documents), common terms (i.e., occurring in more than 10% of all documents) and retained only nouns and adjectives. It is relevant to notice that no document was lost due to these steps. We then used the TF-IDF function [ 55 ] to produce a new list of keywords. We additionally tested other approaches for the identification and clustering of keywords–such as TextRank [ 56 ] or Latent Dirichlet Allocation [ 57 ]–without obtaining more informative results.

Classification of research topics

To guide the literature analysis, two experts met regularly to examine the sample of collected papers and to identify the main topics and trends in gender research. Initially, they conducted brainstorming sessions on the topics they expected to find, due to their knowledge of the literature. This led to an initial list of topics. Subsequently, the experts worked independently, also supported by the keywords in paper titles and abstracts extracted with the procedure described above.

Considering all this information, each expert identified and clustered relevant keywords into topics. At the end of the process, the two assignments were compared and exhibited a 92% agreement. Another meeting was held to discuss discordant cases and reach a consensus. This resulted in a list of 27 topics, briefly introduced in Table 2 and subsequently detailed in the following sections.

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Evaluation of semantic importance

Working on the lemmatized corpus of the 15,465 papers included in our sample, we proceeded with the evaluation of semantic importance trends for each topic and with the analysis of their connections and prevalent textual associations. To this aim, we used the Semantic Brand Score indicator [ 36 ], calculated through the SBS BI webapp [ 37 ] that also produced a brand image report for each topic. For this study we relied on the computing resources of the ENEA/CRESCO infrastructure [ 58 ].

The Semantic Brand Score (SBS) is a measure of semantic importance that combines methods of social network analysis and text mining. It is usually applied for the analysis of (big) textual data to evaluate the importance of one or more brands, names, words, or sets of keywords [ 36 ]. Indeed, the concept of “brand” is intended in a flexible way and goes beyond products or commercial brands. In this study, we evaluate the SBS time-trends of the keywords defining the research topics discussed in the previous section. Semantic importance comprises the three dimensions of topic prevalence, diversity and connectivity. Prevalence measures how frequently a research topic is used in the discourse. The more a topic is mentioned by scientific articles, the more the research community will be aware of it, with possible increase of future studies; this construct is partly related to that of brand awareness [ 59 ]. This effect is even stronger, considering that we are analyzing the title, abstract and keywords of the papers, i.e. the parts that have the highest visibility. A very important characteristic of the SBS is that it considers the relationships among words in a text. Topic importance is not just a matter of how frequently a topic is mentioned, but also of the associations a topic has in the text. Specifically, texts are transformed into networks of co-occurring words, and relationships are studied through social network analysis [ 60 ]. This step is necessary to calculate the other two dimensions of our semantic importance indicator. Accordingly, a social network of words is generated for each time period considered in the analysis–i.e., a graph made of n nodes (words) and E edges weighted by co-occurrence frequency, with W being the set of edge weights. The keywords representing each topic were clustered into single nodes.

The construct of diversity relates to that of brand image [ 59 ], in the sense that it considers the richness and distinctiveness of textual (topic) associations. Considering the above-mentioned networks, we calculated diversity using the distinctiveness centrality metric–as in the formula presented by Fronzetti Colladon and Naldi [ 61 ].

Lastly, connectivity was measured as the weighted betweenness centrality [ 62 , 63 ] of each research topic node. We used the formula presented by Wasserman and Faust [ 60 ]. The dimension of connectivity represents the “brokerage power” of each research topic–i.e., how much it can serve as a bridge to connect other terms (and ultimately topics) in the discourse [ 36 ].

The SBS is the final composite indicator obtained by summing the standardized scores of prevalence, diversity and connectivity. Standardization was carried out considering all the words in the corpus, for each specific timeframe.

This methodology, applied to a large and heterogeneous body of text, enables to automatically identify two important sets of information that add value to the literature review. Firstly, the relevance of each topic in literature is measured through a composite indicator of semantic importance, rather than simply looking at word frequencies. This provides a much richer picture of the topics that are at the center of the discourse, as well as of the topics that are emerging in the literature. Secondly, it enables to examine the extent of the semantic relationship between topics, looking at how tightly their discourses are linked. In a field such as gender equality, where many topics are closely linked to each other and present overlaps in issues and solutions, this methodology offers a novel perspective with respect to traditional literature reviews. In addition, it ensures reproducibility over time and the possibility to semi-automatically update the analysis, as new papers become available.

Overview of main topics

In terms of descriptive textual statistics, our corpus is made of 15,465 text documents, consisting of a total of 2,685,893 lemmatized tokens (words) and 32,279 types. As a result, the type-token ratio is 1.2%. The number of hapaxes is 12,141, with a hapax-token ratio of 37.61%.

Fig 1 shows the list of 27 topics by decreasing SBS. The most researched topic is compensation , exceeding all others in prevalence, diversity, and connectivity. This means it is not only mentioned more often than other topics, but it is also connected to a greater number of other topics and is central to the discourse on gender equality. The next four topics are, in order of SBS, role , education , decision-making , and career progression . These topics, except for education , all concern women in the workforce. Between these first five topics and the following ones there is a clear drop in SBS scores. In particular, the topics that follow have a lower connectivity than the first five. They are hiring , performance , behavior , organization , and human capital . Again, except for behavior and human capital , the other three topics are purely related to women in the workforce. After another drop-off, the following topics deal prevalently with women in society. This trend highlights that research on gender in business journals has so far mainly paid attention to the conditions that women experience in business contexts, while also devoting some attention to women in society.

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Fig 2 shows the SBS time series of the top 10 topics. While there has been a general increase in the number of Scopus-indexed publications in the last decade, we notice that some SBS trends remain steady, or even decrease. In particular, we observe that the main topic of the last twenty-two years, compensation , is losing momentum. Since 2016, it has been surpassed by decision-making , education and role , which may indicate that literature is increasingly attempting to identify root causes of compensation inequalities. Moreover, in the last two years, the topics of hiring , performance , and organization are experiencing the largest importance increase.

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Fig 3 shows the SBS time trends of the remaining 17 topics (i.e., those not in the top 10). As we can see from the graph, there are some that maintain a steady trend–such as reputation , management , networks and governance , which also seem to have little importance. More relevant topics with average stationary trends (except for the last two years) are culture , family , and parenting . The feminine topic is among the most important here, and one of those that exhibit the larger variations over time (similarly to leadership ). On the other hand, the are some topics that, even if not among the most important, show increasing SBS trends; therefore, they could be considered as emerging topics and could become popular in the near future. These are entrepreneurship , leadership , board of directors , and sustainability . These emerging topics are also interesting to anticipate future trends in gender equality research that are conducive to overall equality in society.

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In addition to the SBS score of the different topics, the network of terms they are associated to enables to gauge the extent to which their images (textual associations) overlap or differ ( Fig 4 ).

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There is a central cluster of topics with high similarity, which are all connected with women in the workforce. The cluster includes topics such as organization , decision-making , performance , hiring , human capital , education and compensation . In addition, the topic of well-being is found within this cluster, suggesting that women’s equality in the workforce is associated to well-being considerations. The emerging topics of entrepreneurship and leadership are also closely connected with each other, possibly implying that leadership is a much-researched quality in female entrepreneurship. Topics that are relatively more distant include personality , politics , feminine , empowerment , management , board of directors , reputation , governance , parenting , masculine and network .

The following sections describe the top 10 topics and their main associations in literature (see Table 3 ), while providing a brief overview of the emerging topics.

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Compensation.

The topic of compensation is related to the topics of role , hiring , education and career progression , however, also sees a very high association with the words gap and inequality . Indeed, a well-known debate in degrowth economics centers around whether and how to adequately compensate women for their childbearing, childrearing, caregiver and household work [e.g., 30 ].

Even in paid work, women continue being offered lower compensations than their male counterparts who have the same job or cover the same role [ 64 – 67 ]. This severe inequality has been widely studied by scholars over the last twenty-two years. Dealing with this topic, some specific roles have been addressed. Specifically, research highlighted differences in compensation between female and male CEOs [e.g., 68 ], top executives [e.g., 69 ], and boards’ directors [e.g., 70 ]. Scholars investigated the determinants of these gaps, such as the gender composition of the board [e.g., 71 – 73 ] or women’s individual characteristics [e.g., 71 , 74 ].

Among these individual characteristics, education plays a relevant role [ 75 ]. Education is indeed presented as the solution for women, not only to achieve top executive roles, but also to reduce wage inequality [e.g., 76 , 77 ]. Past research has highlighted education influences on gender wage gaps, specifically referring to gender differences in skills [e.g., 78 ], college majors [e.g., 79 ], and college selectivity [e.g., 80 ].

Finally, the wage gap issue is strictly interrelated with hiring –e.g., looking at whether being a mother affects hiring and compensation [e.g., 65 , 81 ] or relating compensation to unemployment [e.g., 82 ]–and career progression –for instance looking at meritocracy [ 83 , 84 ] or the characteristics of the boss for whom women work [e.g., 85 ].

The roles covered by women have been deeply investigated. Scholars have focused on the role of women in their families and the society as a whole [e.g., 14 , 15 ], and, more widely, in business contexts [e.g., 18 , 81 ]. Indeed, despite still lagging behind their male counterparts [e.g., 86 , 87 ], in the last decade there has been an increase in top ranked positions achieved by women [e.g., 88 , 89 ]. Following this phenomenon, scholars have posed greater attention towards the presence of women in the board of directors [e.g., 16 , 18 , 90 , 91 ], given the increasing pressure to appoint female directors that firms, especially listed ones, have experienced. Other scholars have focused on the presence of women covering the role of CEO [e.g., 17 , 92 ] or being part of the top management team [e.g., 93 ]. Irrespectively of the level of analysis, all these studies tried to uncover the antecedents of women’s presence among top managers [e.g., 92 , 94 ] and the consequences of having a them involved in the firm’s decision-making –e.g., on performance [e.g., 19 , 95 , 96 ], risk [e.g., 97 , 98 ], and corporate social responsibility [e.g., 99 , 100 ].

Besides studying the difficulties and discriminations faced by women in getting a job [ 81 , 101 ], and, more specifically in the hiring , appointment, or career progression to these apical roles [e.g., 70 , 83 ], the majority of research of women’s roles dealt with compensation issues. Specifically, scholars highlight the pay-gap that still exists between women and men, both in general [e.g., 64 , 65 ], as well as referring to boards’ directors [e.g., 70 , 102 ], CEOs and executives [e.g., 69 , 103 , 104 ].

Finally, other scholars focused on the behavior of women when dealing with business. In this sense, particular attention has been paid to leadership and entrepreneurial behaviors. The former quite overlaps with dealing with the roles mentioned above, but also includes aspects such as leaders being stereotyped as masculine [e.g., 105 ], the need for greater exposure to female leaders to reduce biases [e.g., 106 ], or female leaders acting as queen bees [e.g., 107 ]. Regarding entrepreneurship , scholars mainly investigated women’s entrepreneurial entry [e.g., 108 , 109 ], differences between female and male entrepreneurs in the evaluations and funding received from investors [e.g., 110 , 111 ], and their performance gap [e.g., 112 , 113 ].

Education has long been recognized as key to social advancement and economic stability [ 114 ], for job progression and also a barrier to gender equality, especially in STEM-related fields. Research on education and gender equality is mostly linked with the topics of compensation , human capital , career progression , hiring , parenting and decision-making .

Education contributes to a higher human capital [ 115 ] and constitutes an investment on the part of women towards their future. In this context, literature points to the gender gap in educational attainment, and the consequences for women from a social, economic, personal and professional standpoint. Women are found to have less access to formal education and information, especially in emerging countries, which in turn may cause them to lose social and economic opportunities [e.g., 12 , 116 – 119 ]. Education in local and rural communities is also paramount to communicate the benefits of female empowerment , contributing to overall societal well-being [e.g., 120 ].

Once women access education, the image they have of the world and their place in society (i.e., habitus) affects their education performance [ 13 ] and is passed on to their children. These situations reinforce gender stereotypes, which become self-fulfilling prophecies that may negatively affect female students’ performance by lowering their confidence and heightening their anxiety [ 121 , 122 ]. Besides formal education, also the information that women are exposed to on a daily basis contributes to their human capital . Digital inequalities, for instance, stems from men spending more time online and acquiring higher digital skills than women [ 123 ].

Education is also a factor that should boost employability of candidates and thus hiring , career progression and compensation , however the relationship between these factors is not straightforward [ 115 ]. First, educational choices ( decision-making ) are influenced by variables such as self-efficacy and the presence of barriers, irrespectively of the career opportunities they offer, especially in STEM [ 124 ]. This brings additional difficulties to women’s enrollment and persistence in scientific and technical fields of study due to stereotypes and biases [ 125 , 126 ]. Moreover, access to education does not automatically translate into job opportunities for women and minority groups [ 127 , 128 ] or into female access to managerial positions [ 129 ].

Finally, parenting is reported as an antecedent of education [e.g., 130 ], with much of the literature focusing on the role of parents’ education on the opportunities afforded to children to enroll in education [ 131 – 134 ] and the role of parenting in their offspring’s perception of study fields and attitudes towards learning [ 135 – 138 ]. Parental education is also a predictor of the other related topics, namely human capital and compensation [ 139 ].

Decision-making.

This literature mainly points to the fact that women are thought to make decisions differently than men. Women have indeed different priorities, such as they care more about people’s well-being, working with people or helping others, rather than maximizing their personal (or their firm’s) gain [ 140 ]. In other words, women typically present more communal than agentic behaviors, which are instead more frequent among men [ 141 ]. These different attitude, behavior and preferences in turn affect the decisions they make [e.g., 142 ] and the decision-making of the firm in which they work [e.g., 143 ].

At the individual level, gender affects, for instance, career aspirations [e.g., 144 ] and choices [e.g., 142 , 145 ], or the decision of creating a venture [e.g., 108 , 109 , 146 ]. Moreover, in everyday life, women and men make different decisions regarding partners [e.g., 147 ], childcare [e.g., 148 ], education [e.g., 149 ], attention to the environment [e.g., 150 ] and politics [e.g., 151 ].

At the firm level, scholars highlighted, for example, how the presence of women in the board affects corporate decisions [e.g., 152 , 153 ], that female CEOs are more conservative in accounting decisions [e.g., 154 ], or that female CFOs tend to make more conservative decisions regarding the firm’s financial reporting [e.g., 155 ]. Nevertheless, firm level research also investigated decisions that, influenced by gender bias, affect women, such as those pertaining hiring [e.g., 156 , 157 ], compensation [e.g., 73 , 158 ], or the empowerment of women once appointed [ 159 ].

Career progression.

Once women have entered the workforce, the key aspect to achieve gender equality becomes career progression , including efforts toward overcoming the glass ceiling. Indeed, according to the SBS analysis, career progression is highly related to words such as work, social issues and equality. The topic with which it has the highest semantic overlap is role , followed by decision-making , hiring , education , compensation , leadership , human capital , and family .

Career progression implies an advancement in the hierarchical ladder of the firm, assigning managerial roles to women. Coherently, much of the literature has focused on identifying rationales for a greater female participation in the top management team and board of directors [e.g., 95 ] as well as the best criteria to ensure that the decision-makers promote the most valuable employees irrespectively of their individual characteristics, such as gender [e.g., 84 ]. The link between career progression , role and compensation is often provided in practice by performance appraisal exercises, frequently rooted in a culture of meritocracy that guides bonuses, salary increases and promotions. However, performance appraisals can actually mask gender-biased decisions where women are held to higher standards than their male colleagues [e.g., 83 , 84 , 95 , 160 , 161 ]. Women often have less opportunities to gain leadership experience and are less visible than their male colleagues, which constitute barriers to career advancement [e.g., 162 ]. Therefore, transparency and accountability, together with procedures that discourage discretionary choices, are paramount to achieve a fair career progression [e.g., 84 ], together with the relaxation of strict job boundaries in favor of cross-functional and self-directed tasks [e.g., 163 ].

In addition, a series of stereotypes about the type of leadership characteristics that are required for top management positions, which fit better with typical male and agentic attributes, are another key barrier to career advancement for women [e.g., 92 , 160 ].

Hiring is the entrance gateway for women into the workforce. Therefore, it is related to other workforce topics such as compensation , role , career progression , decision-making , human capital , performance , organization and education .

A first stream of literature focuses on the process leading up to candidates’ job applications, demonstrating that bias exists before positions are even opened, and it is perpetuated both by men and women through networking and gatekeeping practices [e.g., 164 , 165 ].

The hiring process itself is also subject to biases [ 166 ], for example gender-congruity bias that leads to men being preferred candidates in male-dominated sectors [e.g., 167 ], women being hired in positions with higher risk of failure [e.g., 168 ] and limited transparency and accountability afforded by written processes and procedures [e.g., 164 ] that all contribute to ascriptive inequality. In addition, providing incentives for evaluators to hire women may actually work to this end; however, this is not the case when supporting female candidates endangers higher-ranking male ones [ 169 ].

Another interesting perspective, instead, looks at top management teams’ composition and the effects on hiring practices, indicating that firms with more women in top management are less likely to lay off staff [e.g., 152 ].

Performance.

Several scholars posed their attention towards women’s performance, its consequences [e.g., 170 , 171 ] and the implications of having women in decision-making positions [e.g., 18 , 19 ].

At the individual level, research focused on differences in educational and academic performance between women and men, especially referring to the gender gap in STEM fields [e.g., 171 ]. The presence of stereotype threats–that is the expectation that the members of a social group (e.g., women) “must deal with the possibility of being judged or treated stereotypically, or of doing something that would confirm the stereotype” [ 172 ]–affects women’s interested in STEM [e.g., 173 ], as well as their cognitive ability tests, penalizing them [e.g., 174 ]. A stronger gender identification enhances this gap [e.g., 175 ], whereas mentoring and role models can be used as solutions to this problem [e.g., 121 ]. Despite the negative effect of stereotype threats on girls’ performance [ 176 ], female and male students perform equally in mathematics and related subjects [e.g., 177 ]. Moreover, while individuals’ performance at school and university generally affects their achievements and the field in which they end up working, evidence reveals that performance in math or other scientific subjects does not explain why fewer women enter STEM working fields; rather this gap depends on other aspects, such as culture, past working experiences, or self-efficacy [e.g., 170 ]. Finally, scholars have highlighted the penalization that women face for their positive performance, for instance when they succeed in traditionally male areas [e.g., 178 ]. This penalization is explained by the violation of gender-stereotypic prescriptions [e.g., 179 , 180 ], that is having women well performing in agentic areas, which are typical associated to men. Performance penalization can thus be overcome by clearly conveying communal characteristics and behaviors [ 178 ].

Evidence has been provided on how the involvement of women in boards of directors and decision-making positions affects firms’ performance. Nevertheless, results are mixed, with some studies showing positive effects on financial [ 19 , 181 , 182 ] and corporate social performance [ 99 , 182 , 183 ]. Other studies maintain a negative association [e.g., 18 ], and other again mixed [e.g., 184 ] or non-significant association [e.g., 185 ]. Also with respect to the presence of a female CEO, mixed results emerged so far, with some researches demonstrating a positive effect on firm’s performance [e.g., 96 , 186 ], while other obtaining only a limited evidence of this relationship [e.g., 103 ] or a negative one [e.g., 187 ].

Finally, some studies have investigated whether and how women’s performance affects their hiring [e.g., 101 ] and career progression [e.g., 83 , 160 ]. For instance, academic performance leads to different returns in hiring for women and men. Specifically, high-achieving men are called back significantly more often than high-achieving women, which are penalized when they have a major in mathematics; this result depends on employers’ gendered standards for applicants [e.g., 101 ]. Once appointed, performance ratings are more strongly related to promotions for women than men, and promoted women typically show higher past performance ratings than those of promoted men. This suggesting that women are subject to stricter standards for promotion [e.g., 160 ].

Behavioral aspects related to gender follow two main streams of literature. The first examines female personality and behavior in the workplace, and their alignment with cultural expectations or stereotypes [e.g., 188 ] as well as their impacts on equality. There is a common bias that depicts women as less agentic than males. Certain characteristics, such as those more congruent with male behaviors–e.g., self-promotion [e.g., 189 ], negotiation skills [e.g., 190 ] and general agentic behavior [e.g., 191 ]–, are less accepted in women. However, characteristics such as individualism in women have been found to promote greater gender equality in society [ 192 ]. In addition, behaviors such as display of emotions [e.g., 193 ], which are stereotypically female, work against women’s acceptance in the workplace, requiring women to carefully moderate their behavior to avoid exclusion. A counter-intuitive result is that women and minorities, which are more marginalized in the workplace, tend to be better problem-solvers in innovation competitions due to their different knowledge bases [ 194 ].

The other side of the coin is examined in a parallel literature stream on behavior towards women in the workplace. As a result of biases, prejudices and stereotypes, women may experience adverse behavior from their colleagues, such as incivility and harassment, which undermine their well-being [e.g., 195 , 196 ]. Biases that go beyond gender, such as for overweight people, are also more strongly applied to women [ 197 ].

Organization.

The role of women and gender bias in organizations has been studied from different perspectives, which mirror those presented in detail in the following sections. Specifically, most research highlighted the stereotypical view of leaders [e.g., 105 ] and the roles played by women within firms, for instance referring to presence in the board of directors [e.g., 18 , 90 , 91 ], appointment as CEOs [e.g., 16 ], or top executives [e.g., 93 ].

Scholars have investigated antecedents and consequences of the presence of women in these apical roles. On the one side they looked at hiring and career progression [e.g., 83 , 92 , 160 , 168 , 198 ], finding women typically disadvantaged with respect to their male counterparts. On the other side, they studied women’s leadership styles and influence on the firm’s decision-making [e.g., 152 , 154 , 155 , 199 ], with implications for performance [e.g., 18 , 19 , 96 ].

Human capital.

Human capital is a transverse topic that touches upon many different aspects of female gender equality. As such, it has the most associations with other topics, starting with education as mentioned above, with career-related topics such as role , decision-making , hiring , career progression , performance , compensation , leadership and organization . Another topic with which there is a close connection is behavior . In general, human capital is approached both from the education standpoint but also from the perspective of social capital.

The behavioral aspect in human capital comprises research related to gender differences for example in cultural and religious beliefs that influence women’s attitudes and perceptions towards STEM subjects [ 142 , 200 – 202 ], towards employment [ 203 ] or towards environmental issues [ 150 , 204 ]. These cultural differences also emerge in the context of globalization which may accelerate gender equality in the workforce [ 205 , 206 ]. Gender differences also appear in behaviors such as motivation [ 207 ], and in negotiation [ 190 ], and have repercussions on women’s decision-making related to their careers. The so-called gender equality paradox sees women in countries with lower gender equality more likely to pursue studies and careers in STEM fields, whereas the gap in STEM enrollment widens as countries achieve greater equality in society [ 171 ].

Career progression is modeled by literature as a choice-process where personal preferences, culture and decision-making affect the chosen path and the outcomes. Some literature highlights how women tend to self-select into different professions than men, often due to stereotypes rather than actual ability to perform in these professions [ 142 , 144 ]. These stereotypes also affect the perceptions of female performance or the amount of human capital required to equal male performance [ 110 , 193 , 208 ], particularly for mothers [ 81 ]. It is therefore often assumed that women are better suited to less visible and less leadership -oriented roles [ 209 ]. Women also express differing preferences towards work-family balance, which affect whether and how they pursue human capital gains [ 210 ], and ultimately their career progression and salary .

On the other hand, men are often unaware of gendered processes and behaviors that they carry forward in their interactions and decision-making [ 211 , 212 ]. Therefore, initiatives aimed at increasing managers’ human capital –by raising awareness of gender disparities in their organizations and engaging them in diversity promotion–are essential steps to counter gender bias and segregation [ 213 ].

Emerging topics: Leadership and entrepreneurship

Among the emerging topics, the most pervasive one is women reaching leadership positions in the workforce and in society. This is still a rare occurrence for two main types of factors, on the one hand, bias and discrimination make it harder for women to access leadership positions [e.g., 214 – 216 ], on the other hand, the competitive nature and high pressure associated with leadership positions, coupled with the lack of women currently represented, reduce women’s desire to achieve them [e.g., 209 , 217 ]. Women are more effective leaders when they have access to education, resources and a diverse environment with representation [e.g., 218 , 219 ].

One sector where there is potential for women to carve out a leadership role is entrepreneurship . Although at the start of the millennium the discourse on entrepreneurship was found to be “discriminatory, gender-biased, ethnocentrically determined and ideologically controlled” [ 220 ], an increasing body of literature is studying how to stimulate female entrepreneurship as an alternative pathway to wealth, leadership and empowerment [e.g., 221 ]. Many barriers exist for women to access entrepreneurship, including the institutional and legal environment, social and cultural factors, access to knowledge and resources, and individual behavior [e.g., 222 , 223 ]. Education has been found to raise women’s entrepreneurial intentions [e.g., 224 ], although this effect is smaller than for men [e.g., 109 ]. In addition, increasing self-efficacy and risk-taking behavior constitute important success factors [e.g., 225 ].

Finally, the topic of sustainability is worth mentioning, as it is the primary objective of the SDGs and is closely associated with societal well-being. As society grapples with the effects of climate change and increasing depletion of natural resources, a narrative has emerged on women and their greater link to the environment [ 226 ]. Studies in developed countries have found some support for women leaders’ attention to sustainability issues in firms [e.g., 227 – 229 ], and smaller resource consumption by women [ 230 ]. At the same time, women will likely be more affected by the consequences of climate change [e.g., 230 ] but often lack the decision-making power to influence local decision-making on resource management and environmental policies [e.g., 231 ].

Research gaps and conclusions

Research on gender equality has advanced rapidly in the past decades, with a steady increase in publications, both in mainstream topics related to women in education and the workforce, and in emerging topics. Through a novel approach combining methods of text mining and social network analysis, we examined a comprehensive body of literature comprising 15,465 papers published between 2000 and mid 2021 on topics related to gender equality. We identified a set of 27 topics addressed by the literature and examined their connections.

At the highest level of abstraction, it is worth noting that papers abound on the identification of issues related to gender inequalities and imbalances in the workforce and in society. Literature has thoroughly examined the (unconscious) biases, barriers, stereotypes, and discriminatory behaviors that women are facing as a result of their gender. Instead, there are much fewer papers that discuss or demonstrate effective solutions to overcome gender bias [e.g., 121 , 143 , 145 , 163 , 194 , 213 , 232 ]. This is partly due to the relative ease in studying the status quo, as opposed to studying changes in the status quo. However, we observed a shift in the more recent years towards solution seeking in this domain, which we strongly encourage future researchers to focus on. In the future, we may focus on collecting and mapping pro-active contributions to gender studies, using additional Natural Language Processing techniques, able to measure the sentiment of scientific papers [ 43 ].

All of the mainstream topics identified in our literature review are closely related, and there is a wealth of insights looking at the intersection between issues such as education and career progression or human capital and role . However, emerging topics are worthy of being furtherly explored. It would be interesting to see more work on the topic of female entrepreneurship , exploring aspects such as education , personality , governance , management and leadership . For instance, how can education support female entrepreneurship? How can self-efficacy and risk-taking behaviors be taught or enhanced? What are the differences in managerial and governance styles of female entrepreneurs? Which personality traits are associated with successful entrepreneurs? Which traits are preferred by venture capitalists and funding bodies?

The emerging topic of sustainability also deserves further attention, as our society struggles with climate change and its consequences. It would be interesting to see more research on the intersection between sustainability and entrepreneurship , looking at how female entrepreneurs are tackling sustainability issues, examining both their business models and their company governance . In addition, scholars are suggested to dig deeper into the relationship between family values and behaviors.

Moreover, it would be relevant to understand how women’s networks (social capital), or the composition and structure of social networks involving both women and men, enable them to increase their remuneration and reach top corporate positions, participate in key decision-making bodies, and have a voice in communities. Furthermore, the achievement of gender equality might significantly change firm networks and ecosystems, with important implications for their performance and survival.

Similarly, research at the nexus of (corporate) governance , career progression , compensation and female empowerment could yield useful insights–for example discussing how enterprises, institutions and countries are managed and the impact for women and other minorities. Are there specific governance structures that favor diversity and inclusion?

Lastly, we foresee an emerging stream of research pertaining how the spread of the COVID-19 pandemic challenged women, especially in the workforce, by making gender biases more evident.

For our analysis, we considered a set of 15,465 articles downloaded from the Scopus database (which is the largest abstract and citation database of peer-reviewed literature). As we were interested in reviewing business and economics related gender studies, we only considered those papers published in journals listed in the Academic Journal Guide (AJG) 2018 ranking of the Chartered Association of Business Schools (CABS). All the journals listed in this ranking are also indexed by Scopus. Therefore, looking at a single database (i.e., Scopus) should not be considered a limitation of our study. However, future research could consider different databases and inclusion criteria.

With our literature review, we offer researchers a comprehensive map of major gender-related research trends over the past twenty-two years. This can serve as a lens to look to the future, contributing to the achievement of SDG5. Researchers may use our study as a starting point to identify key themes addressed in the literature. In addition, our methodological approach–based on the use of the Semantic Brand Score and its webapp–could support scholars interested in reviewing other areas of research.

Supporting information

S1 text. keywords used for paper selection..

https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0256474.s001

Acknowledgments

The computing resources and the related technical support used for this work have been provided by CRESCO/ENEAGRID High Performance Computing infrastructure and its staff. CRESCO/ENEAGRID High Performance Computing infrastructure is funded by ENEA, the Italian National Agency for New Technologies, Energy and Sustainable Economic Development and by Italian and European research programmes (see http://www.cresco.enea.it/english for information).

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  • 37. Fronzetti Colladon A, Grippa F. Brand intelligence analytics. In: Przegalinska A, Grippa F, Gloor PA, editors. Digital Transformation of Collaboration. Cham, Switzerland: Springer Nature Switzerland; 2020. p. 125–41. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0233276 pmid:32442196
  • 39. Griffiths TL, Steyvers M, editors. Finding scientific topics. National academy of Sciences; 2004.
  • 40. Mimno D, Wallach H, Talley E, Leenders M, McCallum A, editors. Optimizing semantic coherence in topic models. 2011 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing; 2011.
  • 41. Wang C, Blei DM, editors. Collaborative topic modeling for recommending scientific articles. 17th ACM SIGKDD international conference on Knowledge discovery and data mining 2011.
  • 46. Straka M, Straková J, editors. Tokenizing, pos tagging, lemmatizing and parsing ud 2.0 with udpipe. CoNLL 2017 Shared Task: Multilingual Parsing from Raw Text to Universal Dependencies; 2017.
  • 49. Lu Y, Li, R., Wen K, Lu Z, editors. Automatic keyword extraction for scientific literatures using references. 2014 IEEE International Conference on Innovative Design and Manufacturing (ICIDM); 2014.
  • 55. Roelleke T, Wang J, editors. TF-IDF uncovered. 31st Annual International ACM SIGIR Conference on Research and Development in Information Retrieval—SIGIR ‘08; 2008.
  • 56. Mihalcea R, Tarau P, editors. TextRank: Bringing order into text. 2004 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing; 2004.
  • 58. Iannone F, Ambrosino F, Bracco G, De Rosa M, Funel A, Guarnieri G, et al., editors. CRESCO ENEA HPC clusters: A working example of a multifabric GPFS Spectrum Scale layout. 2019 International Conference on High Performance Computing & Simulation (HPCS); 2019.
  • 60. Wasserman S, Faust K. Social network analysis: Methods and applications: Cambridge University Press; 1994.
  • 141. Williams JE, Best DL. Measuring sex stereotypes: A multination study, Rev: Sage Publications, Inc; 1990.
  • 172. Steele CM, Aronson J. Stereotype threat and the test performance of academically successful African Americans. In: Jencks C, Phillips M, editors. The Black–White test score gap. Washington, DC: Brookings; 1998. p. 401–27

130 Women’s Rights Research Questions and Essay Topics

🏆 best topics related to women’s rights, ⭐ simple & easy essay topics on women’s issues, 📌 most interesting research topics on women’s issues, 👍 good women’s rights research paper topics, ❓ research questions about women’s rights.

  • 💯 Free Women’s Rights Essay Topic Generator

Women’s rights essays are an excellent way to learn about the situation of the female gender throughout the world and demonstrate your knowledge.

You can cover historical women’s rights essay topics, such as the evolution of girl child education in various countries and regions or the different waves of the feminism movement.

Alternatively, you can study more current topics, such as the status of women in Islam or the debate about whether women’s rights apply to transgender women.

In either case, there is a multitude of ideas that you can express and discuss in your paper to make it engaging and thought-provoking. However, you should not neglect the basic aspects of writing an essay, especially its structure and presentation.

The thesis statement is critical to your essay’s structure, as it has to be at the center of each point you make. It should state the overall message or question of your paper comprehensively but concisely at the same time.

Afterwards, every point you make should directly or indirectly support the claim or answer the question, and you should make the relationship explicit for better clarity.

It is good practice to make the thesis a single sentence that does not rely on context, being fully self-sufficient, but avoids being excessively long.

As such, writing a good thesis is a challenging task that requires care and practice. Do not be afraid to spend additional time writing the statement and refining it.

It is beneficial to have a framework of how you will arrange topics and formulate your points so that they flow into one another and support the central thesis before you begin writing.

The practice will help you arrange transitional words and make the essay more coherent and connected as opposed to being an assortment of loosely associated statements.

To that end, you should write an outline, which deserves a separate discussion. However, the basics are simple: write down all of the ideas you want to discuss, discard the worst or fold them into other, broader topics until you have a handful left, and organize those in a logical progression.

Here are some additional tips for your structuring process:

  • Frame the ideas in your outline using self-explanatory and concise women’s rights essay titles. You can then use them to separate different points in your essay with titles that correspond to outline elements. The outline itself will effectively become a table of contents, saving you time if one is necessary.
  • Try to keep the discussion of each topic self-contained, without much reference to other matters you discussed in the essay. If there is a significant relationship, you should devote a separate section to it.
  • Do not forget to include an introduction and a conclusion in your paper. The introduction familiarizes the reader with the topic and ends with your thesis statement, setting the tone and direction of the essay. The conclusion sums up what you have written and adds some concluding remarks to finish. The introduction should not contain facts and examples beyond what is common knowledge in the field. The conclusion may not introduce new information beyond what has been stated in the essay.

You can find excellent women’s rights essay examples, useful samples, and more helpful tips on writing your essay at IvyPanda, so visit whenever you are having trouble or would like advice!

  • Afghan Women and Violation of Their Rights It is for this reason that the Taliban have been the party mostly blamed for the mistreatment of women in the country. The U.S.has the necessary resources to ensure that this is achieved therefore guaranteeing […]
  • Women’s Rights in the Muslim World Ahmed first focuses on the gender pattern in the Middle East prior to the emergence of the Islam in order to gain ground to describe the Islamic doctrine on women that were practiced in the […]
  • Power of Women’s Rights How the Anti-Slavery Movement Challenge Established Notions of Manhood and Womanhood Kathryn Kish Sklar’s general idea in the book is to enlighten people on the role of women in the society during the 19th century, […]
  • Disclosing the Aspects of Female Authorship as Presented in Woolf’s Professions for Women and Wollstonecraft’s A Vindication of the Right of Woman In their works called A Vindication of the Right of Woman and Professions of Women respectively, they express their vigorous desire to liberate women from the professional taboos to enter female authorship imposed by the […]
  • Women’s Suffrage Discussion The entrenchment of equal rights of women and men and more noticeably the right of every American woman to vote came into being after the enactment of the nineteenth amendment.
  • Jane Cunningham Croly: Fighting for Women Rights The problem of women inequality with men had been considered in the society and Jane Cunningham Croly was one of those who wanted to contribute to the movement, and her journalistic activity was that measure.
  • What Causes Women’s Rights Violation? Most women have been abused in modern societies due to illiteracy and lack of exposure to their rights. Most developing nations are struggling to adopt democratic policies and forget that women deserve the right to […]
  • The Development of Women’s Rights However, she cannot agree to such distribution of the roles, and she calls upon all people to look again at the situation, connected to women’s rights, and provide all women with a chance to participate […]
  • Non Governmental Organization of Women`s Learning Partnership for Rights Development and Peace In most cases the rights of women which are mainly suppressed include the right to own property, the right to work or hold a public office, the right of receiving education, the right to vote […]
  • Women’s Role in Contemporary Korea The effort of women to work in professional and high positions in different sectors, the government decided to boost their effort and maintain their morale.
  • Reform-Women’s Rights and Slavery The colonizers felt that the movement was threatening their business and status in the society and began to ridicule and attack the families of the abolitionists.
  • Oppression of Women’s Rights Affects the Economy of the Middle East For instance in Iceland, the high level of quality of life and health is one of the factors that lead to a GDP per capita of $54,291 On the contrary, there are situations where women […]
  • Women’s Rights – Contribution of E. Cady Stanton and S.B. Anthony The first significant and most important move was made by Elizabeth Cady Stanton and Susan B. Anthony, on the other hand, was born in a Quaker family and her father was also quite a successful […]
  • The opportunity to succeed as women entrepreneurs in Saudi Arabia compared with UK In addition, it is through the small businesses that new products and services are being developed to meet the growing needs of the population in the entire Kingdom.
  • Temperance, Women’s Rights, Education, Antislavery and Prison Reform: New Objectives, New Concerns Among the most memorable reforms of that time, the innovations in the system of treating the convicts and the prisoners must be the reform that reflected the very essence of the XIX-century social ideas.
  • African-American Women and the Civil Rights Movement The key factors that left the Black women unrecognized or led to recognition of just a few of them as leaders are class, race and gender biases.
  • Foot Binding in China in Terms of Women’s Rights The practice of foot binding in China can be traced back to the Sung Dynasty that prevailed between 960-1280 AD, supposedly as an imitation of an imperial concubine who was required to perform a dance […]
  • Gender Studies: Women’s Rights in Saudi Arabia This paper will review the a issue of women’s rights in Saudi Arabia from the perspective of four different groups including the modern Saudi women, traditional Saudi women, Government officials, and international women’s rights organizations.
  • Hip-Hop Music and the Role of Women in It: Fight for Women’s Rights in Society While looking at the various roles of women in hip hop and rap, it is also important to note that the way women are presented has various effects on society.
  • The Role of African American Women in the Civil Right Movement The role of women in the Civil Rights Movement started to change in the 1960s. Women in the Civil Rights Movement: Trailblazers and Torchbearers.
  • Women’s Rights in the 21st Century: Education and Politics The lack of equity in the specified areas affect women’s lives on range of levels, depriving them of the opportunities that they are supposed to be entitled to and posing a tangible threat to the […]
  • The Women of the Veil: Gaining Rights and Freedoms The author chides the activities of the Western colonies in Afghanistan in restoring the rights of the women of the veil.
  • Debate Over Women’s Rights At times, the problem is that there is bias and discrimination about the strength of the woman and no chance has ever been given to them to prove if the allegation is wrong.
  • Women’s Roles and Rights in the 18-19th Century America We can only do the simplest work; we cannot have a good job because that is the men’s domain, and they have the necessary training to do it.
  • Women’s Rights in the Great Depression Period The pursuit of the workplace equality and the protection of women from unfair treatment by the employers were quite unsuccessful and slow due to the major division in the opinions.
  • Women’s Family and Social Responsibilities and Rights The uniqueness of Addams and Sanger’s approach to discussing the rights of females is in the fact that these authors discuss any social responsibilities of women as the key to improving their roles in the […]
  • Women in New France: Rights, Freedoms and Responsibilities However, the development of New France was quite distinct due to peculiarities of the gender roles in the North America and France.
  • Women’s Fight for Equal Human Rights According to the readings assigned, the term feminist could be used to refer to people who fought for the rights of women.
  • Women’s Rights Since Pre-History to 1600 A.D In this regard, most women from the medieval times could determine their social and political destiny, but the responsibility to others mainly rested on the men.
  • Arab Spring’s Impact on Women’s Rights and Security The aim of the research is to define the effects that the Arab Spring has had on the perception of women in the Arab society.
  • Saudi Arabian Women’s Right to Drive: Pros and Cons The objective of this paper is to present the arguments from both sides of the discussion on the issue of whether women should be able to drive legally in Saudi Arabia.
  • Understanding Women’s Right in Islamic World The role of women in the Islamic society during and soon after the death of Prophet Mohammed was similar to that of men.
  • Planned Parenthood and Women’s Rights It took decades for the government to acknowledge the necessity of the services offered in these clinics and even longer for the public to accept a woman’s right to reproductive health care, the establishment of […]
  • Women’s Rights in Palestine and Neighboring Countries In a review of relevant literature, women’s rights in Palestine can be compared to women’s rights in three neighboring countries Jordan, Egypt, and Israel from the perspective of violence and discrimination, and specific differences, including […]
  • Women’s Rights in the United States History The leading cause of poverty in developing countries is the lack of skills and education to enable people to get employment.
  • Women Rights: New Data and Movements For example, whereas the women’s health rights movement is a global affair, the fact that events related to the movement are mainly held in the US means that other countries do not feel the impact […]
  • Advocating for Women’s Employment Rights in the UAE and Saudi Arabia The position of women in the societies of the UAE and Saudi Arabia is a cause for endless controversy. Public relations between women and men are limited in the given countries, and women are required […]
  • Women’s Rights Movement in the 19th Century In this paper, the peculiarities of women’s suffrage, its political and social background, and further reactions will be discussed to clarify the worth and impact of the chosen event.
  • Refugee Women and Their Human Rights According to the researches have been made by UNHCR, 1998, found that 80% of the refugees immigrating to the United States and other countries of second asylum are women or children.
  • The Success of Women’s Rights Movement They sought the equal treatment of women and men by law and fought for voting rights. The women’s rights movement was successful because they were united, had a strong ideological foundation, and organized campaigns on […]
  • Women in the Struggle for Civil Rights In other instants, women in the struggle for civil rights can also file a case in a court of law demanding the lawmakers to enact some policies of which they feel when passed will protect […]
  • Women’s Fight for Their Rights Maybe, but lots of researchers are coming to various conclusions: women are not selecting to stay out of the workforce due to a change in approaches, the state.
  • Women’s Involvement and Their Rights in Nationalist Ireland The beginning of the seventeenth century and the eighteenth century saw the struggle of the Irish women for the struggle to attaining freedom.
  • Women in Colonial America: Fight for Rights Wives that happily accepted their role and conformed to Puritan societal standards were openly referred to and addressed as ‘goodwife.’ However, the authoritative figure in the family and throughout all facets of Puritan society was […]
  • Shirin Ebadi’s Perspective on Women’s Human Rights Activism and Islam It is worth noting that Shirin Ebadi’s self-identity as an Iranian woman and a Muslim empowers her experience and perspective in women’s rights activism.
  • Movement for Women’s Rights in Great Britain and the United States This essay analytically explores some of the conditions which helped bring about movement for women’s right in Great Britain and United States before the close of the last century. In addition, the most significant demand […]
  • Women’s Rights and Gender Inequality in Saudi Arabia Indeed, it is crucial to understand the importance of women’s rights, see the connections between the past, the present, the local, and the global, and realize how political and media discourse represents the social issue […]
  • Syrian Conflict and Women Rights: Way to Equality or Another Discrimination The main reason for a low percentage of women in the workforce is Syrian social norms, which stereotypically reflect the role of women in homes serving their husbands and in the private sector.
  • Primary Source on Women’s Voting Rights The combination of statements that degrade the image of suffragettes and suffrage and quotes of leaders’ opinions is a way for the editor to influence the audience.
  • Women in Islam: Some Rights, No Equality Notwithstanding the principles of equality of men and women in Islamic tradition, women’s low status should be attributed not to the ideals set in the Quran but to the cultural norms of the patriarchal society.
  • Lucy Parsons as a Women’s Rights Advocate and Her Beliefs She was a believer in anarchism and thought that it was the means to liberty and freedom. She wanted the constitution to be amended to say that men and women are equal in all aspects.
  • The Aftermath of the Progression of Women’s Rights Period At the end of the 1800s and the beginning of 1900s, women’s organizations and women struggled for social reforms, to gain the right to vote, and for diverse political and economic equality.
  • Catharine Beecher and Women’s Rights Catharine Beecher’s “An Appeal to American Women” is a discussion kind of piece that considers the power of women in office and how the issue should be approached.
  • Sojourner Truth – A Women’s Rights Activist and Abolitionist Sojourner Truth believed in truth, justice, and equality for all people, which made her escape slavery and advocate for women’s rights.
  • Injustices Women Faced in Quest for Equal Rights The source Alice Paul depicts the numerous contributions that she and her fellow suffragists made to the new rights of women.
  • Invisible Southern Black Women Leaders in the Civil Rights Movement Based on 36 personal interviews and multiple published and archived sources, the author demonstrates that black women in the South have played a prominent role in the struggle for their rights.
  • The Evolution of Women’s Rights Through American History From the property-owning women of the late 18th century to the proponents of the women’s liberation in the 1960s, women always succeeded in using the influential political theories of their time to eventually make feminist […]
  • Women’s Rights and Reform Impulses The reform impulses altered women’s place in society, making them equal to men in the ability to speak publicly, pursue their liberty, and attain their goals.
  • The Texas Abortion Law: A Signal of War on Women’s Rights and Bodies The purpose of this paper is to examine the structure and implications of the Texas Abortion Law in order to demonstrate its flaws.
  • Did Flappers Have a Positive Effect on Women’s Rights in America in the 1920s?
  • Abigail Adams’ Inspiring Rebellion For Women’s Rights
  • The Power of the Internet and Women’s Rights in Guatemala
  • Pencils and Bullets Women’s Rights in Afghanistan
  • Women’s Rights in Supreme Court Decisions of the 1960’s and 1970’s
  • Women’s Rights: A Path into the Society to Achieve Social Liberation
  • The Taliban: Deprivers Of Women’s Rights In Afghanistan
  • Henrik Ibsen’s Description of Women’s Rights as Depicted in His Play, A Doll’s House
  • Perceptions on The Islamic Practice of Veiling: Relevance to the Quest for Women’s Rights
  • The Effects of Christianity on Women’s Rights in China
  • Women’s Rights in the 1920’s and Examples in F. Scott Fitzgerald´s The Great Gatsby
  • Pornography and Feminist Fight for Women’s Rights
  • The Progression of Women’s Rights from the Early 20th Century
  • Islamic Head Scarf: Women’s Rights and Cultural Sensibilities
  • The Women’s Rights Movement in England: 18th Century and Beyond
  • Comparing Cultures: the Development of Women’s Rights in China and Saudi Arabia
  • Mary Wollstonecraft and the Early Women’s Rights Movement
  • The Progression of Women’s Rights in the Middle East
  • Elizabeth Stanton’s Impact on Women’s Rights Movement
  • Women’s Rights in Latin America and the Caribbean
  • Women’s Rights And Their Importance To The Development Of True Democracy
  • Women’s Rights Within A Thousand Splendid Suns By Khaled Hosseini
  • Every Woman Has Her Day: The Women’s Rights Movement in 19th Century
  • Evolution of Women’s Rights Since 19th Century
  • Integrating Equality – Globalization, Women’s Rights, Son Preference and Human Trafficking
  • Analysis of the View of Opinions of Authors Advocating for Women’s Rights
  • Abolition of Slavery is Conducive to Women’s Rights Movement
  • Women’s Rights Violations in Afghanistan
  • Feminism And Women’s Rights In Post Colonial Africa And France
  • Social Justice In America: Women’s Rights
  • Horace Walpole and Samuel Johnson, Champions of Women’s Rights
  • Muslims Women’s Rights to Practice Their Religion
  • Women’s Rights and Hills Like White Elephants
  • Rhetorical Analysis Of Hillary Clinton’s Speech, Women’s Rights Are Human Rights
  • Euripides Support of Women’s Rights
  • Women’s Rights In Afghanistan 1996 To The Present
  • Women’s Rights & Their Impact on the Development of Iran
  • Women’s Rights between 1750 and 1914
  • Exploring The Women’s Rights Movement With Good Man Is Hard To Find By Flannery O´Conner
  • Progressive Era: The Era Of Immigration, Race, And Women’s Rights
  • Women’s Rights in the United States in the 1700s
  • Which Countries Violate Women’s Rights?
  • What Was the Aim of the Women’s Movement?
  • How Did the Anti-slavery Movement Contribute to the Women’s Rights Movement?
  • Who Were the 4 Main Leaders of the Women’s Rights Movement?
  • How Does Gender Inequality Affect Women’s Rights?
  • Who Fought for Women’s Right to Work?
  • What Was the Biggest Women’s Rights Movement?
  • What Are the Colors for Women’s Rights?
  • Why Women’s Rights Lost Ground at the End of World War Two?
  • What Is the Role of Lesbians in the Women’s Movement?
  • How Far Women’s Rights Have Come?
  • What Laws Help Women’s Rights?
  • How Were the Abolition and Women’s Rights Movements Similar?
  • What Are the Most Important Events in Women’s Rights History?
  • Who Is Responsible for Women’s Rights?
  • What Is the History of Women’s Rights?
  • What Were 3 Major Events in the Women’s Rights Movement?
  • How Margaret Fuller and Fanny Fern Used Writing as a Weapon for Women’s Rights?
  • How Did Race Impact African American Women’s Experiences During the Women’s Suffrage Movement?
  • What Was the Cause of the First Woman’s Rights Convention?
  • Why Is Education Important for Women’s Rights?
  • How Are Women’s Rights Linked to Economic Development?
  • When Did the Women’s Rights Movement Start and End?
  • Why Did the Women’s Rights Movement Emerge in the USA During the 1950S and 1960S?
  • What Are Women’s Cultural Rights?
  • Who Was the First Black Women’s Rights Activist?
  • When Was the First Female Vote?
  • What Was the Movement for Women’s Rights in the 1800S?
  • Who Was the Black Woman Who Fought for Women’s Rights?
  • Who Was the Biggest Women’s Rights Activist?

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  • Women’s Movement Questions
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  • A Research Guide
  • Research Paper Topics

40 Ideas for Women Issues and Gender Research Paper Topics

Read also: A Guide to Buying Term Papers Online
  • The history of gender
  • The difference between sex and gender
  • Women erased from history: who they were and what they did?
  • Gender imbalance in China and India: the causes of it
  • Stereotype gender roles: why did society need them and does it need them now?
  • Sexual revolution and the concept of gender
  • Can gender be changed during a person’s life?
  • Intergender relations
  • The development and goal of gender studies
  • How many genders exist in humanity?
  • The #MeeToo movement and its consequences
  • Gender discrimination laws all over the world
  • What is sexism and gender discrimination?
  • Does the backwards discrimination exist?
  • Expected gender traits: nature versus nurture
  • The physiological differences and gender
  • Gender transitioning
  • Gender and family issues
  • Gender and sexual harassment
  • Sex, gender and leadership
  • Gender and parenting
  • Gender roles in media and literature
  • Feminism movement
  • Do men need to fight for their rights as feminist women do?
  • Does sex still sell? Gender in advertising
  • Gender and pornography. Fem-porn: does it exist?
  • Gender and prostitution
  • Cognitive differences between genders
  • Typically male and typically female nonverbal communication
  • Women and “glass ceiling”
  • Maternity and paternity leaves. Are they equally important for the baby?
  • Abortions, pregnancy and gender
  • Internal misogyny and misandry: causes and ways to overcome
  • Childfree movement and gender
  • Sexual behaviour, marriage strategies and gender
  • The toys segregation and sexual education: shall it still be different for boys and girls?
  • Gender dysphoria
  • Beauty standards and gender
  • Gender and power: male and female bosses
  • Sexual orientation and gender

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205 Powerful Feminist Research Topics To Focus On

Table of Contents

Feminist research topics concentrate on the people that support the notion that women deserve to enjoy similar opportunities and rights with men. Feminism is raised by women as a historical, social, and political movement to gain gender equality and eliminate discrimination. In a male-dominated society, feminism is one of the serious issues that are often discussed since the 19 th century. But in recent times, the voice of the feminist people is louder, and the feminist topics have also become so popular.

Today, millions of people across the world are supporting the feminist movements and a few groups of people are criticizing the movement, hence a lot of arguments and debates are being conducted on feminist topics. Feminism is not a take it easy issue, some educational institutions offer a wide academic subject that deals with feminist philosophies, feminist sociology and feminist psychology. To understand the various perspectives of feminism, students who are pursuing gender studies or any feminism-related courses are commonly asked to write a research paper or essay on feminism.

Do you want to write a feminist research paper? Are you searching for the best feminist essay topics or feminism project ideas? Continue reading this blog post and get powerful feminist research topic ideas.

Feminist Research Topics

Feminist Research Paper Topic Ideas

For writing a feminist dissertation, a good feminist research topic is all you need. In general, feminism is a wide subject that addresses the various issues faced by women such as sexual harassment, oppression, repression, stereotyping, sexual objectification, and other forms of political and social deprivation.

When you are asked to write a feminist research paper, you can consider writing your thesis statement on any feminist research topics on equality, women empowerment, preservation of women’s dignity, and women’s political participation.

Feminism is not only a sensitive issue but is also a complex subject that deals with various topics to focus on. As the subject is broad, choosing a feminist topic for an essay or research paper is really a challenging task. So, to help you, here we have listed some interesting feminist research paper topics for you to consider.

Have a glance at the list and choose a powerful and unique research topic of your choice.

Captivating Feminist Research Topics

  • Has the feminist movement helped or endangered women?
  • How does feminism affect modern lifestyle and fashion?
  • The feminist movement is just a platform to increase women power
  • What is the anti-feminist movement, and why are people sensitive about it?
  • What is the role of women in the contemporary world of entrepreneurship?
  • How has the #MeToo movement fueled the adoption of feminism?
  • How has the rise of social media shaped feminism?
  • The mass media has affected the global understanding of feminism.
  • How has feminism been used to promote advocacy for equal rights?
  • How does feminism equate to human rights?
  • Is feminism all about male dominance?
  • How has feminism reconstructed gender roles?
  • Examine the reasons why men discrimination is on the high
  • How has the feminist movement also fought for black lives matter?
  • Is feminism merely a relic of the history of a subject of contemporary need?

Amazing Feminist Research Topics

  • How does feminism contribute to traditional ideologies of gender roles?
  • How have women also impeded feminist advocacy?
  • Is feminism still all-encompassing or just about women?
  • Examine the possibility of a female president in America.
  • Examine the relationship of feminism with sports.
  • Entertainment industry and #MeToo movement
  • Contribution of female social reformers and activists in United States
  • Discuss the struggle of Olympe de Gouges and Betty Friedan for equality
  • Why Gloria Steinem is considered the most famous feminist of the world?
  • Discuss the role played by feminists in establishing the identity of a single mother
  • What is the impact of feminist ideas on women’s personal lives?
  • Can the feminist movement lead to the superiority of women?
  • Is there a connection between the type of social media and the gender of a person?
  • Gender and British postgraduate funding policy: main issues.
  • What is the feminism theory?

Research Paper Topics on Feminist Theory

  • Discuss the main feminist theories.
  • Explain the main indicators of inequality in a society.
  • An explanation of the main feminist parties’ policies
  • A description of the gender’s nature
  • A description of the main features of femininity and masculinity- How biased is each of them?
  • The main concepts and origins of spiritual feminism
  • What would a women-dominated society be like?
  • The differences and similarities between European and African feminists.
  • An analysis of all gender inequality aspects.
  • Abortion law and feminism
  • Discuss the  feminist trends from 2010 to 2022
  • Does feminism contribute to the development of a new form of discrimination?
  • Critical analysis of the feminism movements in America from the early 1980s to 2010
  • Discuss the benefits and drawbacks of feminism for society
  • Which Asian countries are the most prominent flashpoints of feminism?

Feminist Theory Research Paper Topics

  • How feminists assist the society in getting rid of the threat of rape and violence against women?
  • Feminism can be hoodlums’ disguise: Explain and justify
  • Pros and cons of Marxist feminism
  • Compare and contrast between Socialist feminism and Radical feminism
  • Discuss postmodern/poststructuralist feminism theory
  • Crime, criminology, and women: A feminist critique
  • Discuss the difference between the first wave and second wave of feminism movement
  • Schism in feminism movement
  • Why Chile’s new constitution is a feminist victory
  • Feminist Movement Role in Society
  • Domestic Violence and Feminism
  • Feminism in Two Sisters
  • What countries are the most prominent flashpoint of feminism?
  • How do governments deal with feminist movements?
  • What ethnic groups prohibit feminism?

Women Empowerment Research Paper Topics

  • The importance of the women’s empowerment principles.
  • How does the transition from cash to digital payrolls help empower women in developing countries?
  • Examine current trends in women’s empowerment.
  • Why is there such a big gap between committing to advancing equality and corporate efforts to implement women’s empowerment programs?
  • What does it mean to be empowered?
  • The role of the internet in empowering girls.
  • Discuss what everyone can do to empower the women in their community.
  • Why is workplace health a particular concern for women empowerment?
  • Analyze the various benefits of women’s empowerment.
  • Criticize the Gender Empowerment Measure.
  • How feminism movement in UAE empowered Arab women?
  • Women representation in political system, politics and decision making
  • Discuss the role played by feminists in driving women empowerment
  • Women empowerment in Asian countries in the last two decades
  • Challenges faced by feminists while establishing women empowerment

Research Topics on Abortion and Domestic Violence

  • Validate women’s self-expression.
  • Compliment her mind and soul—not just her body
  • Bring women into the conversation.
  • Examine the role of domestic violence in enhancing the feminist movement.
  • Who perpetuates domestic violence and what are the best ways to deal with it?
  • Domestic violence is a terror on the feminist movement.
  • Should there be restrictions on abortions?
  • How can feminists help society cope with the domestic violence problem?
  • Is the criminalization of abortion discrimination?
  • Domestic violence prevention: the role of parental communication.
  • Why are men more likely to resort to violence than women?
  • What actions would you classify as domestic abuse?
  • How do mental illnesses and domestic violence affect each other?
  • Domestic violence: new solutions.
  • Is one sibling bullying the other a form of domestic abuse?

Abortion and Domestic Violence Research Topics

  • Explore the link between women’s suicide and abuse.
  • Treatment of perpetrators of domestic violence.
  • What can healthcare specialists do to identify victims of violence more effectively?
  • How do communities typically respond to domestic violence?
  • Compare cases of domestic violence in military and religious families.
  • Study the psychology behind victim-blaming.
  • Abuse in teenage relationships.
  • Cultural perspectives on domestic violence
  • Role played by community to reduce the rate of abortion
  • Conjugal relationship and domestic violence against women
  • Why male partners considered the main reason behind domestic violence against their female partners?
  • Abortion and domestic violence cases in the United States
  • African-American women: Abuse and domestic violence
  • How gender equality can be established by promoting feminism?
  • How does religion correlate with feminism?

Great Feminist Research Topics

  • Does feminism cover rebellions?
  • Do feminist movements deserve the government’s support?
  • The pros and cons of feminism
  • Why the pay equity idea deserves everyone’s support
  • Feminism and single mothers
  • Is feminism a need or a historical relic?
  • Men judge women by their cuisine- discuss
  • The rights and privileges of women in underdeveloped countries
  • Widespread feminists and feminism myths
  • Feminist critics’ position- How right are they?
  • How governments deal with the feminist movements?
  • Some ethnic groups do not support feminism: Explain with examples
  • Feminism is a philosophy of life: Discuss
  • Analyse the impact of feminist movements on Middle-East countries
  • Discuss the role of liberalism in changing the thinking of women

Good Feminist Research Topics

  • Criminality and feminism- What’s the connection?
  • Is modern feminism the cause of men’s discrimination?
  • How feminism can influence a brand’s income negatively
  • Can feminist stents be divided into incorrect and correct?
  • The pros and cons of radical feminism
  • Examine how terrorist organizations use women as a means to achieve political goals.
  • Assess the ways through which feminists cope with societal discrimination and violence.
  • What is the feminist critics’ position in the face of global gender inequality?
  • How literature is used to undermine women
  • How do fitness clubs discriminate against women?

Popular Feminism Research Paper Topics

  • What is eco-feminism?
  • What does cyberfeminism imply, and how has it boxed feminism into a social space?
  • Give examples of the modern feminist manifesto, and what have they included in the feminist ideology?
  • Examine how being a gentleman could be insulting to feminists
  • Give a step-by-step guide on how to adopt feminism
  • Does being an anti-racist equal being a feminist?
  • The Bitch Manifesto and its significance.
  • Examine what provocative feminism means
  • Explore the distinct types of feminism and how hairstyles are also a form of political statement.
  • Study the connection between women’s health and rights throughout history.

Informative Research Paper Topics on Feminism

  • Feminism in Islamic countries.
  • Sexism in advertising: why is it still a problem?
  • Define how feminism influences science.
  • Women in leadership positions: the rhetoric and the reality.
  • Fighting gender stereotypes in the 21st century.
  • What’s the problem with the female gendering of AI assistants?
  • Child Marriage: the impact of Girls Not Brides.
  • Are hijabs always a symbol of oppression?
  • Discuss the social construction of gender roles.
  • The role of feminism in international relations.

Controversial Feminist Research Topics

  • The education of men and women into feminism
  • Why should everyone adopt feminism?
  • Do males earn less than females in modern society?
  • Societal effect of feminism- what to expect in the next ten years
  • Global legislation against gender-based inequality
  • The challenges of men fighting for the feminist ideology
  • An examination of Black Feminism and its importance
  • Chauvinistic displays of modern feminism
  • The role of bullying in limiting female and girl self-belief
  • The cognitive significance of gender equality

Controversial Feminist Research Topics for Assignments

  • Is total global gender equality possible in two generations to come?
  • How some women oppress other women with feminist ideologies
  • Examine why there are limited women in both politics and business.
  • Examine the possibility of splitting up the society through feminism.
  • Who needs feminism the most?
  • The anti-feminism position
  • Modern men should fight for their rights as women do.
  • How can society achieve complete gender equality?
  • Why there is no gender balance in Asian countries
  • How does feminism preach the incorporation of men’s traditional responsibilities into women’s?

Feminist Argumentative Essay Topics

  • Feminism is a fight against men, not patriarchy.
  • Feminism is another form of politics.
  • Mixed schools can also promote feminism.
  • Marriage is a limitation to women’s rights.
  • Feminism is mere psychology.
  • Society’s definition of beauty should define women.
  • Should women still obey their husbands in their marriages?
  • Religion is an excuse for women violence
  • Feminist critics are apologetics.
  • NGOs have limited control over feminist education.
  • Sexism doesn’t contribute to gender discrimination.
  • The feminist movement also fuels women’s egos.
  • Women’s suffrage didn’t liberate women.
  • Feminism should also be a fight against women brainwashed by the patriarchy.
  • Feminism enhances hatred of women for men.

Read More – Thought-Provoking Argumentative Essay Topics for You to Explore

Interesting Feminist Project Ideas

  • How does feminism have a resemblance to rebellion?
  • Examine the significance of women’s rights to own property and when it started.
  • What are the challenges of women during the Second World War?
  • Examine the activities of women during the Civil Rights Movement
  • Explore the history of women’s rights in Europe
  • Examining the advantages and disadvantages of identifying as a feminist
  • Explore the gender gap in the pursuit of any country’s independence.
  • Highlight and explain how feminism has helped increase education against rape.
  • The detailed consideration of equity and equality in feminism
  • Examine the motivating factors across the history of feminism.
  • Examine the future of feminism in Taliban-controlled Afghanistan.
  • Identify the future of feminism as hoodlums and violators.
  • Examine the connection between feminism and lesbianism.
  • What is the role of Asian women in the feminist movement?
  • Examine the morality of feminism.
  • Analysis of the difference and similarities between feminism and gender equality
  • Discuss the impact of economic development and globalization of South Korea on the role of feminism
  • Feminism threatens male control and alters their dominance in society: Explain with examples
  • Compare and contrast Eurocentric feminism, Marxist feminism, and Socialist feminism
  • Critically analyze the impact of Black feminism on the South African countries

Final Words

With the feminist research topics suggested in this blog post, you can write an interesting research paper on feminism and also get dissertation help from our online experts. While choosing the topic for your feminism research papers, always go with the topic that matches your interest and has a good scope to discuss and share your arguments and opinions with evidence. Also, when you craft your feminism dissertation outline, be sure to structure it properly by including introduction, body, and conclusion paragraphs.

Writing a feminist research paper is not as easy a task as you think. It requires a lot of subject knowledge, effort, and time. In case you find it difficult to complete your feminist dissertation, reach out to us for instant assignment writing and  help and Research Proposal Help . We have plenty of professional writers to assist you with researching, writing, proofreading, and editing your thesis on the best feminist research topics. Just write your requirements to us and get a high-quality, plagiarism-free research paper on time as per your requirements at a reasonable price.

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Women Rights Essays

This has been a crucial topic of discussion for decades, and it continues to be relevant today. It’s an issue that is observed worldwide and has an impact on gender equality. Creating an essay on women rights can be a daunting task, which is why it’s essential to check out a finished women’s rights essay example.

Our experts have prepared a collection of persuasive and argumentative essays on women’s rights to help students understand the various issues surrounding this topic. Discrimination has been a struggle that women have faced for a long time. Through the feminist movement, women have fought for their freedom, speech, and equality. The ongoing push for equal treatment and opportunities has sparked important conversations and initiatives across societies globally.

When picking a research paper or college essay topics, consider the importance of a well-structured outline that includes an introduction, thesis statement, and conclusion. The essay’s introductions should provide the background and context of the topic, while thesis statements should present clear and concise concepts of the essay’s main argument.

In the body of the essay, students can discuss the different situations where the rights of a woman are affected and provide evidence to support their arguments. They can also explore the various titles that women have held and continue to hold.

Writing about women’s rights is essential, and it’s crucial to have a good understanding of the topic. By using our collection of essay samples, students can gain a more profound understanding of the relevant problems in today’s society and the various perspectives on this topic.

It is not a secret that feminists are organized as a movement that fights for only one goal. They want to ensure equality with men. But, this topic can be pretty difficult for college students as there are many unclear details and difficult subjects to discuss. That’s why you need to be careful when writing essays about Women’s Rights for students. To make the body, introduction, and conclusion more valuable, you should find the best possible argumentative essay examples on Women’s Rights that can support all the opinions that you express throughout the paper. It would be good to share real-life samples and researches to make the essay more interesting. But, which research paper topics on Women’s Issues are the best ones?

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  • Below, you can find some of the outstanding topics on women’s rights chosen by our professionals.

Women Rights in all Countries

One of the most important targets of humanity is that everyone benefits from human rights equally. Human rights are fundamental rights and these rights appeared with the beginning of humanity. Human rights can be considered natural rights because the origin of these rights is natural law. These rights were considered only for men in the past and women were excluded. This exclusion led to the emergence of feminism. These rights didn’t arise suddenly. They influenced by changes in history. Because […]

About Women Rights and Equality

Women’s rights are an important factor in understanding global well-being. Although a treaty was endorsed by most of the world’s nations a few decades ago, numerous issues still exist in most aspects of life, despite many successes in liberating women. It is an unfortunate case, how women are paid less than men, yet work more; throughout their lifetime, gender discrimination negatively affects girls and women; and women are often the ones who are in a state of poverty. It is […]

Equality between Men and Women

Men and women should have the equally right to vote, education, and respect. They should have the same rights because being a woman is just a gender. It does not change who we are as a person and it is very unfair. Through time, the way people look at women now has changed through some historical ways. The Salem Witch trials had a very powerful impact on women. Economic and voting oppurtunities for women were very limited. For example, most […]

Women Rights in Pakistan

Throughout history, the role of women has always been determined by the men in society. They have had very different experiences in different times. In some societies and times, the women were able to be powerful leaders and warriors. Yet, in other societies, they have had strict expectations placed on them that forced them to be seen as inferior to men. It wasn’t until recently in the 20th century that women began taking charge and determining what roles they want […]

Women’s Rights in the United States in the 1970s

In the 1940’s-1960’s, there was a blurred distinction between clinical and sexual exams within the medical field (Wendy Kline, She’s Beautiful When She’s Angry). For example, many male doctors would provide pelvic exams as a means to teach women sex instruction, and were taught to assert their power over their patients. This led to women instituting new training programs for proper examinations, creating a more gentle and greatly-respected method of examining women and their bodies. There was also an increase […]

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Women’s Rights in Pride and Prejudice

Do not consider me now as an elegant female intending to plague you, but as a rational creature speaking the truth from her heart."(Austen 94). Woman's rights have been a popular and important topic for the past three centuries, and will continue to be in the future. Jane Austen is widely known and praised for her controversial ideas and opinions in her literary fiction novel,Pride and Prejudice. Much before the time of the fight for women's rights, Jane Austen brought […]

Abortion and Women’s Rights

In spite of women's activist desires, the matter of conceptive decision in the United States was not settled in 1973 by the important Supreme Court choice on account of Roe v. Wade. From the beginning there was animal-like restriction by the Catholic Church. Anyway, in the course of at least the last 20 years, the too early or soon birth discussion has changed into a definitely spellbound, meaningful debate between two differentiating societal talks that are moored to the problems […]

Womens Rights in the French Revolution

Prior to the French revolution, events such as the Enlightenment also known as the “Age of Reason” sparked a new outlook on traditional french society. From this movement arose the spirit of question in which the people began to question just about everything including the manner in which they treat women. Throughout the 18th century concepts and principles established by both Catholic Church and Protestant authorities were highly valued. Therefore the “ideal” woman was perceived to be poise and subordinate […]

Elizabeth Stanton’s Impact on Women’s Rights Movement

Abstract For centuries, there have been several social issues that have been resolved by the actions of pioneers who stood for change. Whether the goal was to resolve violent bigotry or give equal rights to those without, these changes were vital in shaping our nation today. With every development in the system, more people became pursuant in advocating for change. The topic that will be discussed in this analysis revolves around the women's rights movement. The greatest advocate for the […]

Women’s Rights to Choose

Every person in the United States is granted inalienable rights, whether it be to practice their own religion or vote, which should include autonomy over their own bodies.  A woman should have the right to choose what she does with her own body, and in 1973 that became a possibility for American women.  In 1973 Roe v. Wade made it possible for women to legally choose to terminate unwanted pregnancies within their first two trimesters.  The government finally took into […]

History of Women’S Rights in India

Introduction Throughout time women have been neglected, they were treated lesser than men. Much of women's rights in the 21st century have been a direct result of the hard work women have done in the past. Women were forced to prove that they were capable of doing the same things a man can do. And yet still women are still not seen as equal to men. There are still differences in income, employment, and many other areas. Women have always […]

Pencils and Bullets Women’s Rights in Afghanistan

On March 19, 2015, two days before Afghan New Year's, 27-year-old Farkhunda Malikzada stopped by the Shah-e-Du Shamshira shrine, in Kabul, Afghanistan, to say her prayers. She got into an argument with the shrine keeper about his practice of selling charms, little scraps of paper with verses from the Quran. In retaliation, he falsely accuses her of being an American and burning a copy of the Quran. An angry crowd gathers, instantly believing the words of the shrine keeper. She […]

The Battle Fight for the Equality and Rights of Women

The speech that was given by Elizabeth Cady Stanton of "The Solitude of Self," was in 1892 on January 18, at the U.S. Senate, Washington, D.C. as the first president of the National American Woman Suffrage Association (NAWSA). This is her retirement speech when she was retired from NAWSA in 1892 when she was 77 years old. The speech that she delivered, talks about gender equality each, that included education and suffrage. She opposed inequality for its many aspects and […]

Women’s Right and Abolitionist Movement

Women's rights and abolishment are two organizations that are fighting for their rights and equality, they were both facing with struggles and injustice. Women's rights and Abolitionist movement were wrapped together because both women and slaves wanted to be free, in their own different ways. Women wanted to have their right to vote, labor rights, reproductive rights and abortion. Slaves wanted to be free of their owners and live the life they want without being whipped and own by another […]

An Issue of Women’s Reproductive Rights

We hold these truths to be self-evident: that men and women are created equal (Elizabeth Cady Stanton). In America this has been the basis of what our nation stands for. It is stated that every citizen has the right to equality that shall not be stripped away, in many cases that is not true. Whether man or women you should possess the same rights, but more often than not the women's rights are taken away. There are many instances in […]

An Issue of Women’s International Rights

The percentage of female CEOs of Fortune 500 companies has dropped 25 percent in the last year (Miller). The struggle to gain access to higher paid jobs for females has been notoriously difficult, so why are these women leaving their positions? The challenges they face are not a result of individual choices. That's because evidence shows there are larger forces at work, rooted in biases against women in power (Miller). Similarly, this number of women in power is declining because […]

Women’s Rights in the Middle East

Brigham Young once said, "You educate a man; you educate a man. You educate women; you educate a generation" (Digital Empowerment Foundation). Education is very important to the young women in the Middle East and religion can cause conflict, it is not just about private faith. There are many titles that a woman can be given such as, a woman's main job is to take care of their children, they are not allowed to show any hair of skin, and […]

Women’s Rights in China

Despite all the protest that international women's rights movement from the Seneca Falls in 1848 to the National American Woman Suffrage Association in 1890, and the National Women party in 1916. In China women never had the privilege to show what they are capable of doing because that was not a ladylike thing in their family. Women have always been the primary abduction target since the early 1900s to 2005 because it was unacceptable that they had a higher population […]

Culture Vs Human Rights Women Edition

Introduction Female Genital Mutilation (FGM), why does this method thrive in the heart of Africa, Asia and the Middle East?  Some argue it's necessary while others strive to prevent the process from continuing throughout those areas. This brings up the question of whether FGM is a right of passage or violation of rights? According to the the World Health Organization, (1)"Female Genital Mutilation is a procedure to remove the female genital organs for non medical reasons." There are four different […]

The Status of Women’s Sexual and Reproductive Rights

The consequences of sexual behaviour between women and men have driven a desire and determination of women to control their fertility, yet in an environment in which anti-choice legislators and organizations do not protect women's reproductive rights, there is an ongoing dispute on who decides the fate of such rights. The status of women's sexual and reproductive rights remains controversial and while there have been many attempts to gain such basic human right, the fight for reproductive freedoms remains intense. […]

Women’s Rights: a Huge Movement

Women’s Rights Gender equality, also known as sexual equality, is when your gender does not determine your access to opportunities and resources. There should also be equal valuing of aspirations, behaviors and decision-making, independent of gender. One issue in gender inequality is equal pay, there should be equal work equal pay. If a woman is putting in the same work as a man, she should get the same check. The law says there is equal pay but according to statistics […]

Women’s Rights in America

Throughout the sixties until this very day, woman have been actively trying to take charge of their future by securing the same rights that men have. Issues commonly associated with women's rights include the rights to: bodily integrity, to be free from sexual violence, to vote, enter legal contracts, to work, to fair wages or equal pay, to have reproductive rights, own property, obtain an education. The Womens's Rights movement of the 1960's and 1970's has changed the course of […]

Question of Womens Educational Rights

What if you were not allowed to have a voice and share what you think just because of your gender? How would that make you feel? Well, this is a common thing that happens in our country and across the world. That is why I am focusing on Women's Rights as my Exhibition topic. I want this to stop. Our class Central Idea is, "Global opportunities may create conflict between people and other living things." Our groups Central Idea had […]

Main Issues of Women’s Rights

GENERAL PURPOSE: To Educate/To Inform SPECIFIC PURPOSE: To inform my audience on the differences in women's rights between the United States and Middle Eastern countries. CENTRAL IDEA: The United States and Middle Eastern countries differ greatly when it comes to women's rights, and the view/treatment of women in society. VISUAL AIDS: Powerpoint Slides Introduction (Greeting/Name) Thank you, the previous presenter, for the lovely introduction. Good morning everyone, my name is Emily Parker and I am here to inform you on […]

Women’s Reproductive Rights are under Attack

Women's reproductive rights have always been threatened because of sexist beliefs. Recently, however, they're being threatened in America in a subtler, but potentially more dangerous way. Product manufacturers market items towards women and make them more expensive than similar items for men, politicians enact laws whose main goal is to limit women's reproductive rights, and medical professionals downplay women's pain in emergency rooms. Personally, I believe that everyone should have access to proper healthcare. Of course, there are some who […]

Understanding of Women’s Liberation Movement

In order to better understand the Women's Liberation Movement, the reason as to why it was launched must be explained. Oppression, the inability to vote or abort, unequal pay, and limited opportunities were just some of the reasons why feminists formed organizations to strive for change. According to Vicky Randall (1987), the Women's Liberation Movement first emerged in the year 1960 due to three important factors, which were the predisposing factors, the facilitating factors and the specific triggering effects (Hawkesworth, […]

Early Development of Women’s Rights

Women's Rights was a very big issue back in the day, and still is even in present day. Women have been treated differently since the 1800's, but a huge women's rights movement sparked the change that they needed. These women had fought long enough for the rights they deserved. Even the people that didn't have rights when this country was started, like the slaves and the immigrants, had rights before the women did. Many things changed this though. Elizabeth Cady […]

The Question of Woman’s Role in the World

The question, area unit ladies  in todays society less privileged than men or are they not?  This question stemming from the term feminism, this term has been taken out of context. The term feminism in sociology is based mostly on gender equality, " being aware of a rising movement to create people perceive that gender may be a life- organizing principle. The fundamental conviction is that men and ladies have equal opportunities and respect."(Conley, 283)  In today 's read of […]

Equal Rights, Equal Opportunities

Throughout history, women have been suppressed and rendered unequal and weaker than men. With this occurrence, many women have spoken out about why this is wrong and have fought for their rights in many ways. Judith Sargent Murray was one of these women, and as an advocate for women’s rights and an adamant, professional essayist, her work of On the Equality of the Sexes shows us what she thought on the situation and how strongly she felt about it. The […]

A Comparative Analysis of Women’s Rights in Saudi Arabia and Japan

Introduction Ever since the birth of the women’s suffrage movement, and perhaps even before that, there has been a gradual shift in culture, politics, public relations, and government paradigms that have led us down the path of women’s empowerment. Although we are not fully there, western and developed states have made significant changes to their policies and overall attitudes to make for a more egalitarian society. Naturally, the cultural paradigm of feminism would eventually take hold and trickle down to […]

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133 tip-top human rights topics to get best grades.

human rights topics

A great topic can make the essay writing process a piece of cake. Human rights is an important subject that may seem easy but is a hill climb when choosing exceptional topics. It would help if you had pertinent human rights topics that will complement your academic interests and be effortless to research and write about for your paper.

The ideal human rights topic for a high-scoring paper should tackle growing issues over a certain period and create social awareness. This article has listed out more than 100 unique human rights topics to get you started. Whether you prefer to focus on international human rights, cases of historical rights, or current events, we have you covered.

Human Rights Topics For Research Paper

  • Discuss the impact of body size on professional capability
  • Explain how social discrimination has affected patients living with HIV/AIDS.’
  • Explain why same-sex marriage is more social than religious significance
  • What are the flaws in the morals of a child raised in the U.S.?
  • Discuss the problem of employment for the native population as created by immigrants
  • Detail human rights violations in China and how it has impacted the image of the country
  • Explain the negative impact of the war against terrorism as it related to human rights
  • Break down how the international community has reacted to sweatshops in Asian countries
  • Define the responsibility to protect ad explain its relationship to the problems of human rights
  • Since when has freedom of creative expression become one of the human rights?

Top-Notch Human Rights Essay Topics

  • Outline how the international human rights law impacts USA policies
  • Explain how a company avoids doing business with countries that violate human rights
  • In what ways does business contracts that violate human rights impact a company’s reputation
  • Explain the influence of cultural relativism on human rights problems
  • Define the difference and similarities between segregation and apartheid
  • What is the contrast between slavery and serfdom concerning how they violate human rights
  • Compare and contrast between the human rights model and the freedom model

Impressive Human Rights Debate Topics

  • Explain why democracy is the best political system to protect fundamental human rights
  • Investigate the effectiveness of the European Commission of Human Rights
  • Explain whether it is possible to achieve free education for all
  • Examine whether human rights should be gender-based
  • Investigate whether human rights should be tradition specific
  • Outline how male circumcision is a violation of human rights
  • Discuss why gay marriages do not have religious significance
  • Outline the amendments to legalize gay marriages
  • Examine how immigrants create employment problems for the native population
  • Analyze how obesity impacts professional capacity

Original Topics In Human Rights

  • Discuss how to deal with bullies in school
  • Break down the impact of racial discrimination on the staff productivity
  • Outline the best ways to participate in human rights protection campaigns
  • Explain why LGBT relationships and marriages are illegal in some nations
  • Analyze how utilitarianism is an infringement of the concept of human rights
  • Investigate the factors that promote human trafficking
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  • Explain the influence of Eleanor Roosevelt in the human rights protection campaign
  • Investigate the innocence of presumption as a significant policy in the American judicial system
  • Evaluate the representation of human rights in the Enlightenment philosophy

List Of Basic Human Rights Topics

  • Discuss the violation of human rights during the Israeli-Palestinian conflict
  • Examine the violation of human rights in Crimea in 2014
  • Define human rights and explain their origin
  • Evaluate the role of World War II on human rights
  • Explain the human rights that the 1948 declaration made universal
  • Outline the purpose of the 1993’s Human Rights Act in New Zealand
  • Analyze the defining factors for human rights in Medieval Europe
  • Examine the groups of the population that had voting rights in ancient Greek Poleis
  • Highlight the implications of the Chinese Exclusion Act of 1882
  • Detail the similarities and differences between segregation and apartheid

Controversial Human Rights Topics

  • Compare and contrast civil rights and human rights
  • Evaluate the violation of human rights in Belarus
  • Explain how the international community can punish states that violate fundamental human rights
  • Analyze mechanisms of preventing police-related human rights violations
  • Examine whether prisoners should also have the right to vote or not
  • How does the installation of surveillance cameras in public places violate human rights?
  • How does the capitalistic system defend or violate human rights?
  • Explain how life imprisonment is a violation of human rights
  • What is the role of global trade in promoting labor rights
  • Discuss how immigration restrictions in the U.S. is a violation of human rights

Extended Essay Topics Human Rights

  • Analyze how social media networks guarantee the right to privacy
  • Discuss the best way to deal with body shaming problems
  • What is the role of social media in women’s empowerment?
  • Detail the history of racial discrimination in the UAE
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  • Explain why minorities should be allowed to pray at their places of work
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  • Explain the primary rights of the LGBT community in the US

List Of Human Rights Topics For College Students

  • Discuss the causes of gender-based disparity in payment in the U.S.
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  • Explain why a life imprisonment is a form of human rights violation

International Human Rights Topics

  • What are the prominent examples of civil rights abuses in indigenous people in the U.S.?
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  • Discuss your views on modern human rights and the labor movement
  • Evaluate the evolution of human rights from ancient times to the age of globalization
  • Comment on why the disability right in the United States is under attack
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  • One has the right to stay silent according to human rights. Explain how this is likely to impact an accused person

Brilliant Human Rights Essay Ideas

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  • Explain how the U.N. Refugee Programs enhances the welfare of refugees across the world

Top-Tier Human Rights Thesis Topics

  • Discuss countries with the world freedom of press records versus their records of human rights
  • Explain how the abolition of the death penalty can be considered a human rights problem
  • Discuss how the popularity of social media is impacting human rights in the conflict zones
  • What is the impact of BLM protests on racial equality in the U.S?
  • Analyze whether prisoners of war deserve human rights protection
  • Outline major human rights violations in the U.S. lately
  • Does the U.S. constitution conclusively cover the problem of equality and human rights?
  • Analyze how the globalization of the manufacturing sector has impacted the protection of human rights of manufacturing workers

Human Rights Violations Topics

  • Detail the leading human rights problems refugees face after relocating to other countries
  • Discuss parts of the world where indigenous people encounter the worst human rights violations
  • Explain the impact of poverty on human rights in developing countries
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  • Evaluate how the amendment of laws to suit gay marriages
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  • Elaborate the factors that prevent poor people from accessing better health care in underdeveloped countries

Hot Human Rights Topics List

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  • Outline the main differences in leadership between the male and female gender
  • Evaluate factors preventing equal representation of women in leadership roles

Latest Human Rights Paper Topics

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  • Discuss communism and the pursuit of political equality
  • Examine the history of the Black Panther Party for Self Defense

A+ Human Rights Research Topics

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  • Analyze racial profiling by the police
  • Investigate transgender rights in Europe
  • What is the U.S. policy on refugees?
  • Highlight problems of the orphanage children across the world
  • Discuss physical abuse in marriages in the U.S.

Advanced Human Rights Topics For Essays

  • How do the rights of pets compare to human rights
  • Discuss how to put an end to the violation of human rights by police
  • Examine the purpose and fundamental principle of the European Commission of Human Rights
  • Examine the structure of the European Commission for Human Rights
  • Analyze the violation of human rights in Taiwan
  • Examine the violation of human rights in the porn industry
  • Investigate the link between human rights and ecological problems
  • Discuss the frequently violated human rights at the workplace

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Good Research Paper About Womens Rights

Type of paper: Research Paper

Topic: United States , Students , Gender Equality , Women , Education , Feminism , Women's Rights , Culture

Words: 2000

Published: 03/03/2020

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The women’s rights movement has enjoyed a long and storied history, with women throughout global society fighting to combat the systemic oppression of the patriarchy. While women’s rights has been an issue for centuries, the movement itself came to prominence in the mid-1800s, when the Enlightenment challenged the inequalities that existed between men and women. The suffrage movement in the United States was one of the first, most highly organized women’s rights movements in the early 20th century, women fighting to receive the right to vote. Since then, more modern movements, such as the first, second and third waves of feminism have come forth, as well as the “women’s liberation” movement of the 1960s, to ensure that women had property rights, more equitable working conditions and job variety, and gain more prominent positions in political and economic institutions throughout the world. More fundamental than simple rights and privileges, however, is the women’s rights movement’s desire to eliminate the social conditions that facilitate such systemic inequality between men and women – many writers, including Gloria Steinem and Amy Cunningham, have addressed and explored these issues in their works. Learning the essential history of the women’s rights movement is very important, and Jennifer Joline Anderson’s Women’s Rights Movement is a comprehensive look at the movement’s history, goals, and changing priorities. Anderson’s decades-long, century-spanning view of women’s rights treats it not just as a single movement, but a series of movements that have shifted and changed as the years and victories progressed. Starting with Lucretia Mott and Elizabeth Cady Stanton’s women’s rights convention and moving all the way to the women of today in post-wave feminism, Anderson sees all of these different movements as accompanying stages in the same basic push for rights. In every single chapter, Anderson attempts to understand the specific grievances each new generation of women had, from suffrage to medical and property rights, and even equality in the workplace. With each new victory, a new problem came along that needed to be solved, and so a new group of women had to take it on in an innovative and radical new way. No judgments are made on the movements themselves; Anderson’s objectivity is a highlight of the book, simply documenting an on-the-ground perspective of the fight for women’s rights throughout its entire history. Anderson’s book is unambiguously positive toward the movement – “Thanks to the women’s movement, American women today enjoy freedoms women only dreamed of in 1848” (Anderson 88). However, the reasoning behind this enthusiasm is evident from the documenting of the hard work heroes of the movement went through for these victories. While having a rote understanding of the history of the women’s rights movement is important, it is also necessary to understand the nature of intersectionalism – that is, the confluence of rights issues that often run perpendicular to each other. In Amenga-Etego’s “Categorization of Women and Human Rights Issues,” the linking of differing definitions of what it means to be a ‘woman’ depending on the culture and norms is explored. Starting with a questioning of the definition of ‘woman’ as it is thought to be in contemporary Africa, the author notes that certain specific cultural attitudes toward women make the priorities of women’s and human rights groups different depending on where they are. In Africa, for example, the different categorizations of women depending on whether or not they are married, what age they are, etc. create a whole new set of problems that cannot be solved or addressed with American-style feminism. Things like race, class, economics and more all play into the specific injustices and struggles women of other regions must go through; this is where intersectionalism comes in. Amenga-Etego’s perspective is that, until we learn to really understand the unique issues present in each group of women around the world, we cannot place a very specific definition on ‘women’s rights’ as a blanket term. Some women, after all, have more rights than others, thus making their goals different. In Amy Cunningham’s essay “Why Women Smile,” the author approaches women’s rights from an everyday perspective. Her thesis is that, essentially, women are trapped and restricted by the incredible pressure and intimidation placed on them by men to be demure, nice, ‘feminine,’ and servile. This is often illustrated through her perpetual compulsion to smile – women are encouraged to smile and be happy, but instead of making her more approachable it also makes people take her less seriously. In essence, the cultural expectation of women to be ‘nice’ also robs them of the same kind of power as men. Men, meanwhile, are allowed to not smile or be friendly and still be respected as people – it is seen as a show of masculinity, enforcing traditional gender norms of men being aggressive and women being demure. It is a double standard that still holds women back in a less overt way than pay gaps and the like: “Despite all the work we American women have done to get and maintain full legal control of our bodies, not to mention our destinies, we still don’t seem to be fully in charge of a couple of small muscle groups in our faces” (Cunningham 190). A smile is almost required of a women in order to be listened to; a woman who does not smile is seen as a ‘bitch,’ or ‘frigid’, or someone who is too intimidating to relate to. Therefore, women are culturally trained to smile in order to get the positive treatment that they deserve. The cultural pressure to smile is one of the most covert methods of oppression levied against women, according to Cunningham. The expectation of women to be always smiling is stifling, showing an authority over her body that is not necessarily warranted. This is meant to ensure that the woman knows her place and is placated: “Evidently, a woman’s happy, willing deference is something the world wants visibly demonstrated” (Cunningham 191). When a woman is smiling, she is non-threatening, and the last thing men want women to be is a threat – to their power, to their manhood, and to their privilege. Cunningham’s approach to women’s rights focuses on this very subtle social pressure which is much more important than people normally realize. Meanwhile, Gloria Steinem’s approach in “The Good News Is: These Are Not the Best Years of Your Life” deals with the social pressures women face in college. Steinem explores the fundamentally male-dominated culture of college, and how the potential for activism and progressivism is often stifled in the name of following along with what cultural norms of college life tell you to do. The focus on career-building and education in a college leads to women facing guilt over the socially-instituted concepts of a work/life balance, and the default configuration of woman as mother. The insane pressure to study hard, play hard, sleep around and network for a job after college is hard for both sexes, but especially so for women – if you don’t do all of these things at once, “we feel inadequate, as if each of us were individually at fault for a problem that is actually culture-wide” (Steinem 216). This leads to a decided lack of female activism on campus, as radicalism starts to form in later years once you have it all figured out. One of Steinem’s most important points made is illustrating the problems surrounding the cultural ideas about college as a time to rebel and be free. When women don’t do that, they feel guilty; the reality, however, is that women do not feel free to actually have that level of youthful fun, as the “power and security” that men enjoy is what allows them to make mistakes when young, and only later take themselves seriously (Steinem 216). Women who want to be taken seriously must do so all the time, and so are not allowed that luxury, creating a college culture that is oppressive and contradictory from a gender standpoint. Steinem rejects the notion of getting your radical years out of the way in college, like a phase you enter and exit in order to settle on patriarchal notions of a fulfilling life. Steinem says that women “should know that they, too, may grow more radical with age” (218). Political activity is said to be comforting to young women, as it allows them to be politically active without an actual effect on how they live their lives – however, it does not really lead to significant change, and if anything is somewhat of a vanity project. Steinem believes the real activism comes after campus. Yet more recent perspectives on women’s rights deal with the relative lack of progress that we have accomplished in the decades since the subject has achieved national prominence and discussion. Lisa Baldez’s op-ed piece “US Drops the Ball on Women’s Rights,” the author notes that the United States is falling depressingly behind on women’s rights legislation, including the Convention to Eliminate All Forms of Discrimination Against Women (CEDAW), a UN act that the US refuses to sign. For 25 years, this important piece of legislation (which makes it a crime to discriminate against or assault women in any way) has yet to be ratified by the US. Excuses given by opposing parties involve protecting American sovereignty; in essence, they do not want global legislation to have to apply to the United States and its policies. Furthermore, Baldez points out the foolishness of the pervading thought that America is one of the leaders in women’s rights – their recent cowardice, which Baldez attributes to Republican fears of seeming too ‘feminist’ and ‘radical,’ has led to decidedly little progress on the realm of women’s rights in recent years. While it is easy to see that other countries have worse violations against women on a systemic basis, Baldez thinks that our lack of resolve in paving the way for global women’s rights activism makes us weaker as a result. Her proposal is simple: “I would like to see my country once again assert global leadership on women's rights” (Baldez, 2013). Baldez’s perspective is a global one; instead of dealing strictly with systemic problems in America’s treatment of women, she chooses to discuss the ways in which American sexism (or lack of progressiveness) affects women around the globe. When looking at all of these perspectives on feminins, all of these authors have very salient points, and come across a few measures of similarity. One recurring theme is the need to react to people’s reactions to feminism – the word has taken on many different meanings since the inception of the women’s rights movement, as some associate it with a dangerous, militant brand of feminism that wishes to simply replace men with women as the dominant force in politics and society. This leads to a certain reticence to engage in feminism, as Steinem notes when she talks about how college-age women don’t think they have the time for feminism, or Baldez’s note that Republicans are afraid of CEDAW because they link it with radical feminism (when it is actually just a reasonable measure meant to discourage violence against women). This is likely the biggest barrier in women’s rights – potential allies being afraid to act or take the movement seriously because of the more pernicious stereotypes around feminism as a whole. The term itself has been vilified to the point where even people working for women’s rights do not want to be seen as a ‘feminist.’ However, as long as we keep intersectionalism and cultural pluralism in mind, encourage legislators to act on global legislation, tell women it is okay for them not to smile and that feminism can come later in life, we will make great steps toward continuing the movement’s momentum.

Works Cited

Amenga-Etego, Rose M. "Categorization of Women and Human Rights Issues." Cross Currents (2013): 63, (2), 138-47.Anderson, Jennifer Joline. Women's Rights Movement. Minnesota: ABDO, 2014.Baldez, Lisa. "U.S. drops the ball on women's rights." CNN (2013). Cunningham, Amy. "Why Women Smile." Lear's Magazine 1993: 189-194.Steinem, Gloria. "The Good News: These Are Not the Best Years of Your Life." Feminist Magazine 1971: 214-8.

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Women's Rights

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  • Women's Rights to Their Bodies

Women's Rights to Their Bodies - Research Paper Example

Womens Rights to Their Bodies

  • Subject: Social science
  • Type: Research Paper
  • Level: High School
  • Pages: 7 (1750 words)
  • Downloads: 4
  • Author: morargarrick

Extract of sample "Women's Rights to Their Bodies"

Krieger postulates the fact that the history of women's fight for the right to their bodies runs back to the 1970s. This began when women established movements geared towards the protection of their rights to "access safe, legal abortion and contraception in North America and Europe and soon afterward Latin America and the Caribbean, Asia, and Africa" (p. 726). During this period, women fought for their right to make their own decisions in regard to what point in their lives to have children, as well as the method or technique to be used when giving birth not considering their ethnic background, age, abilities, and also their social and economic status. Women's rights to their bodies became an issue when countries all over the world started creating and implementing plans of action aimed towards denying women their rights. For instance, this became an issue in India when the government enforced rules that required women to undergo sterilization and also insert hormonal implants in their bodies. Similarly, women's rights to their bodies became an issue in the Philippines and South American countries as a result of imposed strategies supported by the religious organizations disallowing or making illegal birth control methods and termination of pregnancies. In some African countries such as Egypt and Nigeria, women's rights to their bodies became an issue based on the government's disregard for dangerous and harmful cultural practices such as female circumcision (Krieger 726). Women felt that the There are a number of people involved in the protection of human rights to their bodies. Medical practitioners are directly involved in this issue. In order to understand and as well comprehend the parameters is associated with women's rights to their bodies, it is imperative to elucidate the concept of informed consent. Certain medical operations such as abortions and female genital mutilations have immediate and long-lasting implications on the lives of women. Subsequently, there are many birth control methods that are used in family planning in the contemporary world. Medical codes of ethics require medical practitioners to inform patients on the implications, benefits, and alternatives to all medical operations and modes of treatment to patients in order to equip them with the knowledge that they can use to make informed choices. There are communities where female genital mutilation is a cultural norm and hence it is the role of medical practitioners to discuss both ethical and legal implications of such dehumanizing practices. Other professionals involved in this issue include social workers, and trained counselors (Carlstedt 17).     

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Reformulating Index Insurance to Protect Women’s Assets and Well-being: Evidence from Pastoralist Communities in Kenya

The novel insurance contracts for crop losses and livestock mortality that have been developed in low income countries typically protect against shocks in the male sphere of economic activity. Often overlooked are women, the particularities of their indirect exposure to this risk, and their socially constructed responsibility to manage family well-being. To fill this lacuna, this paper studies the effect of a low-cost intervention that reformulates a livestock insurance contract so that it directly addresses women's risk and is sold in units that are commensurate with women's expenditure responsibilities. We measure the effect of this contractual reformulation using a randomized trial amongst pastoralist communities in Kenya. Twenty-four percent of previously subsidized households that received the novel contractual formulation purchased insurance (without subsidy), compared to only 13% of previously subsidized households offered insurance under the standard male-risk formulation. Households that had not received prior insurance subsidies purchased no insurance, irrespective of the framing. Protecting women, their assets and those who depend on them will require a combination of smart subsidies and gender-intentional insurance contract design.

This study was generously supported by the Women’s Economic Empowerment and Digital Financial Inclusion Research Initiative of the BRAC Institute of Governance and Development. Additional support was provided by the United States Agency for International Development Cooperative Agreement No. AID-OAA-L-12-00001 with the BASIS Feed the Future Innovation Lab. The views expressed herein are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of the National Bureau of Economic Research.

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Home > Topics > Yamamura and Miyagawa Lab's research paper chosen as the Front Cover Art for New Journal of Chemistry, a journal of the Royal Society of Chemistry

Yamamura and Miyagawa Lab's research paper chosen as the Front Cover Art for New Journal of Chemistry, a journal of the Royal Society of Chemistry

Category:News|Publishing : September 5, 2023

The research paper of the Yamamura and Miyagawa Lab, which was published in the scientific journal New Journal of Chemistry of the Royal Society of Chemistry (RSC), was highly evaluated and chosen as the Front Cover Art (Issue 23, June 21, 2023). The title of the paper is "Anti-bacterial β-cyclodextrin derivatives inspired by the anti-microbial peptide polymyxin in order to better understand the role of single hydrophobic chain tail in selective anti-bacterial activity." This is the result of joint research by Professor Hatsuo Yamamura (Department of Engineering (Life Science and Applied Chemistry)) and Associate Professor Atsushi Miyagawa (Department of Engineering (Life Science and Applied Chemistry)), Mr. Masashi Owaki, Ms. Kana Isshiki, and Ms. Yukari Ishihara(students of the Master's Course, at the time of research) as well as faculty members of Shujitsu University and Kobe Tokiwa University.

Professor Yamamura and Associate Professor Miyagawa have been working on research on antibacterial substances that fight pathogenic bacteria. The research demonstrated that properties enabling the elimination of bacteria without harming red blood cells can be provided to cyclic oligosaccharides cyclodextrins by adding a membrane-disrupting ability which affects the bacterial membrane, based on imitation of colistin, an antimicrobial peptide used for treatment of infectious deceases. The oligosaccharides also proved effective against multidrug-resistant pathogens, which are considered to be hazardous by the World Health Organization (WHO), and are expected to be useful for the development of novel drugs to treat infectious diseases.

Front Cover Art 山村.jpg

Scientific journal New Journal of Chemistry :「 Anti-bacterial β-cyclodextrin derivatives inspired by the anti-microbial peptide polymyxin in order to better understand the role of single hydrophobic chain tail in selective anti-bacterial activity 」

Yamamura・Miyagawa Lab.

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Smart pill can track key biological markers in real-time

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Qijun Liu, Maria Eugenia Inda, and Miguel Jimenez, all in lab coats and nitrile gloves, pose with prototypes of a pill-like capsule and a glass vial with yellow liquid

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Researchers from MIT, Boston University, and elsewhere report a smart pill the size of a blueberry that could be a game changer in the diagnosis and treatment of bowel diseases. That’s because it is the first technology compatible with ingestion that can automatically detect — and report on in real time — key biological molecules that could be indicative of a problem.

The work appears in the Aug. 10 issue of the journal Nature . Other authors of the paper are researchers at Brigham and Women’s Hospital in Boston, the University of Chicago, and Analog Devices.

The new study significantly advances earlier research reported in a 2018 issue of Science . The current pill is approximately one-sixth the size of the prototype reported in Science, conforming to safe, ingestible dosage forms on the market. It has also been designed to detect key biological molecules, such as nitric oxide and byproducts of hydrogen sulfide, which are important signals and mediators of the inflammation associated with bowel diseases.

Current techniques for diagnosing diseases inside the gut can be invasive (think of a colonoscopy or other endoscopic procedure), and can’t detect molecular biomarkers of disease in real-time. The latter is a problem because several important biomarkers are very short-lived, so they disappear before current techniques can detect them.

The new pill, which has been successfully tested in pigs, combines specially engineered living bacteria with electronics and a tiny battery. When the bacteria sense a molecule of interest, they produce light (the bacteria by themselves have also been successfully tested outside of animals and in mice). The pill electronics then convert that light into a wireless signal that can be transmitted through the body to a smartphone or other computer in real time as the pill travels through the gut.

“The inner workings of the human gut are still one of the final frontiers of science. Our new pill could unlock a wealth of information about the body’s function, its relationship with the environment, and the impact of disease and therapeutic interventions,” says Timothy Lu, an MIT associate professor of biological engineering and of electrical engineering and computer science. Lu, who is also affiliated with MIT’s Materials Research Laboratory and Senti Biosciences, is a senior author of the work described in Nature .

Potential impact

Roughly 7 million people around the world suffer from inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs) like colitis or Crohn’s disease.

“One of the most challenging aspects of monitoring IBDs is the anticipation of clinical flares that often happen in these patients and that dictate pharmacological management of their diseases. At the moment we have no robust biomarkers that predict an upcoming inflammatory flare and, therefore, patients often experience severe symptoms that require hospitalization to be properly managed,” says Alessio Fassano, a professor at the Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health, who was not involved in the research. “This system may represent a game changer in the management of IBDs in terms of early diagnosis, interception of disease flareups, and optimization of a therapeutic plan.”

In their study, the researchers showed that the smart pill could detect nitric oxide, a short-lived molecule that is associated with many IBDs. Importantly, the sensors could also detect different concentrations of nitric oxide. “That will allow us to differentiate between a normal situation and disease,” says Maria Eugenia Inda, a Pew Postdoctoral Fellow in MIT’s Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS) and Department of Biological Engineering (BE). It’s also important because biomarker levels vary greatly among patients.

Understanding the gut

The team says the pill could be tweaked to detect other key biomarkers. As a result, Inda is also excited about the potential for the system to give scientists a much better understanding of the gut microbiome, or the delicate environment that harbors the microbes key to digesting food.

Currently, the gut is like a black box. “We still don’t fully understand it because it’s difficult to access and study. We lack the tools to explore it,” she says. “Knowing more about the gut chemical environment could help us prevent disease by identifying factors that cause inflammation before the inflammation takes over.”

Beyond the gut, the team’s combination of microbes and electronics could have broad use for health monitoring. “We played to the strengths of the biology and the electronics — our tiny pill shows what is possible when we can bridge bacterial sensing with wireless communication,” says Miguel Jimenez, a research scientist in MIT’s Department of Mechanical Engineering (MechE). Inda and Jimenez are co-first authors of the paper.

“Through this development we describe a unique platform for the evaluation of the GI tract which we anticipate can help many,” says Giovanni Traverso, an associate professor in MechE, a gastroenterologist at Brigham and Women’s Hospital, and one of the senior authors of the study.

A fantastic voyage

Inda compared the research to “Fantastic Voyage,” a 1966 film about four scientists who shrink themselves to fit into a tiny submarine that travels through the arteries of a sick man to treat a problem in his brain. “We scientists can’t do that,” she says with a smile, “but now we can send bacteria to do something similar. Rapid advances in synthetic biology are allowing us to harness the information-processing abilities of living cells to diagnose disease in such difficult-to-access environments.”

Inda, Jimenez, Traverso, and Lu’s coauthors of the Nature paper are Christoph Steiger, Alison Hayward, Adam Wentworth, and Wiam Madani of MechE, MIT’s Koch Institute for Integrative Cancer Research, and Brigham and Women’s Hospital (BWH); Nhi Phan and Jenna Ahn of the Koch Institute; Qijun Liu (who is also first author of a 2022 paper on the electronics), Arslan Riaz, Timur Zirtiloglu, and Rabia Yazicigil of Boston University Electrical and Computer Engineering Department; Kaitlyn Wong and Ronan McNally of BWH; Keiko Ishida of the Koch Institute and BWH; Niora Fabian of MechE, the Koch Institute, and MIT’s Division of Comparative Medicine (DCM); Josh Jenkins and Johannes Kuosmanen of MechE and the Koch Institute; Yong Lai of BE and EECS; Alison Hayward of MechE, the Koch Institute, BWH, and DCM; Mark Mimee of the University of Chicago; Phillip Nadeau of Analog Devices; and MIT Dean of Engineering Anantha Chandrakasan, a professor of EECS.

This work was supported by the Leona M. and Harry B. Helmsley Charitable Trust, the Pew Charitable Trusts, the Translational Research Institute of Space Health, the MIT Department of Mechanical Engineering, the MIT Karl van Tassel (1925) Career Development Professorship, and the Catalyst Foundation.

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