Generate accurate APA citations for free
- Knowledge Base
- APA Style 7th edition
- How to create an APA Style appendix
How to Create an APA Style Appendix | Format & Examples
Published on October 16, 2020 by Jack Caulfield . Revised on August 9, 2022.
An appendix is a section at the end of an academic text where you include extra information that doesn’t fit into the main text. The plural of appendix is “appendices.”
In an APA Style paper, appendices are placed at the very end, after the reference list .
Instantly correct all language mistakes in your text
Be assured that you'll submit flawless writing. Upload your document to correct all your mistakes.
Table of contents
Do i need an appendix, appendix format example, organizing and labeling your appendices, frequently asked questions.
You don’t always need to include any appendices. An appendix should present information that supplements the reader’s understanding of your research but is not essential to the argument of your paper . Essential information is included in the main text.
For example, you might include some of the following in an appendix:
- Full transcripts of interviews you conducted (which you can quote from in the main text)
- Documents used in your research, such as questionnaires , instructions, tests, or scales
- Detailed statistical data (often presented in tables or figures )
- Detailed descriptions of equipment used
You should refer to each appendix at least once in the main text. If you don’t refer to any information from an appendix, it should not be included.
When you discuss information that can be found in an appendix, state this the first time you refer to it:
Note that, if you refer to the same interviews again, it’s not necessary to mention the appendix each time.
Are your APA in-text citations flawless?
The AI-powered APA Citation Checker points out every error, tells you exactly what’s wrong, and explains how to fix it. Say goodbye to losing marks on your assignment!
The appendix label appears at the top of the page, bold and centered. On the next line, include a descriptive title, also bold and centered.
The text is presented in general APA format : left-aligned, double-spaced, and with page numbers in the top right corner. Start a new page for each new appendix.
The example image below shows how to format an APA Style appendix.
If you include just one appendix, it is simply called “Appendix” and referred to as such in-text:
When more than one appendix is included, they are labeled “Appendix A,” “Appendix B,” and so on.
Present and label your appendices in the order they are referred to in the main text.
Labeling tables and figures in appendices
An appendix may include (or consist entirely of) tables and/or figures . Present these according to the same formatting rules as in the main text.
Tables and figures included in appendices are labeled differently, however. Use the appendix’s letter in addition to a number. Tables and figures are still numbered separately and according to the order they’re referred to in the appendix.
For example, in Appendix A, your tables are Table A1, Table A2, etc; your figures are Figure A1, Figure A2, etc.
The numbering restarts with each appendix: For example, the first table in Appendix B is Table B1; the first figure in Appendix C is Figure C1; and so on. If you only have one appendix, use A1, A2, etc.
If you want to refer specifically to a table or figure from an appendix in the main text, use the table or figure’s label (e.g. “see Table A3”).
If an appendix consists entirely of a single table or figure, simply use the appendix label to refer to the table or figure. For example, if Appendix C is just a table, refer to the table as “Appendix C,” and don’t add an additional label or title for the table itself.
An appendix contains information that supplements the reader’s understanding of your research but is not essential to it. For example:
- Interview transcripts
- Detailed descriptions of equipment
Something is only worth including as an appendix if you refer to information from it at some point in the text (e.g. quoting from an interview transcript). If you don’t, it should probably be removed.
Appendices in an APA Style paper appear right at the end, after the reference list and after your tables and figures if you’ve also included these at the end.
When you include more than one appendix in an APA Style paper , they should be labeled “Appendix A,” “Appendix B,” and so on.
When you only include a single appendix, it is simply called “Appendix” and referred to as such in the main text.
Yes, if relevant you can and should include APA in-text citations in your appendices . Use author-date citations as you do in the main text.
Any sources cited in your appendices should appear in your reference list . Do not create a separate reference list for your appendices.
Cite this Scribbr article
If you want to cite this source, you can copy and paste the citation or click the “Cite this Scribbr article” button to automatically add the citation to our free Citation Generator.
Caulfield, J. (2022, August 09). How to Create an APA Style Appendix | Format & Examples. Scribbr. Retrieved February 16, 2024, from https://www.scribbr.com/apa-style/appendices/
Is this article helpful?
Other students also liked, creating an apa style table of contents, how to format tables and figures in apa style, apa format for academic papers and essays, scribbr apa citation checker.
An innovative new tool that checks your APA citations with AI software. Say goodbye to inaccurate citations!
Home » Appendix in Research Paper – Examples and Writing Guide
Appendix in Research Paper – Examples and Writing Guide
Table of Contents
Appendix in Research Paper
Appendix in a research paper is a section located at the end of the document that contains supplementary material that is not essential to the main body of the research paper but is helpful to the reader in understanding the research study.
This supplementary material can include raw data, statistical analyses, graphs, charts, questionnaires , maps, and other supporting documents or evidence that are referred to in the main body of the paper or that are necessary for the reader to have a complete understanding of the research study.
How to Write Appendix in Research Paper
Here are the steps on how to write an appendix in a research paper:
- Determine what material you need to include in the appendix. This can include charts, graphs, images, tables, raw data, survey questionnaires, and any other material that supports your research but is not included in the main body of the paper.
- Organize the material in a logical and coherent manner . If you have multiple items to include, it is helpful to number them or use lettered headings (e.g., Appendix A, Appendix B) to make it easier for readers to find specific information.
- Title the appendix section appropriately. The title should reflect the content of the appendix and be descriptive enough for readers to understand what is included.
- If necessary, provide a brief introduction or explanation for the material in the appendix. This can help readers understand why the information is relevant to your research.
- Place the appendix section after the main body of the paper and before the reference section.
- Make sure to refer to the appendix in the main body of the paper . This can be done by including a parenthetical reference (e.g., see Appendix A) or by including a reference in the text (e.g., refer to Table 1 in Appendix A).
- Ensure that the formatting of the appendix is consistent with the rest of the paper, including font size and style, margins, and spacing.
- If you have multiple appendices, provide a table of contents at the beginning of the appendix section to make it easier for readers to navigate.
Types of Appendix in Research Paper
In a research paper, there are two types of appendix:
This type of appendix includes additional information that supports the main content of the research paper, but which is not essential to understanding the main argument. Supplementary material may include graphs, tables, figures, or lengthy data sets.
This type of appendix includes raw data that has been collected for the research study. It provides readers with the opportunity to analyze and verify the data used in the research paper. Raw data can be presented in various formats such as spreadsheets, tables, and graphs.
Example of Appendix in Research Paper
Here’s an example of an appendix for a research paper on the topic of “The Effects of Exercise on Mental Health”:
Appendix A: Survey Questionnaire
This questionnaire was administered to participants in the study “The Effects of Exercise on Mental Health.”
Section 1: Demographic Information
- Age: __________
- Gender: __________
- Ethnicity: __________
- Education level: __________
- Employment status: __________
- Annual income: __________
Section 2: Exercise Habits
- How often do you exercise? __________
- What type(s) of exercise do you engage in? __________
- How long do you typically exercise for? __________
Section 3: Mental Health
- Have you ever been diagnosed with a mental health disorder? __________
- Have you ever sought treatment for a mental health disorder? __________
- How often do you experience symptoms of depression? __________
- How often do you experience symptoms of anxiety? __________
Section 4: Additional Information
- Is there anything else you would like to share about your exercise habits or mental health?
Appendix B: Consent Form
This form was used to obtain informed consent from participants in the study “The Effects of Exercise on Mental Health.”
Title : Informed Consent Form
Study Title : The Effects of Exercise on Mental Health
You are being asked to participate in a research study conducted by [Researcher’s Name] at [Institution Name]. The purpose of this study is to examine the relationship between exercise and mental health.
You will be asked to complete a survey questionnaire about your exercise habits and mental health. The questionnaire will take approximately 15-20 minutes to complete.
Risks and Benefits:
There are no known risks associated with participation in this study. However, there may be benefits to participating, such as increased awareness of the relationship between exercise and mental health.
Your responses will be kept confidential and anonymous. Your data will be stored securely and will only be accessible to the research team.
Participation in this study is voluntary. You may choose not to participate or to withdraw from the study at any time without penalty.
If you have any questions or concerns about this study, please contact [Researcher’s Name] at [Researcher’s Email Address].
By signing below, I acknowledge that I have read and understand the above information and voluntarily agree to participate in this study.
Signature: __________ Date: __________
Purpose of Appendix in Research Paper
- Supplementary Data: The appendix can be used to include additional data that is relevant to the research but is too extensive or detailed to be included in the main text. This can include tables, graphs, and other types of data that support the research findings.
- Methodological Details: Researchers may include detailed descriptions of their research methods in the appendix to provide additional information for readers who are interested in the research process. This can include descriptions of data collection procedures, sampling techniques, and statistical analyses.
- Supporting Documents : The appendix can be used to include supporting documents, such as survey instruments, interview protocols, or consent forms that were used during the research process.
- Technical Details: In some cases, the appendix may be used to include technical details that are necessary to understand the research findings. For example, researchers may include information on the algorithms used to analyze data or the specific equipment used in the study.
- Additional Resources : Finally, the appendix can be used to provide readers with additional resources, such as a bibliography of relevant literature or a list of websites that provide additional information on the research topic.
- Verification of Results : The appendix can be used to provide readers with additional information that verifies the accuracy of the research findings. For example, researchers may include a list of all the data sources used in the study or copies of original documents that were analyzed.
- Replication: Researchers may also use the appendix to provide detailed instructions on how to replicate the study, which can be particularly helpful for other researchers who are interested in building upon the findings.
- Ethics and Legal Compliance: In some cases, researchers may include information on ethical and legal compliance in the appendix. This can include documentation of the institutional review board (IRB) approval process, copies of consent forms, or other relevant legal or ethical documentation.
When to Write Appendix in Research Paper
You should include an appendix in your research paper if:
- Your research paper is long and includes a lot of supporting material: If your paper includes a lot of data, tables, or other supplementary material, it may be helpful to include an appendix to keep the main text focused and easy to read.
- You want to provide additional information that supports your research: If you have data or information that supports your research but is not essential to the main text, you can include it in an appendix.
- You want to provide technical details: If your research involves technical details that may not be of interest to all readers, you can include them in an appendix.
Advantages of Appendix in Research Paper
The appendix in a research paper can provide several advantages, including:
- Supplemental information : The appendix allows you to include additional information that is relevant to your research but may not be necessary to include in the main body of your paper. This can include data tables, graphs, diagrams, questionnaires, or any other material that supports your research.
- Organization: Including supplementary material in the appendix can help you to keep the main body of your paper focused and organized. It allows you to present all the relevant information without cluttering the main text.
- Transparency: The appendix can help to improve the transparency of your research by allowing readers to see the raw data that supports your conclusions. This can help to build trust and credibility with your audience.
- Avoiding repetition : Including detailed information in the appendix can help you to avoid repeating the same information in the main body of your paper. This can help to keep your paper concise and focused.
- Accessibility: The appendix can also provide a place to include information that might be useful for readers who want to delve deeper into the subject matter. This can include technical details, background information, or additional references.
About the author
Researcher, Academic Writer, Web developer
You may also like
Research Paper Conclusion – Writing Guide and...
Appendices – Writing Guide, Types and Examples
Research Report – Example, Writing Guide and...
Delimitations in Research – Types, Examples and...
Scope of the Research – Writing Guide and...
Research Contribution – Thesis Guide
- USC Libraries
- Research Guides
Organizing Your Social Sciences Research Paper
- Purpose of Guide
- Design Flaws to Avoid
- Independent and Dependent Variables
- Glossary of Research Terms
- Reading Research Effectively
- Narrowing a Topic Idea
- Broadening a Topic Idea
- Extending the Timeliness of a Topic Idea
- Academic Writing Style
- Choosing a Title
- Making an Outline
- Paragraph Development
- Research Process Video Series
- Executive Summary
- The C.A.R.S. Model
- Background Information
- The Research Problem/Question
- Theoretical Framework
- Citation Tracking
- Content Alert Services
- Evaluating Sources
- Primary Sources
- Secondary Sources
- Tiertiary Sources
- Scholarly vs. Popular Publications
- Qualitative Methods
- Quantitative Methods
- Using Non-Textual Elements
- Limitations of the Study
- Common Grammar Mistakes
- Writing Concisely
- Avoiding Plagiarism
- Footnotes or Endnotes?
- Further Readings
- Generative AI and Writing
- USC Libraries Tutorials and Other Guides
An appendix contains supplementary material that is not an essential part of the text itself but which may be helpful in providing a more comprehensive understanding of the research problem or it is information that is too cumbersome to be included in the body of the paper. A separate appendix should be used for each distinct topic or set of data and always have a title descriptive of its contents.
Tables, Appendices, Footnotes and Endnotes. The Writing Lab and The OWL. Purdue University.
Appendices are always supplementary to the research paper. As such, your study must be able to stand alone without the appendices, and the paper must contain all information including tables, diagrams, and results necessary to understand the research problem. The key point to remember when including an appendix or appendices is that the information is non-essential; if it were removed, the reader would still be able to comprehend the significance, validity , and implications of your research.
It is appropriate to include appendices for the following reasons:
- Including this material in the body of the paper that would render it poorly structured or interrupt the narrative flow;
- Information is too lengthy and detailed to be easily summarized in the body of the paper;
- Inclusion of helpful, supporting, or useful material would otherwise distract the reader from the main content of the paper;
- Provides relevant information or data that is more easily understood or analyzed in a self-contained section of the paper;
- Can be used when there are constraints placed on the length of your paper; and,
- Provides a place to further demonstrate your understanding of the research problem by giving additional details about a new or innovative method, technical details, or design protocols.
Appendices. Academic Skills Office, University of New England; Chapter 12, "Use of Appendices." In Guide to Effective Grant Writing: How to Write a Successful NIH Grant . Otto O. Yang. (New York: Kluwer Academic, 2005), pp. 55-57; Tables, Appendices, Footnotes and Endnotes. The Writing Lab and The OWL. Purdue University.
Structure and Writing Style
I. General Points to Consider
When considering whether to include content in an appendix, keep in mind the following:
- It is usually good practice to include your raw data in an appendix, laying it out in a clear format so the reader can re-check your results. Another option if you have a large amount of raw data is to consider placing it online [e.g., on a Google drive] and note that this is the appendix to your research paper.
- Any tables and figures included in the appendix should be numbered as a separate sequence from the main paper . Remember that appendices contain non-essential information that, if removed, would not diminish a reader's ability to understand the research problem being investigated. This is why non-textual elements should not carry over the sequential numbering of non-textual elements in the body of your paper.
- If you have more than three appendices, consider listing them on a separate page in the table of contents . This will help the reader know what information is included in the appendices. Note that some works list appendices in the table of contents before the first chapter while other styles list the appendices after the conclusion but before your references. Consult with your professor to confirm if there is a preferred approach.
- The appendix can be a good place to put maps, photographs, diagrams, and other images , if you feel that it will help the reader to understand the content of your paper, while keeping in mind the study should be understood without them.
- An appendix should be streamlined and not loaded with a lot information . If you have a very long and complex appendix, it is a good idea to break it down into separate appendices, allowing the reader to find relevant information quickly as the information is covered in the body of the paper.
Never include an appendix that isn’t referred to in the text . All appendices should be summarized in your paper where it is relevant to the content. Appendices should also be arranged sequentially by the order they were first referenced in the text [i.e., Appendix 1 should not refer to text on page eight of your paper and Appendix 2 relate to text on page six].
There are very few rules regarding what type of material can be included in an appendix, but here are some common examples:
- Correspondence -- if your research included collaborations with others or outreach to others, then correspondence in the form of letters, memorandums, or copies of emails from those you interacted with could be included.
- Interview Transcripts -- in qualitative research, interviewing respondents is often used to gather information. The full transcript from an interview is important so the reader can read the entire dialog between researcher and respondent. The interview protocol [list of questions] should also be included.
- Non-textual elements -- as noted above, if there are a lot of non-textual items, such as, figures, tables, maps, charts, photographs, drawings, or graphs, think about highlighting examples in the text of the paper but include the remainder in an appendix.
- Questionnaires or surveys -- this is a common form of data gathering. Always include the survey instrument or questionnaires in an appendix so the reader understands not only the questions asked but the sequence in which they were asked. Include all variations of the instruments as well if different items were sent to different groups [e.g., those given to teachers and those given to administrators] .
- Raw statistical data – this can include any numerical data that is too lengthy to include in charts or tables in its entirety within the text. This is important because the entire source of data should be included even if you are referring to only certain parts of a chart or table in the text of your paper.
- Research instruments -- if you used a camera, or a recorder, or some other device to gather information and it is important for the reader to understand how, when, and/or where that device was used.
- Sample calculations – this can include quantitative research formulas or detailed descriptions of how calculations were used to determine relationships and significance.
NOTE: Appendices should not be a dumping ground for information. Do not include vague or irrelevant information in an appendix; this additional information will not help the reader’s overall understanding and interpretation of your research and may only distract the reader from understanding the significance of your overall study.
ANOTHER NOTE : Appendices are intended to provide supplementary information that you have gathered or created; it is not intended to replicate or provide a copy of the work of others. For example, if you need to contrast the techniques of analysis used by other authors with your own method of analysis, summarize that information, and cite to the original work. In this case, a citation to the original work is sufficient enough to lead the reader to where you got the information. You do not need to provide a copy of this in an appendix.
Here are some general guideline on how to format appendices . If needed, consult the writing style guide [e.g., APA, MLS, Chicago] your professor wants you to use for more detail:
- Appendices may precede or follow your list of references.
- Each appendix begins on a new page.
- The order they are presented is dictated by the order they are mentioned in the text of your research paper.
- The heading should be "Appendix," followed by a letter or number [e.g., "Appendix A" or "Appendix 1"], centered and written in bold type.
- If there is a table of contents, the appendices must be listed.
- The page number(s) of the appendix/appendices will continue on with the numbering from the last page of the text.
Appendices. The Structure, Format, Content, and Style of a Journal-Style Scientific Paper. Department of Biology. Bates College; Appendices. Academic Skills Office, University of New England; Appendices. Writing Center, Walden University; Chapter 12, "Use of Appendices." In Guide to Effective Grant Writing: How to Write a Successful NIH Grant . Otto O. Yang. (New York: Kluwer Academic, 2005), pp. 55-57 ; Tables, Appendices, Footnotes and Endnotes. The Writing Lab and The OWL. Purdue University; Lunsford, Andrea A. and Robert Connors. The St. Martin's Handbook . New York: St. Martin's Press, 1989; What To Know About The Purpose And Format Of A Research Paper Appendix. LoyolaCollegeCulion.com.
Consider Putting Your Appendices Online
Appendices are useful because they provide the reader with information that supports your study without breaking up the narrative or distracting from the main purpose of your paper. If you have a lot of raw data or information that is difficult to present in textual form, consider uploading it to an online site. This prevents your paper from having a large and unwieldy set of appendices and it supports a growing movement within academe to make data more freely available for re-analysis. If you do create an online portal to your data, note it prominently in your paper with the correct URL and access procedures if it is a secured site.
Piwowar, Heather A., Roger S. Day, and Douglas B. Fridsma. “Sharing Detailed Research Data Is Associated with Increased Citation Rate.” PloS ONE (March 21, 2007); Wicherts, Jelte M., Marjan Bakker, and Dylan Molenaar. “Willingness to Share Research Data Is Related to the Strength of the Evidence and the Quality of Reporting of Statistical Results.” PLoS ONE (November 2, 2011).
- << Previous: 9. The Conclusion
- Next: 10. Proofreading Your Paper >>
- Last Updated: Feb 8, 2024 1:57 PM
- URL: https://libguides.usc.edu/writingguide
- PRO Courses Guides New Tech Help Pro Expert Videos About wikiHow Pro Upgrade Sign In
- EDIT Edit this Article
- EXPLORE Tech Help Pro About Us Random Article Quizzes Request a New Article Community Dashboard This Or That Game Popular Categories Arts and Entertainment Artwork Books Movies Computers and Electronics Computers Phone Skills Technology Hacks Health Men's Health Mental Health Women's Health Relationships Dating Love Relationship Issues Hobbies and Crafts Crafts Drawing Games Education & Communication Communication Skills Personal Development Studying Personal Care and Style Fashion Hair Care Personal Hygiene Youth Personal Care School Stuff Dating All Categories Arts and Entertainment Finance and Business Home and Garden Relationship Quizzes Cars & Other Vehicles Food and Entertaining Personal Care and Style Sports and Fitness Computers and Electronics Health Pets and Animals Travel Education & Communication Hobbies and Crafts Philosophy and Religion Work World Family Life Holidays and Traditions Relationships Youth
- Browse Articles
- Learn Something New
- Quizzes Hot
- This Or That Game New
- Train Your Brain
- Explore More
- Support wikiHow
- About wikiHow
- Log in / Sign up
- Education and Communications
- Journal Writing
- Reading Journals
How to Use an Appendix
Last Updated: December 5, 2023 Fact Checked
This article was co-authored by wikiHow staff writer, Danielle Blinka, MA, MPA . Danielle Blinka is a Writer, Editor, Podcaster, Improv Performer, and Artist currently living in Houston, TX. She also has experience teaching English and writing to others. Danielle holds a Bachelor of Arts in English, Bachelor of Arts in Political Science, Master of Arts in English with a concentration in writing, and Master of Public Administration from Lamar University. This article has been fact-checked, ensuring the accuracy of any cited facts and confirming the authority of its sources. This article has been viewed 69,097 times. Learn more...
You’ve probably seen an appendix (or appendices) at the end of an academic paper. However, you might be unsure of how to include them in your own work. When you’re writing an academic paper, you can use an appendix to add important information that doesn’t fit into your paper. You might include your research materials, raw data, or detailed information that’s good to know but not necessary for readers to understand.
Things You Should Know
- Format your appendix in traditional paragraph style, and put each appendix on a separate page.
- Label all your figures, tables, and visuals with the letter of the corresponding appendix, and number the elements within each appendix to make it clear what you’re referring to.
- Refer to each appendix in the text of your paper, and put your appendices in the order that they’re mentioned.
Deciding When to Use an Appendix
- Surveys or questionnaires you used in your research
- Copies of letters or emails
- Transcripts from interviews
- Important words that need to be defined
- Further description of the testing methods or process for choosing a particular testing method
- A detailed description of the materials or testing equipment you used
- Interesting details that might interest the reader but aren’t necessary to understand your conclusions
- Additional background about your topic
- For instance, you might include your raw data in 1 appendix and your mathematical proofs in a separate appendix.
- For example, let’s say you conducted an environmental study. You might include a map of the area you studied.
- Similarly, you might include a photo of your lab setup for a chemistry experiment.
- For instance, let’s say you want to create appendices for a questionnaire, emails you exchanged with an expert on your topic, and raw data from an experiment you did. You’d need 3 separate appendices.
- For instance, Appendix A might be on pg. 23, Appendix B may be on pg. 25, and Appendix C could be on pg. 26.
- If you have 3 or fewer short appendices, you may decide to include them on the same page. However, it’s easier for readers to scan them if they’re on separate pages.
- You don’t need to describe what’s included in the appendix in the title.
Variation: You can use numbers if you prefer. You might choose to label multiple appendices “Appendix 1,” “Appendix 2,” Appendix 3,” and so on.  X Research source
- For instance, you might have an “Appendix A,” Appendix B,” and Appendix C” at the end of your paper. Similarly, you could write, “Appendix 1,” Appendix 2,” and “Appendix 3.”
- For instance, you might start over with “Appendix Table 1” or “Appendix Figure A.”
- If a particular table or graph is necessary for your reader to understand your conclusions, include in your paper rather than an appendix.
Inserting Appendices into Your Paper
- For instance, when discussing survey results, you might include this text: “See Appendix A for a copy of the survey.”
- For example, let’s say you have an appendix for a survey, an appendix for your raw data, and an appendix for an interview transcript. If you reference the interview first, followed by the survey and data, you’d put the appendices in that order.
- Check the instructions from your instructor or the journal where you’re submitting to see if they have specific rules about where the appendices should be placed.
- For instance, if your paper ended on page 22, your first appendix would be page 23.
- You don't need a table of contents to have appendices.
- You can typically use an appendix for information or materials that mess up your paper structure. For instance, putting a copy of a survey in your paper would likely throw off the format of the paper.  X Research source
- If information is essential for your reader to know, include it in the body of your paper instead of an appendix.  X Research source
- Don’t include your appendices in your word count.
- ↑ https://www.une.edu.au/__data/assets/pdf_file/0008/392156/WE_Appendices.pdf
- ↑ https://libguides.usc.edu/writingguide/appendices
- ↑ https://library.sacredheart.edu/c.php?g=29803&p=185936
- ↑ https://owl.purdue.edu/owl/subject_specific_writing/writing_in_the_social_sciences/writing_in_psychology_experimental_report_writing/tables_appendices_footnotes_and_endnotes.html
- ↑ https://owl.purdue.edu/owl/research_and_citation/apa_style/apa_formatting_and_style_guide/footnotes_appendices.html
- ↑ https://www.unlv.edu/sites/default/files/page_files/3/13_AppendixFormat.pdf
About This Article
- Send fan mail to authors
Did this article help you?
- Do Not Sell or Share My Info
- Not Selling Info
Get all the best how-tos!
Sign up for wikiHow's weekly email newsletter
- Bipolar Disorder
- Therapy Center
- When To See a Therapist
- Types of Therapy
- Best Online Therapy
- Best Couples Therapy
- Best Family Therapy
- Managing Stress
- Sleep and Dreaming
- Understanding Emotions
- Healthy Relationships
- Student Resources
- Personality Types
- Verywell Mind Insights
- 2023 Verywell Mind 25
- Mental Health in the Classroom
- Editorial Process
- Meet Our Review Board
- Crisis Support
How to Write an APA Appendix
Kendra Cherry, MS, is a psychosocial rehabilitation specialist, psychology educator, and author of the "Everything Psychology Book."
Amanda Tust is a fact-checker, researcher, and writer with a Master of Science in Journalism from Northwestern University's Medill School of Journalism.
damircudric / Getty Images
- When to Use an Appendix
- What to Include
- Basic Rules
If you are writing a psychology paper for a class or for publication, you may be required to include an appendix in APA format. An APA appendix is found at the end of a paper and contains information that supplements the text but that is too unwieldy or distracting to include in the main body of the paper.
APA format is the official writing style used by the American Psychological Association . This format dictates how academic and professional papers should be structured and formatted.
Does Your Paper Need an APA Appendix?
Some questions to ask about whether you should put information in the body of the paper or in an appendix:
- Is the material necessary for the reader to understand the research? If the answer is yes, it should be in your paper and not in an appendix.
- Would including the information interrupt the flow of the paper? If the answer is yes, then it should likely appear in the appendix.
- Would the information supplement what already appears in your paper? If yes, then it is a good candidate for including in an appendix.
Your appendix is not meant to become an information dump. While the information in your appendices is supplementary to your paper and research, it should still be useful and relevant. Only include what will help readers gain insight and understanding, not clutter or unnecessary confusion.
What to Include in an APA Appendix
The APA official stylebook suggests that the appendix should include information that would be distracting or inappropriate in the text of the paper.
Some examples of information you might include in an appendix include:
- Correspondence (if it pertains directly to your research)
- Demographic details about participants or groups
- Examples of participant responses
- Extended or detailed descriptions
- Lists that are too lengthy to include in the main text
- Large amounts of raw data
- Lists of supporting research and articles that are not directly referenced in-text
- Materials and instruments (if your research relied on special materials or instruments, you might want to include images and further information about how these items work or were used)
- Questionnaires that were used as part of your research
- Raw data (presented in an organized, readable format)
- Research surveys
While the content found in the appendix is too cumbersome to include in the main text of your paper, it should still be easily presented in print format.
The appendices should always act as a supplement to your paper. The body of your paper should be able to stand alone and fully describe your research or your arguments.
The body of your paper should not be dependent upon what is in the appendices. Instead, each appendix should act to supplement what is in the primary text, adding additional (but not essential) information that provides extra insight or information for the reader.
Basic Rules for an APA Appendix
Here are some basic APA appendix rules to keep in mind when working on your paper:
- Your paper may have more than one appendix.
- Each item usually gets its own appendix section.
- Begin each appendix on a separate page.
- Each appendix must have a title.
- Use title case for your title and labels (the first letter of each word should be capitalized, while remaining letters should be lowercase).
- If your paper only has one appendix, simply title it Appendix.
- If you have more than one appendix, each one should be labeled Appendix A, Appendix B, Appendix C, and so on.
- Put the appendix label centered at the top of the page.
- On the next line under the appendix label, place the centered title of the appendix.
- If you refer to a source in your appendix, include an in-text citation just as you would in the main body of your paper and then include the source in your main reference section.
- Each appendix may contain headings, subheadings, figures, and tables.
- Each figure or table in your appendix should include a brief but explanatory title, which should be italicized.
- If you want to reference your appendix within the text of your paper, include a parenthetical note in the text. For example, you would write (See Appendix A).
Formatting an APA Appendix
How do you format an appendix in APA? An APA appendix should follow the overall rules on how to format text. Such rules specify what font and font size you should use, the size of your margins, and the spacing of the text.
Some of the APA format guidelines you need to observe:
- Use a consistent font, such as 12-point Times New Roman or 11-point Calibri
- Double-space your text
- All paragraphs should be indented on the first line
- Page numbering should be continuous with the rest of your paper
The appendix label should appear centered and bolded at the top of the page. A descriptive title should follow and should also be bolded and centered. As with other pages in your paper, your APA format appendix should be left-aligned and double-spaced. Each page should include a page number in the top right corner. You can also have more than one appendix, but each one should begin on a new page.
Data Displays in an APA Appendix
When presenting information in an appendix, use a logical layout for any data displays such as tables or figures. All tables and figures should be labeled with the words “Table” or “Figure” (sans quotation marks) and the letter of the appendix and then numbered.
For example, Table A1 would be the first table in an Appendix A. Data displays should be presented in the appendix following the same order that they first appear in the text of your paper.
In addition to following basic APA formatting rules, you should also check to see if there are additional guidelines you need to follow. Individual instructors or publications may have their own specific requirements.
Where to Include an APA Appendix
If your paper does require an appendix, it should be the very last pages of your finished paper. An APA format paper is usually structured in the following way:
Your paper may not necessarily include all of these sections. At a minimum, however, your paper may consist of a title page, abstract, main text, and reference section. Also, if your paper does not contain tables, figures, or footnotes, then the appendix would follow the references.
Never include an appendix containing information that is not referred to in your text.
A Word From Verywell
Writing a paper for class or publication requires a great deal of research, but you should pay special attention to your APA formatting. Each section of your paper, including the appendix section, needs to follow the rules and guidelines provided in the American Psychological Association’s stylebook.
American Psychological Association. Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (7th ed.). Washington DC: The American Psychological Association; 2020.
By Kendra Cherry, MSEd Kendra Cherry, MS, is a psychosocial rehabilitation specialist, psychology educator, and author of the "Everything Psychology Book."