types of reactions worksheet 2

  • Chem Top 10
  • Physical Science Text
  • Our YouTube

Types of chemical reaction

Types of reaction:

  • Types of Reaction Worksheet :  Practice your six types of reaction.
  • Types of Chemical Reaction II (dd-ch) :  More practice with figuring out the types of chemical reaction.
  • Types of Chemical Reaction III (dd-ch) :  You can probably guess what this is on your own.
  • Oxidation and Reduction Practice :  In which we focus on oxidation states and redox reactions.

Help and tutorials

  • A. Surviving chemistry
  • B. Chemistry dictionary
  • C. Experiments & sci. method
  • D. Sig figs, units, & graphing
  • E. The historical atom
  • F. Subatomic particles & orbitals
  • G. The periodic table
  • H. Ionic compounds
  • I. Covalent & Lewis structures
  • J. Moles & equations
  • K. Polarity & IM forces
  • M. Reactions & stoichiometry
  • N. Acids & bases
  • O. Gas laws & KMT
  • P. Electrochemistry & redox
  • P. Solutions & concentration
  • Q. Nuclear chemistry
  • R. Thermo, kinetics, equilibria
  • S. Organic chemistry
  • T. Solids, identifying unknowns
  • U. Reference tables

Practice worksheets

  • A. Scientific method & graphing
  • B. Unit conversions
  • C: Significant figures
  • D. Atomic theory & calculations
  • E. The periodic table
  • F. Ionic compounds
  • G. Naming compounds
  • H. Lewis structures & VSEPR
  • I. IM forces, polarity, & metals
  • J. Moles & molar masses
  • K. Percent composition
  • L. Equations
  • M. Types of reaction
  • N. Predicting rxn products
  • O. Stoichiometry
  • P. Gas laws
  • Q. Solutions & concentration
  • R. Colligative properties & Ksp
  • S. Acids & bases
  • T. Thermo, kinetics, equilibria
  • U. Redox, organic, nuclear
  • V. Review sheets

Search this site:

Copyright information.

All of the resources on this site were written by Ian Guch (email: [email protected] ) and are in the public domain.  I’d really like it if you’d spread them around to other teachers as much as possible, but to do it for free – don’t sell them on TpT.  If I can give my hard work to others without cost, then you can do the same.

Disclaimer:  Though I’ve had good luck with these resources with my own students, I can’t guarantee that they’ll work for you.  By using these resources, you agree to do so at your own risk and hold Ian Guch blameless for anything bad that happens. Furthermore, you agree to use all prudent safety practices with your students (esp. goggles!) and to not do these activities if you’re unsure whether you can do them safely.

Send us money (if you want)

As you’ve probably guessed, this site may be free to use but it isn’t free to operate.  If you could please donate to the upkeep of this site, it would be greatly appreciated (PayPal = [email protected]).  To be totally clear, you do NOT need to donate to use all aspects of this site and you never will.  I ask that you consider donating to support the site, but a donation will never be required to use it.

A suggestion for the kids

If you’ve ever been on the Internet, you’ve probably seen that there are a lot of videos where people do stupid chemical reactions with household items.  I’ll admit, these demonstrations are frequently pretty cool to look at.  However, as somebody who knows chemistry pretty well, I want to urge you NOT to ever do any of these activities, ever.  Just because some dumb guy on the Internet can make something blow up absolutely does not mean you should do the same.  Leave that to the professionals.

' src=

  • Already have a WordPress.com account? Log in now.
  • Subscribe Subscribed
  • Copy shortlink
  • Report this content
  • View post in Reader
  • Manage subscriptions
  • Collapse this bar

Library homepage

  • school Campus Bookshelves
  • menu_book Bookshelves
  • perm_media Learning Objects
  • login Login
  • how_to_reg Request Instructor Account
  • hub Instructor Commons
  • Download Page (PDF)
  • Download Full Book (PDF)
  • Periodic Table
  • Physics Constants
  • Scientific Calculator
  • Reference & Cite
  • Tools expand_more
  • Readability

selected template will load here

This action is not available.

Chemistry LibreTexts

5.3: Types of Chemical Reactions

  • Last updated
  • Save as PDF
  • Page ID 79224

Learning Outcomes

  • Classify a reaction as combination, decomposition, single-replacement, double-replacement, or combustion.
  • Predict the products and balance a combustion reaction.

Many chemical reactions can be classified as one of five basic types. Having a thorough understanding of these types of reactions will be useful for predicting the products of an unknown reaction. The five basic types of chemical reactions are combination, decomposition, single-replacement, double-replacement, and combustion. Analyzing the reactants and products of a given reaction will allow you to place it into one of these categories. Some reactions will fit into more than one category.

Combination Reactions

A combination reaction , also known as a synthesis reaction , is a reaction in which two or more substances combine to form a single new substance. Combination reactions can also be called synthesis reactions .The general form of a combination reaction is:

\[\ce{A} + \ce{B} \rightarrow \ce{AB}\]

One combination reaction is two elements combining to form a compound. Solid sodium metal reacts with chlorine gas to product solid sodium chloride.

\[2 \ce{Na} \left( s \right) + \ce{Cl_2} \left( g \right) \rightarrow 2 \ce{NaCl} \left( s \right)\]

Notice that in order to write and balance the equation correctly, it is important to remember the seven elements that exist in nature as diatomic molecules (\(\ce{H_2}\), \(\ce{N_2}\), \(\ce{O_2}\), \(\ce{F_2}\), \(\ce{Cl_2}\), \(\ce{Br_2}\), and \(\ce{I_2}\)).

One sort of combination reaction that occurs frequently is the reaction of an element with oxygen to form an oxide. Metals and nonmetals both react readily with oxygen under most conditions. Magnesium reacts rapidly and dramatically when ignited, combining with oxygen from the air to produce a fine powder of magnesium oxide.

\[2 \ce{Mg} \left( s \right) + \ce{O_2} \left( g \right) \rightarrow 2 \ce{MgO} \left( s \right)\]

Decomposition Reactions

A decomposition reaction is a reaction in which a compound breaks down into two or more simpler substances. The general form of a decomposition reaction is:

\[\ce{AB} \rightarrow \ce{A} + \ce{B}\]

Most decomposition reactions require an input of energy in the form of heat, light, or electricity.

Binary compounds are compounds composed of just two elements. The simplest kind of decomposition reaction is when a binary compound decomposes into its elements. Mercury (II) oxide, a red solid, decomposes when heated to produce mercury and oxygen gas.

\[2 \ce{HgO} \left( s \right) \rightarrow 2 \ce{Hg} \left( l \right) + \ce{O_2} \left( g \right)\]

A reaction is also considered to be a decomposition reaction even when one or more of the products is still a compound. A metal carbonate decomposes into a metal oxide and carbon dioxide gas. For example, calcium carbonate decomposes into calcium oxide and carbon dioxide.

\[\ce{CaCO_3} \left( s \right) \rightarrow \ce{CaO} \left( s \right) + \ce{CO_2} \left( g \right)\]

Metal hydroxides decompose on heating to yield metal oxides and water. Sodium hydroxide decomposes to produce sodium oxide and water.

\[2 \ce{NaOH} \left( s \right) \rightarrow \ce{Na_2O} \left( s \right) + \ce{H_2O} \left( g \right)\]

Single-Replacement Reactions

A single-replacement reaction is a reaction in which one element replaces a similar element in a compound . The general form of a single-replacement (also called single-displacement) reaction is:

\[\ce{A} + \ce{BC} \rightarrow \ce{AC} + \ce{B}\]

In this general reaction, element \(\ce{A}\) is a metal and replaces element \(\ce{B}\), also a metal, in the compound. When the element that is doing the replacing is a nonmetal, it must replace another nonmetal in a compound, and the general equation becomes:

\[\ce{Y} + \ce{XZ} \rightarrow \ce{XY} + \ce{Z}\]

\(\ce{Y}\) is a nonmetal and replaces the nonmetal \(\ce{Z}\) in the compound with \(\ce{X}\).

Magnesium is a more reactive metal than copper. When a strip of magnesium metal is placed in an aqueous solution of copper (II) nitrate, it replaces the copper. The products of the reaction are aqueous magnesium nitrate and solid copper metal.

\[\ce{Mg} \left( s \right) + \ce{Cu(NO_3)_2} \left( aq \right) \rightarrow \ce{Mg(NO_3)_2} \left( aq \right) + \ce{Cu} \left( s \right)\]

Many metals react easily with acids, and, when they do so, one of the products of the reaction is hydrogen gas. Zinc reacts with hydrochloric acid to produce aqueous zinc chloride and hydrogen (see figure below).

\[\ce{Zn} \left( s \right) + 2 \ce{HCl} \left( aq \right) \rightarrow \ce{ZnCl_2} \left( aq \right) + \ce{H_2} \left( g \right)\]

types of reactions worksheet 2

Figure 10.6.1: Zinc metal reacts with hydrochloric acid to give off hydrogen gas in a single-replacement reaction.

types of reactions worksheet 2

Figure 10.6.2: Pictured here is about 3 pounds of sodium metal reacting with water. Sodium metal reacts vigorously when dropped into a container of water, giving off hydrogen gas. A large piece of sodium will often generate so much heat that the hydrogen will ignite.

Double-Replacement Reactions

A double-replacement reaction is a reaction in which the positive and negative ions of two ionic compounds exchange places to form two new compounds . The general form of a double-replacement (also called double-displacement) reaction is:

\[\ce{AB} + \ce{CD} \rightarrow \ce{AD} + \ce{CB}\]

In this reaction, \(\ce{A}\) and \(\ce{C}\) are positively-charged cations, while \(\ce{B}\) and \(\ce{D}\) are negatively-charged anions. Double-replacement reactions generally occur between substances in aqueous solution. In order for a reaction to occur, one of the products is usually a solid precipitate, a gas, or a molecular compound such as water.

A precipitate forms in a double-replacement reaction when the cations from one of the reactants combine with the anions from the other reactant to form an insoluble ionic compound. When aqueous solutions of potassium iodide and lead (II) nitrate are mixed, the following reaction occurs.

\[2 \ce{KI} \left( aq \right) + \ce{Pb(NO_3)_2} \left( aq \right) \rightarrow 2 \ce{KNO_3} \left( aq \right) + \ce{PbI_2} \left( s \right)\]

types of reactions worksheet 2

Figure 10.6.3: When a few drops of lead (II) nitrate are added to a solution of potassium iodide, a yellow precipitate of lead (II) iodide immediately forms in a double-replacement reaction.

Combustion Reactions

A combustion reaction is a reaction in which a substance reacts with oxygen gas, releasing energy in the form of light and heat. Combustion reactions must involve \(\ce{O_2}\) as one reactant. The combustion of hydrogen gas produces water vapor (see figure below).

\[2 \ce{H_2} \left( g \right) + \ce{O_2} \left( g \right) + 2 \ce{H_2O} \left( g \right)\]

Notice that this reaction also qualifies as a combination reaction.

types of reactions worksheet 2

Figure 10.6.4: The Hindenburg was a hydrogen-filled airship that suffered an accident upon its attempted landing in New Jersey in 1937. The hydrogen immediately combusted in a huge fireball, destroying the airship and killing 36 people. The chemical reaction was a simple one: hydrogen combining with oxygen to produce water.

Many combustion reactions occur with a hydrocarbon, a compound made up solely of carbon and hydrogen. The products of the combustion of hydrocarbons are always carbon dioxide and water. Many hydrocarbons are used as fuel because their combustion releases very large amount of heat energy. Propane \(\left( \ce{C_3H_8} \right)\) is a gaseous hydrocarbon that is commonly used as the fuel source in gas grills.

\[\ce{C_3H_8} \left( g \right) + 5 \ce{O_2} \left( g \right) \rightarrow 3 \ce{CO_2} \left( g \right) + 4 \ce{H_2O} \left( g \right)\]

Example 10.6.1

Ethanol can be used as a fuel source in an alcohol lamp. The formula for ethanol is \(\ce{C_2H_5OH}\). Write the balanced equation for the combustion of ethanol.

Step 1: Plan the problem.

Ethanol and oxygen are the reactants. As with a hydrocarbon, the products of the combustion of an alcohol are carbon dioxide and water.

Step 2: Solve.

Write the skeleton equations: \(\ce{C_2H_5OH} \left( l \right) + \ce{O_2} \left( g \right) \rightarrow \ce{CO_2} \left( g \right) + \ce{H_2O} \left( g \right)\)

Balance the equation.

\[\ce{C_2H_5OH} \left( l \right) + 3 \ce{O_2} \left( g \right) \rightarrow 2 \ce{CO_2} \left( g \right) + 3 \ce{H_2O} \left( g \right)\]

Step 3: Think about your result.

Combustion reactions must have oxygen as a reactant. Note that the water that is produced is in the gas state rather that the liquid state because of the high temperatures that accompany a combustion reaction.

Supplemental Resources

  • Simulation of the synthesis of water: http://www.dit.ncssm/edu/core/Chapte...Synthesis.html
  • View the synthesis of calcium oxide at http://www.youtube.com/watch?v-dszSKIM5rqk
  • View the reaction between copper and chlorine gas at http://www.youtube.com/watch?v-edLpxdERQZc
  • Watch the decomposition of hydrogen peroxide at http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=oX5FyaqNx54
  • Watch the decomposition of potassium chlorate at http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=svRIg_kzE68
  • A video experiment of hydrogen replacement by calcium can be seen at http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=hjB96do_fRw
  • A video experiment of magnesium metal reacting with hydrochloric acid can be viewed at http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=OBdgeJFzSec
  • Watch an animation of a double-replacement reaction at http://www.dlt.ncssm.edu/core/Chapte...cidToBase.html
  • A video experiment in which a precipitate is formed by reacting sodium chloride with silver nitrate can be seen at http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=eFF3El4mwok
  • A video experiment of the double-replacement reaction between copper (II) sulfate and sodium sulfide can be viewed at http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=KkKBDcFfZWo
  • A video of the double-replacement reaction between sodium sulfate and barium chloride can be viewed at http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=XaMyfjYLhxU
  • View an in-depth explanation of the combustion reaction that occurs when you strike a match at http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/nova/cigarette/onfire.html
  • View an exciting video demonstration that confirms the importance of oxygen in a combustion reaction at http://education.jlab.org/frost/life_candle.html
  • View another video demonstration that confirms the importance of oxygen in a combustion reaction at http://education.jlab.org/frost/combustion.html
  • Reaction Identification Practice: http://www.sciencegeek.net/Chemistry...tification.htm

Contributors

Allison Soult , Ph.D. (Department of Chemistry, University of Kentucky)

  • 4.2 Classifying Chemical Reactions
  • Introduction
  • 1.1 Chemistry in Context
  • 1.2 Phases and Classification of Matter
  • 1.3 Physical and Chemical Properties
  • 1.4 Measurements
  • 1.5 Measurement Uncertainty, Accuracy, and Precision
  • 1.6 Mathematical Treatment of Measurement Results
  • Key Equations
  • 2.1 Early Ideas in Atomic Theory
  • 2.2 Evolution of Atomic Theory
  • 2.3 Atomic Structure and Symbolism
  • 2.4 Chemical Formulas
  • 2.5 The Periodic Table
  • 2.6 Ionic and Molecular Compounds
  • 2.7 Chemical Nomenclature
  • 3.1 Formula Mass and the Mole Concept
  • 3.2 Determining Empirical and Molecular Formulas
  • 3.3 Molarity
  • 3.4 Other Units for Solution Concentrations
  • 4.1 Writing and Balancing Chemical Equations
  • 4.3 Reaction Stoichiometry
  • 4.4 Reaction Yields
  • 4.5 Quantitative Chemical Analysis
  • 5.1 Energy Basics
  • 5.2 Calorimetry
  • 5.3 Enthalpy
  • 6.1 Electromagnetic Energy
  • 6.2 The Bohr Model
  • 6.3 Development of Quantum Theory
  • 6.4 Electronic Structure of Atoms (Electron Configurations)
  • 6.5 Periodic Variations in Element Properties
  • 7.1 Ionic Bonding
  • 7.2 Covalent Bonding
  • 7.3 Lewis Symbols and Structures
  • 7.4 Formal Charges and Resonance
  • 7.5 Strengths of Ionic and Covalent Bonds
  • 7.6 Molecular Structure and Polarity
  • 8.1 Valence Bond Theory
  • 8.2 Hybrid Atomic Orbitals
  • 8.3 Multiple Bonds
  • 8.4 Molecular Orbital Theory
  • 9.1 Gas Pressure
  • 9.2 Relating Pressure, Volume, Amount, and Temperature: The Ideal Gas Law
  • 9.3 Stoichiometry of Gaseous Substances, Mixtures, and Reactions
  • 9.4 Effusion and Diffusion of Gases
  • 9.5 The Kinetic-Molecular Theory
  • 9.6 Non-Ideal Gas Behavior
  • 10.1 Intermolecular Forces
  • 10.2 Properties of Liquids
  • 10.3 Phase Transitions
  • 10.4 Phase Diagrams
  • 10.5 The Solid State of Matter
  • 10.6 Lattice Structures in Crystalline Solids
  • 11.1 The Dissolution Process
  • 11.2 Electrolytes
  • 11.3 Solubility
  • 11.4 Colligative Properties
  • 11.5 Colloids
  • 12.1 Chemical Reaction Rates
  • 12.2 Factors Affecting Reaction Rates
  • 12.3 Rate Laws
  • 12.4 Integrated Rate Laws
  • 12.5 Collision Theory
  • 12.6 Reaction Mechanisms
  • 12.7 Catalysis
  • 13.1 Chemical Equilibria
  • 13.2 Equilibrium Constants
  • 13.3 Shifting Equilibria: Le Châtelier’s Principle
  • 13.4 Equilibrium Calculations
  • 14.1 Brønsted-Lowry Acids and Bases
  • 14.2 pH and pOH
  • 14.3 Relative Strengths of Acids and Bases
  • 14.4 Hydrolysis of Salts
  • 14.5 Polyprotic Acids
  • 14.6 Buffers
  • 14.7 Acid-Base Titrations
  • 15.1 Precipitation and Dissolution
  • 15.2 Lewis Acids and Bases
  • 15.3 Coupled Equilibria
  • 16.1 Spontaneity
  • 16.2 Entropy
  • 16.3 The Second and Third Laws of Thermodynamics
  • 16.4 Free Energy
  • 17.1 Review of Redox Chemistry
  • 17.2 Galvanic Cells
  • 17.3 Electrode and Cell Potentials
  • 17.4 Potential, Free Energy, and Equilibrium
  • 17.5 Batteries and Fuel Cells
  • 17.6 Corrosion
  • 17.7 Electrolysis
  • 18.1 Periodicity
  • 18.2 Occurrence and Preparation of the Representative Metals
  • 18.3 Structure and General Properties of the Metalloids
  • 18.4 Structure and General Properties of the Nonmetals
  • 18.5 Occurrence, Preparation, and Compounds of Hydrogen
  • 18.6 Occurrence, Preparation, and Properties of Carbonates
  • 18.7 Occurrence, Preparation, and Properties of Nitrogen
  • 18.8 Occurrence, Preparation, and Properties of Phosphorus
  • 18.9 Occurrence, Preparation, and Compounds of Oxygen
  • 18.10 Occurrence, Preparation, and Properties of Sulfur
  • 18.11 Occurrence, Preparation, and Properties of Halogens
  • 18.12 Occurrence, Preparation, and Properties of the Noble Gases
  • 19.1 Occurrence, Preparation, and Properties of Transition Metals and Their Compounds
  • 19.2 Coordination Chemistry of Transition Metals
  • 19.3 Spectroscopic and Magnetic Properties of Coordination Compounds
  • 20.1 Hydrocarbons
  • 20.2 Alcohols and Ethers
  • 20.3 Aldehydes, Ketones, Carboxylic Acids, and Esters
  • 20.4 Amines and Amides
  • 21.1 Nuclear Structure and Stability
  • 21.2 Nuclear Equations
  • 21.3 Radioactive Decay
  • 21.4 Transmutation and Nuclear Energy
  • 21.5 Uses of Radioisotopes
  • 21.6 Biological Effects of Radiation
  • A | The Periodic Table
  • B | Essential Mathematics
  • C | Units and Conversion Factors
  • D | Fundamental Physical Constants
  • E | Water Properties
  • F | Composition of Commercial Acids and Bases
  • G | Standard Thermodynamic Properties for Selected Substances
  • H | Ionization Constants of Weak Acids
  • I | Ionization Constants of Weak Bases
  • J | Solubility Products
  • K | Formation Constants for Complex Ions
  • L | Standard Electrode (Half-Cell) Potentials
  • M | Half-Lives for Several Radioactive Isotopes

Learning Objectives

By the end of this section, you will be able to:

  • Define three common types of chemical reactions (precipitation, acid-base, and oxidation-reduction)
  • Classify chemical reactions as one of these three types given appropriate descriptions or chemical equations
  • Identify common acids and bases
  • Predict the solubility of common inorganic compounds by using solubility rules
  • Compute the oxidation states for elements in compounds

Humans interact with one another in various and complex ways, and we classify these interactions according to common patterns of behavior. When two humans exchange information, we say they are communicating. When they exchange blows with their fists or feet, we say they are fighting. Faced with a wide range of varied interactions between chemical substances, scientists have likewise found it convenient (or even necessary) to classify chemical interactions by identifying common patterns of reactivity. This module will provide an introduction to three of the most prevalent types of chemical reactions: precipitation, acid-base, and oxidation-reduction.

Precipitation Reactions and Solubility Rules

A precipitation reaction is one in which dissolved substances react to form one (or more) solid products. Many reactions of this type involve the exchange of ions between ionic compounds in aqueous solution and are sometimes referred to as double displacement , double replacement , or metathesis reactions. These reactions are common in nature and are responsible for the formation of coral reefs in ocean waters and kidney stones in animals. They are used widely in industry for production of a number of commodity and specialty chemicals. Precipitation reactions also play a central role in many chemical analysis techniques, including spot tests used to identify metal ions and gravimetric methods for determining the composition of matter (see the last module of this chapter).

The extent to which a substance may be dissolved in water, or any solvent, is quantitatively expressed as its solubility , defined as the maximum concentration of a substance that can be achieved under specified conditions. Substances with relatively large solubilities are said to be soluble . A substance will precipitate when solution conditions are such that its concentration exceeds its solubility. Substances with relatively low solubilities are said to be insoluble , and these are the substances that readily precipitate from solution. More information on these important concepts is provided in a later chapter on solutions. For purposes of predicting the identities of solids formed by precipitation reactions, one may simply refer to patterns of solubility that have been observed for many ionic compounds ( Table 4.1 ).

A vivid example of precipitation is observed when solutions of potassium iodide and lead nitrate are mixed, resulting in the formation of solid lead iodide:

This observation is consistent with the solubility guidelines: The only insoluble compound among all those involved is lead iodide, one of the exceptions to the general solubility of iodide salts.

The net ionic equation representing this reaction is:

Lead iodide is a bright yellow solid that was formerly used as an artist’s pigment known as iodine yellow ( Figure 4.4 ). The properties of pure PbI 2 crystals make them useful for fabrication of X-ray and gamma ray detectors.

The solubility guidelines in Table 4.1 may be used to predict whether a precipitation reaction will occur when solutions of soluble ionic compounds are mixed together. One merely needs to identify all the ions present in the solution and then consider if possible cation/anion pairing could result in an insoluble compound. For example, mixing solutions of silver nitrate and sodium chloride will yield a solution containing Ag + , NO 3 − , NO 3 − , Na + , and Cl − ions. Aside from the two ionic compounds originally present in the solutions, AgNO 3 and NaCl, two additional ionic compounds may be derived from this collection of ions: NaNO 3 and AgCl. The solubility guidelines indicate all nitrate salts are soluble but that AgCl is one of insoluble. A precipitation reaction, therefore, is predicted to occur, as described by the following equations:

Example 4.3

Predicting precipitation reactions.

(a) potassium sulfate and barium nitrate

(b) lithium chloride and silver acetate

(c) lead nitrate and ammonium carbonate

(b) The two possible products for this combination are LiC 2 H 3 O 2 and AgCl. The solubility guidelines indicate AgCl is insoluble, and so a precipitation reaction is expected. The net ionic equation for this reaction, derived in the manner detailed in the previous module, is

(c) The two possible products for this combination are PbCO 3 and NH 4 NO 3 . The solubility guidelines indicate PbCO 3 is insoluble, and so a precipitation reaction is expected. The net ionic equation for this reaction, derived in the manner detailed in the previous module, is

Check Your Learning

sodium sulfate, BaSO 4

Acid-Base Reactions

An acid-base reaction is one in which a hydrogen ion, H + , is transferred from one chemical species to another. Such reactions are of central importance to numerous natural and technological processes, ranging from the chemical transformations that take place within cells and the lakes and oceans, to the industrial-scale production of fertilizers, pharmaceuticals, and other substances essential to society. The subject of acid-base chemistry, therefore, is worthy of thorough discussion, and a full chapter is devoted to this topic later in the text.

For purposes of this brief introduction, we will consider only the more common types of acid-base reactions that take place in aqueous solutions. In this context, an acid is a substance that will dissolve in water to yield hydronium ions, H 3 O + . As an example, consider the equation shown here:

The process represented by this equation confirms that hydrogen chloride is an acid. When dissolved in water, H 3 O + ions are produced by a chemical reaction in which H + ions are transferred from HCl molecules to H 2 O molecules ( Figure 4.5 ).

The nature of HCl is such that its reaction with water as just described is essentially 100% efficient: Virtually every HCl molecule that dissolves in water will undergo this reaction. Acids that completely react in this fashion are called strong acids , and HCl is one among just a handful of common acid compounds that are classified as strong ( Table 4.2 ). A far greater number of compounds behave as weak acids and only partially react with water, leaving a large majority of dissolved molecules in their original form and generating a relatively small amount of hydronium ions. Weak acids are commonly encountered in nature, being the substances partly responsible for the tangy taste of citrus fruits, the stinging sensation of insect bites, and the unpleasant smells associated with body odor. A familiar example of a weak acid is acetic acid, the main ingredient in food vinegars:

When dissolved in water under typical conditions, only about 1% of acetic acid molecules are present in the ionized form, CH 3 CO 2 − CH 3 CO 2 − ( Figure 4.6 ). (The use of a double-arrow in the equation above denotes the partial reaction aspect of this process, a concept addressed fully in the chapters on chemical equilibrium.)

A base is a substance that will dissolve in water to yield hydroxide ions, OH − . The most common bases are ionic compounds composed of alkali or alkaline earth metal cations (groups 1 and 2) combined with the hydroxide ion—for example, NaOH and Ca(OH) 2 . Unlike the acid compounds discussed previously, these compounds do not react chemically with water; instead they dissolve and dissociate, releasing hydroxide ions directly into the solution. For example, KOH and Ba(OH) 2 dissolve in water and dissociate completely to produce cations (K + and Ba 2+ , respectively) and hydroxide ions, OH − . These bases, along with other hydroxides that completely dissociate in water, are considered strong bases .

Consider as an example the dissolution of lye (sodium hydroxide) in water:

This equation confirms that sodium hydroxide is a base. When dissolved in water, NaOH dissociates to yield Na + and OH − ions. This is also true for any other ionic compound containing hydroxide ions. Since the dissociation process is essentially complete when ionic compounds dissolve in water under typical conditions, NaOH and other ionic hydroxides are all classified as strong bases.

Unlike ionic hydroxides, some compounds produce hydroxide ions when dissolved by chemically reacting with water molecules. In all cases, these compounds react only partially and so are classified as weak bases . These types of compounds are also abundant in nature and important commodities in various technologies. For example, global production of the weak base ammonia is typically well over 100 million metric tons annually, being widely used as an agricultural fertilizer, a raw material for chemical synthesis of other compounds, and an active ingredient in household cleaners ( Figure 4.7 ). When dissolved in water, ammonia reacts partially to yield hydroxide ions, as shown here:

This is, by definition, an acid-base reaction, in this case involving the transfer of H + ions from water molecules to ammonia molecules. Under typical conditions, only about 1% of the dissolved ammonia is present as NH 4 + NH 4 + ions.

A neutralization reaction is a specific type of acid-base reaction in which the reactants are an acid and a base (but not water), and the products are often a salt and water

To illustrate a neutralization reaction, consider what happens when a typical antacid such as milk of magnesia (an aqueous suspension of solid Mg(OH) 2 ) is ingested to ease symptoms associated with excess stomach acid (HCl):

Note that in addition to water, this reaction produces a salt, magnesium chloride.

Example 4.4

Writing equations for acid-base reactions.

(a) the weak acid hydrogen hypochlorite reacts with water

(b) a solution of barium hydroxide is neutralized with a solution of nitric acid

A double-arrow is appropriate in this equation because it indicates the HOCl is a weak acid that has not reacted completely.

(b) The two reactants are provided, Ba(OH) 2 and HNO 3 . Since this is a neutralization reaction, the two products will be water and a salt composed of the cation of the ionic hydroxide (Ba 2+ ) and the anion generated when the acid transfers its hydrogen ion ( NO 3 − ) . ( NO 3 − ) .

Chemistry in Everyday Life

Stomach antacids.

Our stomachs contain a solution of roughly 0.03 M HCl, which helps us digest the food we eat. The burning sensation associated with heartburn is a result of the acid of the stomach leaking through the muscular valve at the top of the stomach into the lower reaches of the esophagus. The lining of the esophagus is not protected from the corrosive effects of stomach acid the way the lining of the stomach is, and the results can be very painful. When we have heartburn, it feels better if we reduce the excess acid in the esophagus by taking an antacid. As you may have guessed, antacids are bases. One of the most common antacids is calcium carbonate, CaCO 3 . The reaction,

not only neutralizes stomach acid, it also produces CO 2 ( g ), which may result in a satisfying belch.

Milk of Magnesia is a suspension of the sparingly soluble base magnesium hydroxide, Mg(OH) 2 . It works according to the reaction:

The hydroxide ions generated in this equilibrium then go on to react with the hydronium ions from the stomach acid, so that:

This reaction does not produce carbon dioxide, but magnesium-containing antacids can have a laxative effect. Several antacids have aluminum hydroxide, Al(OH) 3 , as an active ingredient. The aluminum hydroxide tends to cause constipation, and some antacids use aluminum hydroxide in concert with magnesium hydroxide to balance the side effects of the two substances.

Culinary Aspects of Chemistry

Examples of acid-base chemistry are abundant in the culinary world. One example is the use of baking soda, or sodium bicarbonate in baking. NaHCO 3 is a base. When it reacts with an acid such as lemon juice, buttermilk, or sour cream in a batter, bubbles of carbon dioxide gas are formed from decomposition of the resulting carbonic acid, and the batter “rises.” Baking powder is a combination of sodium bicarbonate, and one or more acid salts that react when the two chemicals come in contact with water in the batter.

Many people like to put lemon juice or vinegar, both of which are acids, on cooked fish ( Figure 4.8 ). It turns out that fish have volatile amines (bases) in their systems, which are neutralized by the acids to yield involatile ammonium salts. This reduces the odor of the fish, and also adds a “sour” taste that we seem to enjoy.

Pickling is a method used to preserve vegetables using a naturally produced acidic environment. The vegetable, such as a cucumber, is placed in a sealed jar submerged in a brine solution. The brine solution favors the growth of beneficial bacteria and suppresses the growth of harmful bacteria. The beneficial bacteria feed on starches in the cucumber and produce lactic acid as a waste product in a process called fermentation. The lactic acid eventually increases the acidity of the brine to a level that kills any harmful bacteria, which require a basic environment. Without the harmful bacteria consuming the cucumbers they are able to last much longer than if they were unprotected. A byproduct of the pickling process changes the flavor of the vegetables with the acid making them taste sour.

Link to Learning

Explore the microscopic view of strong and weak acids and bases.

Oxidation-Reduction Reactions

Earth’s atmosphere contains about 20% molecular oxygen, O 2 , a chemically reactive gas that plays an essential role in the metabolism of aerobic organisms and in many environmental processes that shape the world. The term oxidation was originally used to describe chemical reactions involving O 2 , but its meaning has evolved to refer to a broad and important reaction class known as oxidation-reduction (redox) reactions . A few examples of such reactions will be used to develop a clear picture of this classification.

Some redox reactions involve the transfer of electrons between reactant entities to yield ionic products, such as the reaction between sodium and chlorine to yield sodium chloride:

It is helpful to view the process with regard to each individual reactant, that is, to represent the fate of each reactant in the form of an equation called a half-reaction :

These equations show that Na atoms lose electrons while Cl atoms (in the Cl 2 molecule) gain electrons , the “ s ” subscripts for the resulting ions signifying they are present in the form of a solid ionic compound. For redox reactions of this sort, the loss and gain of electrons define the complementary processes that occur:

In this reaction, then, sodium is oxidized and chlorine undergoes reduction . Viewed from a more active perspective, sodium functions as a reducing agent (reductant) , since it provides electrons to (or reduces) chlorine. Likewise, chlorine functions as an oxidizing agent (oxidant) , as it effectively removes electrons from (oxidizes) sodium.

Some redox processes, however, do not involve the transfer of electrons. Consider, for example, a reaction similar to the one yielding NaCl:

The product of this reaction is a covalent compound, so transfer of electrons in the explicit sense is not involved. To clarify the similarity of this reaction to the previous one and permit an unambiguous definition of redox reactions, a property called oxidation number has been defined. The oxidation number (or oxidation state ) of an element in a compound is the charge its atoms would possess if the compound were ionic . The following guidelines are used to assign oxidation numbers to each element in a molecule or ion.

  • The oxidation number of an atom in an elemental substance is zero.
  • The oxidation number of a monatomic ion is equal to the ion’s charge.
  • Hydrogen: +1 when combined with nonmetals, −1 when combined with metals
  • Oxygen: −2 in most compounds, sometimes −1 (so-called peroxides, O 2 2− ) , O 2 2− ) , very rarely − 1 2 − 1 2 (so-called superoxides, O 2 − ) , O 2 − ) , positive values when combined with F (values vary)
  • Halogens: −1 for F always, −1 for other halogens except when combined with oxygen or other halogens (positive oxidation numbers in these cases, varying values)
  • The sum of oxidation numbers for all atoms in a molecule or polyatomic ion equals the charge on the molecule or ion.

Note: The proper convention for reporting charge is to write the number first, followed by the sign (e.g., 2+), while oxidation number is written with the reversed sequence, sign followed by number (e.g., +2). This convention aims to emphasize the distinction between these two related properties.

Example 4.5

Assigning oxidation numbers.

(b) SO 3 2− SO 3 2−

(c) Na 2 SO 4

Using this oxidation number and the compound’s formula, guideline 4 may then be used to calculate the oxidation number for sulfur:

(b) Guideline 3 suggests the oxidation number for oxygen is −2.

Using this oxidation number and the ion’s formula, guideline 4 may then be used to calculate the oxidation number for sulfur:

(c) For ionic compounds, it’s convenient to assign oxidation numbers for the cation and anion separately.

According to guideline 2, the oxidation number for sodium is +1.

Assuming the usual oxidation number for oxygen (−2 per guideline 3), the oxidation number for sulfur is calculated as directed by guideline 4:

(a) K N O 3

(c) N _ H 4 + N _ H 4 +

(d) H 2 P _ O 4 − H 2 P _ O 4 −

(a) N, +5; (b) Al, +3; (c) N, −3; (d) P, +5

Using the oxidation number concept, an all-inclusive definition of redox reaction has been established. Oxidation-reduction (redox) reactions are those in which one or more elements involved undergo a change in oxidation number. (While the vast majority of redox reactions involve changes in oxidation number for two or more elements, a few interesting exceptions to this rule do exist Example 4.6 .) Definitions for the complementary processes of this reaction class are correspondingly revised as shown here:

Returning to the reactions used to introduce this topic, they may now both be identified as redox processes. In the reaction between sodium and chlorine to yield sodium chloride, sodium is oxidized (its oxidation number increases from 0 in Na to +1 in NaCl) and chlorine is reduced (its oxidation number decreases from 0 in Cl 2 to −1 in NaCl). In the reaction between molecular hydrogen and chlorine, hydrogen is oxidized (its oxidation number increases from 0 in H 2 to +1 in HCl) and chlorine is reduced (its oxidation number decreases from 0 in Cl 2 to −1 in HCl).

Several subclasses of redox reactions are recognized, including combustion reactions in which the reductant (also called a fuel ) and oxidant (often, but not necessarily, molecular oxygen) react vigorously and produce significant amounts of heat, and often light, in the form of a flame. Solid rocket-fuel reactions such as the one depicted in Figure 4.1 are combustion processes. A typical propellant reaction in which solid aluminum is oxidized by ammonium perchlorate is represented by this equation:

Watch a brief video showing the test firing of a small-scale, prototype, hybrid rocket engine planned for use in the new Space Launch System being developed by NASA. The first engines firing at 3 s (green flame) use a liquid fuel/oxidant mixture, and the second, more powerful engines firing at 4 s (yellow flame) use a solid mixture.

Single-displacement (replacement) reactions are redox reactions in which an ion in solution is displaced (or replaced) via the oxidation of a metallic element. One common example of this type of reaction is the acid oxidation of certain metals:

Metallic elements may also be oxidized by solutions of other metal salts; for example:

This reaction may be observed by placing copper wire in a solution containing a dissolved silver salt. Silver ions in solution are reduced to elemental silver at the surface of the copper wire, and the resulting Cu 2+ ions dissolve in the solution to yield a characteristic blue color ( Figure 4.9 ).

Example 4.6

Describing redox reactions.

(a) ZnCO 3 ( s ) ⟶ ZnO ( s ) + CO 2 ( g ) ZnCO 3 ( s ) ⟶ ZnO ( s ) + CO 2 ( g )

(b) 2 Ga ( l ) + 3 Br 2 ( l ) ⟶ 2 GaBr 3 ( s ) 2 Ga ( l ) + 3 Br 2 ( l ) ⟶ 2 GaBr 3 ( s )

(c) 2 H 2 O 2 ( a q ) ⟶ 2 H 2 O ( l ) + O 2 ( g ) 2 H 2 O 2 ( a q ) ⟶ 2 H 2 O ( l ) + O 2 ( g )

(d) BaCl 2 ( a q ) + K 2 SO 4 ( a q ) ⟶ BaSO 4 ( s ) + 2 KCl ( a q ) BaCl 2 ( a q ) + K 2 SO 4 ( a q ) ⟶ BaSO 4 ( s ) + 2 KCl ( a q )

(e) C 2 H 4 ( g ) + 3 O 2 ( g ) ⟶ 2 CO 2 ( g ) + 2 H 2 O ( l ) C 2 H 4 ( g ) + 3 O 2 ( g ) ⟶ 2 CO 2 ( g ) + 2 H 2 O ( l )

(a) This is not a redox reaction, since oxidation numbers remain unchanged for all elements.

(b) This is a redox reaction. Gallium is oxidized, its oxidation number increasing from 0 in Ga( l ) to +3 in GaBr 3 ( s ). The reducing agent is Ga( l ). Bromine is reduced, its oxidation number decreasing from 0 in Br 2 ( l ) to −1 in GaBr 3 ( s ). The oxidizing agent is Br 2 ( l ).

(c) This is a redox reaction. It is a particularly interesting process, as it involves the same element, oxygen, undergoing both oxidation and reduction (a so-called disproportionation reaction) . Oxygen is oxidized, its oxidation number increasing from −1 in H 2 O 2 ( aq ) to 0 in O 2 ( g ). Oxygen is also reduced, its oxidation number decreasing from −1 in H 2 O 2 ( aq ) to −2 in H 2 O( l ). For disproportionation reactions, the same substance functions as an oxidant and a reductant.

(d) This is not a redox reaction, since oxidation numbers remain unchanged for all elements.

(e) This is a redox reaction (combustion). Carbon is oxidized, its oxidation number increasing from −2 in C 2 H 4 ( g ) to +4 in CO 2 ( g ). The reducing agent (fuel) is C 2 H 4 ( g ). Oxygen is reduced, its oxidation number decreasing from 0 in O 2 ( g ) to −2 in H 2 O( l ). The oxidizing agent is O 2 ( g ).

Is this a redox reaction? If so, provide a more specific name for the reaction if appropriate, and identify the oxidant and reductant.

Yes, a single-replacement reaction. Sn( s ) is the reductant, HCl( g ) is the oxidant.

Balancing Redox Reactions via the Half-Reaction Method

Redox reactions that take place in aqueous media often involve water, hydronium ions, and hydroxide ions as reactants or products. Although these species are not oxidized or reduced, they do participate in chemical change in other ways (e.g., by providing the elements required to form oxyanions). Equations representing these reactions are sometimes very difficult to balance by inspection, so systematic approaches have been developed to assist in the process. One very useful approach is to use the method of half-reactions, which involves the following steps:

1. Write the two half-reactions representing the redox process.

2. Balance all elements except oxygen and hydrogen.

3. Balance oxygen atoms by adding H 2 O molecules.

4. Balance hydrogen atoms by adding H + ions.

5. Balance charge by adding electrons.

6. If necessary, multiply each half-reaction’s coefficients by the smallest possible integers to yield equal numbers of electrons in each.

7. Add the balanced half-reactions together and simplify by removing species that appear on both sides of the equation.

8. For reactions occurring in basic media (excess hydroxide ions), carry out these additional steps:

  • Add OH − ions to both sides of the equation in numbers equal to the number of H + ions.
  • On the side of the equation containing both H + and OH − ions, combine these ions to yield water molecules.
  • Simplify the equation by removing any redundant water molecules.

9. Finally, check to see that both the number of atoms and the total charges 1 are balanced.

Example 4.7

Balancing redox reactions in acidic solution.

Write the two half-reactions .

Each half-reaction will contain one reactant and one product with one element in common.

Balance all elements except oxygen and hydrogen . The iron half-reaction is already balanced, but the chromium half-reaction shows two Cr atoms on the left and one Cr atom on the right. Changing the coefficient on the right side of the equation to 2 achieves balance with regard to Cr atoms.

Balance oxygen atoms by adding H 2 O molecules . The iron half-reaction does not contain O atoms. The chromium half-reaction shows seven O atoms on the left and none on the right, so seven water molecules are added to the right side.

Balance hydrogen atoms by adding H + ions . The iron half-reaction does not contain H atoms. The chromium half-reaction shows 14 H atoms on the right and none on the left, so 14 hydrogen ions are added to the left side.

Balance charge by adding electrons . The iron half-reaction shows a total charge of 2+ on the left side (1 Fe 2+ ion) and 3+ on the right side (1 Fe 3+ ion). Adding one electron to the right side brings that side’s total charge to (3+) + (1−) = 2+, and charge balance is achieved.

The chromium half-reaction shows a total charge of (1 × × 2−) + (14 × × 1+) = 12+ on the left side ( 1 Cr 2 O 7 2− ( 1 Cr 2 O 7 2− ion and 14 H + ions). The total charge on the right side is (2 × × 3+) = 6 + (2 Cr 3+ ions). Adding six electrons to the left side will bring that side’s total charge to (12+ + 6−) = 6+, and charge balance is achieved.

Multiply the two half-reactions so the number of electrons in one reaction equals the number of electrons in the other reaction . To be consistent with mass conservation, and the idea that redox reactions involve the transfer (not creation or destruction) of electrons, the iron half-reaction’s coefficient must be multiplied by 6.

Add the balanced half-reactions and cancel species that appear on both sides of the equation .

Only the six electrons are redundant species. Removing them from each side of the equation yields the simplified, balanced equation here:

A final check of atom and charge balance confirms the equation is balanced.

  • 1 The requirement of “charge balance” is just a specific type of “mass balance” in which the species in question are electrons. An equation must represent equal numbers of electrons on the reactant and product sides, and so both atoms and charges must be balanced.

As an Amazon Associate we earn from qualifying purchases.

This book may not be used in the training of large language models or otherwise be ingested into large language models or generative AI offerings without OpenStax's permission.

Want to cite, share, or modify this book? This book uses the Creative Commons Attribution License and you must attribute OpenStax.

Access for free at https://openstax.org/books/chemistry-2e/pages/1-introduction
  • Authors: Paul Flowers, Klaus Theopold, Richard Langley, William R. Robinson, PhD
  • Publisher/website: OpenStax
  • Book title: Chemistry 2e
  • Publication date: Feb 14, 2019
  • Location: Houston, Texas
  • Book URL: https://openstax.org/books/chemistry-2e/pages/1-introduction
  • Section URL: https://openstax.org/books/chemistry-2e/pages/4-2-classifying-chemical-reactions

© Jan 8, 2024 OpenStax. Textbook content produced by OpenStax is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License . The OpenStax name, OpenStax logo, OpenStax book covers, OpenStax CNX name, and OpenStax CNX logo are not subject to the Creative Commons license and may not be reproduced without the prior and express written consent of Rice University.

types of reactions

All Formats

Resource types, all resource types, types of reactions.

  • Rating Count
  • Price (Ascending)
  • Price (Descending)
  • Most Recent

Preview of Lab Activity: Types of Chemical Reactions {Station learning procedure included!}

Lab Activity: Types of Chemical Reactions {Station learning procedure included!}

types of reactions worksheet 2

Identifying Types of Chemical Reactions and Balancing Worksheet

types of reactions worksheet 2

Types of Chemical Reactions Whodunnit Activity - Printable & Digital Game Option

types of reactions worksheet 2

  • Google Apps™

Preview of Chemical Reactions-34 TASK CARDS~ Balancing Equations & Types of Reactions

Chemical Reactions -34 TASK CARDS~ Balancing Equations & Types of Reactions

types of reactions worksheet 2

Types of Chemical Reactions Doodle Notes | Science Doodle Notes

types of reactions worksheet 2

Types of Chemical Reactions Activity & Chemical and Physical Changes Labs

types of reactions worksheet 2

Chemical Reactions Lab Color Change & Types of Chemical Reactions

Preview of Types of Chemical Reactions Activity

Types of Chemical Reactions Activity

types of reactions worksheet 2

Types of Chemical Reactions Video Lab

types of reactions worksheet 2

  • Internet Activities

Preview of Chemical Equations Package - Balancing Chemical Equations, Types of Reactions

Chemical Equations Package - Balancing Chemical Equations, Types of Reactions

types of reactions worksheet 2

Types of Chemical Reactions Matching Worksheet in Print and Digital

types of reactions worksheet 2

  • Easel Activity

Preview of Types of Chemical Reactions on Synthesis, Decomposition Displacement Combustion

Types of Chemical Reactions on Synthesis, Decomposition Displacement Combustion

types of reactions worksheet 2

Chemistry Lab Types Of Chemical Reactions

types of reactions worksheet 2

Types of Chemical Reactions - Color By Number

Preview of Types of Chemical Reactions: COLOR-BY-NUMBER

Types of Chemical Reactions : COLOR-BY-NUMBER

types of reactions worksheet 2

Balancing Chemical Equations, Word Equations, and Types of Reactions

types of reactions worksheet 2

Classifying Types of Chemical Reactions {Digital Card Sort}

  • Google Drive™ folder

Preview of Chemical Reactions: Types of Chemical Reactions Print/Digital |Distance Learning

Chemical Reactions : Types of Chemical Reactions Print/Digital |Distance Learning

Preview of Types of Chemical Reactions - Interactive Notes & PowerPoint

Types of Chemical Reactions - Interactive Notes & PowerPoint

types of reactions worksheet 2

Types of Chemical Reactions Doodle Notes Activity

types of reactions worksheet 2

4 TYPES OF CHEMICAL REACTIONS Bundle of Lab Activities Synthesis, Decomposition

types of reactions worksheet 2

Balancing Chemical Equations/ Types of Reactions Tarsia Puzzle

types of reactions worksheet 2

Types of Chemical Reactions Doodle Notes

Preview of Acids and Bases Chemical Reactions Lab and Types of Chemical Reactions

Acids and Bases Chemical Reactions Lab and Types of Chemical Reactions

  • We're hiring
  • Help & FAQ
  • Privacy policy
  • Student privacy
  • Terms of service
  • Tell us what you think
  • Chemical Reactions and Equations
  • Types Of Chemical Reactions

Types of Chemical Reactions

During a chemical reaction, the substances that react are known as reactants whereas the substances that are formed during a chemical reaction are known as products . Six common types of chemical reactions are discussed below.

Table of Contents

Recommended videos, different types of chemical reactions, example problem, frequently asked questions – faqs.

Different Types of Chemical Reactions

Different Types of Chemical Reactions – Combination, Decomposition, Combustion, Neutralization & Displacement Reactions

Also, check ⇒  Chemistry Concept Questions and Answers

Chemical Reactions and Equations – Types of Chemical Reactions

types of reactions worksheet 2

Types Of Organic Reactions

types of reactions worksheet 2

The 5 primary types of chemical reactions are:

  • Combination reaction
  • Decomposition reaction
  • Displacement reaction
  • Double Displacement reaction
  • Precipitation Reaction

1. Combination Reaction

  • A reaction in which two or more reactants combine to form a single product is known as a combination reaction.
  • It takes the form of X + Y → XY
  • Combination reaction is also known as a synthesis reaction.
  • Example of combination reaction: 2Na + Cl 2  → 2NaCl

Related Video

Combination reactions.

types of reactions worksheet 2

2. Decomposition Reaction

  • A reaction in which a single compound breaks into two or more simpler compounds is known as a decomposition reaction.
  • It takes the form of XY → X + Y
  • A decomposition reaction is just the opposite of a combination reaction.
  • Example of a decomposition reaction: CaCO 3  → CaO + CO 2
  • The reaction in which a compound decomposes due to heating is known as a thermal decomposition reaction.

3. Displacement Reaction

  • A chemical reaction in which a more reactive element displaces a less reactive element from its aqueous salt solution.
  • It takes the form X + YZ → XZ + Y
  • It is also called a substitution reaction
  • Example of displacement reaction: Zn + CuSO 4  → ZnSO 4 + Cu

4. Double Displacement Reaction

  • A chemical reaction in which ions get exchanged between two reactants which form a new compound is called a double displacement reaction.
  • It takes the form of XY + ZA → XZ + YA
  • It is also called a metathesis reaction
  • Example of double displacement reaction:

\(\begin{array}{l}~~~~~~~~~~~\end{array} \) BaCl 2 + Na 2 SO 4  → BaSO 4 + 2NaCl

5. Precipitation Reaction

  • A chemical reaction that involves the formation of an insoluble product (precipitate; solid) is called Precipitation reaction.
  • The reactants are soluble, but the product formed would be insoluble and separates out as a solid.
  • The chemical equation by which a chemical change is described is adequate for reaction in solutions, but for reactions of ionic compounds in aqueous solution (water), the typical molecular equation has different representations.
  • A molecular equation may indicate formulas of reactants and products that are not present and eliminate completely the formulas of the ions that are the real reactants and products.
  • If the substance in the molecular equation that is actually present as dissociated ions are written in the form of their ions, the result is an ionic equation.

A precipitation reaction occurs when a solution, originally containing dissolved species, produces a solid, which generally is denser and falls to the bottom of the reaction vessel.

The most common precipitation reactions occurring in aqueous solution involve the formation of an insoluble ionic compound when two solutions containing soluble compounds are mixed. Consider what happens when an aqueous solution of NaCl is added to an aqueous solution of AgNO 3 . The first solution contains hydrated Na + and Cl − ions and the second solution, Ag + , and NO 3 − ions.

NaCl(s) → Na + (aq) + Cl − (aq)

AgNO 3 (s) → Ag + (aq) + NO 3 − (aq)

When mixed, a double displacement reaction takes place, forming the soluble compound NaNO 3 and the insoluble compound AgCl. In the reaction vessel, the Ag + and Cl − ions combine, and a white solid precipitated from the solution. As the solid precipitates, the Na + and NO 3 − ions remain in solution.

The overall double displacement reaction is represented by the following balanced equation:

NaCl(aq) + AgNO 3 (aq) → AgCl(s) + NaNO 3 (aq)

  • When aqueous solutions of Pb(NO 3 ) 2 and KI are mixed, does a precipitate form?
  • Write a balanced equation for the precipitation reaction that occurs when aqueous solutions of copper(II) iodide and potassium hydroxide are combined.

You are asked to predict whether a precipitate will form during a chemical reaction and to write a balanced equation for a precipitation reaction.

You are given the identity of two reactants.

1. Yes, a solid precipitate, PbI 2 , forms when these solutions are mixed:

Pb(NO 3 ) 2 (aq) + KI(aq)  → PbI 2 (s) + 2KNO 3 (aq)

2. The two products of the reaction are insoluble copper (II) hydroxide and soluble potassium  iodide.

CuI 2 (aq) + 2 KOH(aq)  → Cu(OH) 2 (s) + 2 KI(aq)

How do you identify a chemical reaction?

A chemical reaction is typically followed by physical signs that are readily detected, such as heat and light emission, precipitate formation, gas evolution, or a change of appearance.

How do you identify physical and chemical changes?

The shape or form of the matter varies through a physical transition, but the sort of matter in the material does not. In a chemical shift, however, the type of matter shifts and at least one new material with new properties is created. There is no straight cut of the gap between physical and chemical transition.

Why do we write a chemical equation?

The purpose of writing a balanced chemical equation is to explain the occurring reactants (starting material) and products (end results). The ratios in which they answer so that you can measure the amount of reactants you need and the amount of goods you can make.

What is chemical reaction and equation?

A chemical equation is the symbolic representation in the form of symbols and formulas of a chemical reaction in which the reactant entities on the left-hand side and the product entities on the right-hand side are given.

What is the skeleton equation?

A skeleton equation is when each product that takes part in the reaction is written with the chemical formulas describing the chemical reaction. Examples: The term equation: oxygen + methane. Dioxide with carbon + Vapour.

Quiz Image

Put your understanding of this concept to test by answering a few MCQs. Click ‘Start Quiz’ to begin!

Select the correct answer and click on the “Finish” button Check your score and answers at the end of the quiz

Visit BYJU’S for all Chemistry related queries and study materials

Your result is as below

Request OTP on Voice Call

Leave a Comment Cancel reply

Your Mobile number and Email id will not be published. Required fields are marked *

Post My Comment

types of reactions worksheet 2

Very nice and helpful 😊😊🌟🌟🦄🌟🌟

VERY HELPFUL AND GREAT EFFORTS TAKEN

Thanks for this 🤗🤗🤗

Thank you so much, this is very helpful especially in my course.

thank you this is so helpul

Thanks for this

This was very helpful for me. Thank you.

Thank you so much very helpful🥰🥰

types of reactions worksheet 2

  • Share Share

Register with BYJU'S & Download Free PDFs

Register with byju's & watch live videos.

close

IMAGES

  1. Types of Chemical Reactions Worksheets

    types of reactions worksheet 2

  2. Types Of Reactions: A Comprehensive Worksheet With Answers

    types of reactions worksheet 2

  3. 14 Chemical Reactions Worksheet / worksheeto.com

    types of reactions worksheet 2

  4. Types of Reactions Worksheet for 9th

    types of reactions worksheet 2

  5. Types of Chemical Reactions Worksheets

    types of reactions worksheet 2

  6. 16 Types Chemical Reactions Worksheets Answers

    types of reactions worksheet 2

VIDEO

  1. Solutions || IIT&JEE Questions NO 06 || X Class

  2. AP Chemistry balancing equations by redox method

  3. Types of Chemical Reactions

  4. Solutions || IIT&JEE Questions NO 10 || X Class

  5. 29 Science chemical reactions

  6. Solutions || IIT&JEE Questions NO 08 || X Class

COMMENTS

  1. PDF Types of Reactions Worksheet

    Types of Reactions Worksheet - Solutions Balance the following equations and indicate the type of reaction taking place: 1) 3 NaBr + 1 H3PO 4 1 Na 3PO 4 + 3 HBr Type of reaction: double displacement 2) 3 Ca(OH) 2 + 1 Al 2(SO 4)3 3 CaSO 4 + 2 Al(OH) 3 Type of reaction: double displacement 3) 3 Mg + 1 Fe 2O3 2 Fe + 3 MgO Type of reaction: single displacement 4) 1 C2H4 + 3 O2 2 CO 2 + 2 H2O

  2. PDF Types of Chemical Reaction Worksheet

    Types of Chemical Reactions Answers Balance each of the following reactions and identify each type of reaction: 2 NaBr + Ca(OH)2 CaBr2 + 2 NaOH double displacement 2 NH3+ H2SO4 (NH4)2SO4 4 C5H9O + 29 O2 20 CO2 + 18 H2O 3 Pb + 2 H3PO4 3 H2 + Pb3(PO4)2 Li3N + 3 NH4NO3 3 LiNO3 + (NH4)3N

  3. Balance the reactions 1 to 6

    Types of Chemical Reaction Worksheet Balance the reactions 1 to 6 and indicate which type of chemical reaction (synthesis, decomposition, single-displacement, double-displacement or combustion) is being represented: ____ NaBr + ____ Ca(OH)2 ___ CaBr2 + ____ NaOH ____ NH3+ ____ H2SO4 ____ (NH4)2SO4 Reaction Type : ______________

  4. PDF Types Of Reaction Wksht 2 Answers

    Balance the equation. 2. Identify the type of reaction (synthesis, decomposition, etc.). Reaction Type 1. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. KC103 ZKCI + 302 L KF+ I Br2 Na2S04 + \ *LNaN03+ PbS04 C3H8+ C02 1-120 zn+ LHCI+ +1 10. 11. 12. 13. NaC1 8.2Na+LH20+ LNaOH +1 + C02 +bH20 10. LHg+ 02 11.3 caC12 + 12. | ) H20 13. Mg+ +

  5. 4.E: Chemical Reactions and Equations (Exercises)

    Write the net ionic equation for the reaction of Fe 2 (SO 4) 3 (aq) and Sr(NO 3) 2 (aq). You may have to consult the solubility rules. Identify the spectator ions in Exercises 9 and 10. ... Na 2 S; Disproportion is a type of redox reaction in which the same substance is both oxidized and reduced. Identify the element that is disproportionating ...

  6. PDF Types of Reactions Worksheet

    Types of Reactions Worksheet W 326 Everett Community College Student Support Services Program Balance the following equations and state what reaction type is taking place: 1) ____ C 5 H 12 + ____ O 2 ____ CO 2 + ____ H 2 O + heat Reaction type: _____ 2) ____ K 3 PO 4

  7. PDF Types of Reactions Worksheet

    3 Mg + 1 Fe2O3 2 Fe + 3 MgO. C2H4 + 3 O2 2 CO2 + 2 H2O. PbSO4 2 PbSO3 + 1 O2. 2 NH3 + 3 I2 1 N2I6 + 3 H2. 1 H2O + 1 SO3 1 H2SO4 Type of reaction: double displacement.

  8. PDF Types of Chemical Reactions and Balancing Worksheet

    The reaction of iron metal with oxygen to form iron (III) oxide. Aluminum metal is oxidized by oxygen (from the air) rust in a synthesis reaction. Sodium oxide reacts with carbon dioxide in a synthesis reaction to form sodium carbonate. Calcium metal reacts with water to form calcium hydroxide and hydrogen gas.

  9. PDF Types of Reactions Worksheet

    Types of Reactions Worksheet Balance the following equations and indicate the type of reaction taking place: 1) ____ NaBr + ____ H 3 PO 4 ____ Na 3 PO 4 + ____ HBr

  10. Chemistry: Types of Reactions Worksheet 2

    This worksheet provides students with 30 questions for identifying the type of reaction portrayed including synthesis, combustion, decomposition, single replacement, double replacement reactions. An answer key is provided. Can accompany Modern Chemistry by Holt, Rinehart, and Winston (1st edition) textbook.

  11. Types of chemical reaction

    Posted on March 30, 2016 by misterguch Types of reaction: Types of Reaction Worksheet: Practice your six types of reaction. Types of Chemical Reaction II (dd-ch): More practice with figuring out the types of chemical reaction. Types of Chemical Reaction III (dd-ch): You can probably guess what this is on your own.

  12. 6.14.2: Types of Reactions (Exercises)

    Types of Chemical Reactions Exercises. 1. Write a balanced molecular equation describing each of the following chemical reactions. a. Solid calcium carbonate is heated and decomposes to solid calcium oxide and carbon dioxide gas. b. Gaseous butane, C4H10, reacts with diatomic oxygen gas to yield gaseous carbon dioxide and water vapor.

  13. Science: Chapter 7 Chemical Reactions- Section 2 Types of ...

    2Na + Cl2 >>>> 2NaCl; 2H2 + O2 >>>> 2H2O. Classifying Reactions: Write the equation for the decomposition of calcium carbonate into calcium oxide. and carbon dioxide. CaCO3 >>>> CaO + CO2. Classifying Reactions: Copper reacts with silver nitrate in a single-replacement reaction. What are the products of.

  14. Types of Chemical Reactions Key

    1. The chemical equations in Model 1 contain the phase notations (s), (l), (g), and (aq). Write each symbol by each meaning. dissolved in water liquid solid gas (aq) (l) (s) (g) 2. Based on the...

  15. 5.3: Types of Chemical Reactions

    The five basic types of chemical reactions are combination, decomposition, single-replacement, double-replacement, and combustion. Analyzing the reactants and products of a given reaction will allow you to place it into one of these categories. Some reactions will fit into more than one category.

  16. 4.2 Classifying Chemical Reactions

    Define three common types of chemical reactions (precipitation, acid-base, and oxidation-reduction) Classify chemical reactions as one of these three types given appropriate descriptions or chemical equations. Predict the solubility of common inorganic compounds by using solubility rules. Humans interact with one another in various and complex ...

  17. 2- Types of Reactions and Key

    Types of Reactions Worksheet - Solutions. Balance the following equations and indicate the type of reaction taking place: 3 NaBr + 1 H 3 PO 4 1 Na 3 PO 4 + 3 HBr Type of reaction: double displacement; 3 Ca(OH) 2 + 1 Al 2 (SO 4 ) 3 3 CaSO 4 + 2 Al(OH) 3 Type of reaction: double displacement;

  18. Level 9: The 5 Types of Chemical Reactions #2

    Level 9: The 5 Types of Chemical Reactions #2. 1. With a partner watch the Virtual Chemical Reactions Video and complete the Virtual Chemical Reactions Lab 2. On your own complete Chemical Reactions #3 for the classroom quiz 3. Take the practice quiz on the top right hand side of this tutorial web page to see if you are prepared for the quiz 4 ...

  19. Types of reactions worksheet 2

    2 NO 2 2 O 2 + N 2; Types of Chemical Reactions Answers. Balance each of the following reactions and identify each type of reaction: 1. 2 NaBr + Ca(OH) 2 CaBr 2 + 2 NaOH double displacement. 2 NH 3 + H 2 SO 4 (NH 4 ) 2 SO 4 synthesis. 4 C 5 H 9 O + 29 O 2 20 CO 2 + 18 H 2 O combustion. 3 Pb + 2 H 3 PO 4 3 H 2 + Pb 3 (PO 4 ) 2 single displacement

  20. PDF Chemical Reactions Worksheet #1

    Name: _____ Period: _____ Date: _____ Score:_____ C h e mi c al R e ac ti on s Wor k s h e e t #1 - I d e n ti fyi n g R e ac ti on T yp e s

  21. Results for types of reactions

    The 5 types of chemical reactions explored include synthesis, decomposition, combustion, single replacement and double replacement. The interactive notes align with a PowerPoint slide show and an animated video, both of which are included. Options for in person instruction and distance learning are incl. Subjects:

  22. Chapter 12- lesson 2- types of chemical reactions Flashcards

    Terms in this set (23) There are how many types of chemical reactions? 4. each type of chemical reaction follows a unique _________ in the way atoms in reactants ______________ to form products. pattern, rearrange. If you know the 4 types of chemical reactions will help you: product how substances will react and what products they will form.

  23. Types of Chemical Reactions

    The 5 primary types of chemical reactions are: Combination reaction. Decomposition reaction. Displacement reaction. Double Displacement reaction. Precipitation Reaction. 1. Combination Reaction. A reaction in which two or more reactants combine to form a single product is known as a combination reaction.