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Solved Assignments

Solved assignments autumn 2021, فری حل شدہ اسائنمنٹس download.

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Download AIOU Solved Assignments 2021: Spring & Autumn • PDFs

AIOU Solved Assignments for All programs in PDf

Now you can download your AIOU Solved Assignments either of Semester Spring or Semester Autumn for FREE. All assignments are in PDF and easily accesible for the students.

So, here below are the Solved Assignments for Matric, Intermediate (FA, I.Com), Bachelors (BS, BA, B.Ed), Masters (MA, MEd, M. phil), PhD. Find AIOU Tutor online for All Program by Roll Number

Note : All Assignments are uploaded and updated from third-party service. If some assignments are not available then wait for a span of time. We do not upload these assignment directly from us.

Check Also: Download AIOU Books in PDF online of All Program

AIOU Intermediate (FA, I.Com) Solved Assignments 2021

Students who take admission in AIOU Intermediate Programs are really newbies to AIOU System and not much familiar with the AIOU Rules and Regulations.

Allama Iqbal Open University Intermediate (FA, I.Com) solved assignments are available in PDF Format and you can easily save these or download these files into your Mobile or PC easily.

Download your AIOU Intermediate Solved Assignments from the above mentioned button.

Note: Check AIOU Tutor Letter online by Roll Number [Updated]

AIOU B.Ed Solved Assignments 2021

Allama Iqbal Open University offers B.Ed program of 1.5, 2.5 & 4 years. You have to submit your Assignments in each semester and it is mandatory to get passing marks in each assignment.

All assignments are updated for AIOU B.Ed program for 2021 in Semester Spring & Semester Autumn on the page.

Click on the link above above and download your desired solved assignment in PDF, which will be easily accessible.

Note: Check AIOU BA Program Details [Admission, Fee, Result, Books]

AIOU BA Solved Assignments 2021

BA (Gen. Group) is the most enrolled program by students in Allama Iqbal Open University. And, students have to submit their assignments because the Obtained Marks in assignments will be counted in final exams.

So, download all BA codes assignments from the below button of both Semester Spring & Semester Autumn.

If you can an assignment of a specific code is missing or there is any issue regarding this then you may let us know by sending us a comment from below.

Note: Download AIOU Books in PDF 2021

AIOU BS ODL Solved Assignments 2021

There is a wide-range program offered by Allama Iqbal Open University to its students. Students of BS ODL are also required to send Assignments to their Tutor every semester.

All assignments will be checked by your tutor and the Obtained Marks will be counted counted in final exams.

Note: Check AIOU Date Sheet of All Programs 2021

AIOU Associate Degree Program (ADP) Solved Assignments 2021

Associate Degree Program is also a best choice for the students of AIOU. Assignments are also mandatory for ADP students to submit them to assigned tutor.

You are requested not to copy these solved assignments as same as they are. All these solved assignments are just for your guidance.

Note: Check AIOU Roll Number Slip 2021

AIOU Masters (MA, MSc, M.Ed) Solved Assignments 2021

All you need to download the AIOU MA, M.Ed Assignments is click on the click below button. It will redirect you to dedicated page for AIOU Solved Assignments.

Solved Assignments for both Semester Spring & Semester Autumn are updated. All these solved assignments are just a click away.

Note: Check AIOU Result 2021 by Roll Number [Updated]

How to submit AIOU Assignments?

Well, now in this 2002 Allama Iqbal Open University has provided two options to submit their assignments. Either you can use AIOU LMS (Agahi Portal) to submit your assignments or you can send your assignments to your Tutor.

So, first of check your Updated AIOU Tutor Letter record from here.

And, just send these assignments in an envalope at your Tutor Address.

And, the second option is to scan your hand-written assignments to soft-form and upload them on AIOU LMS (Agahi Portal).

Keep remembered that the maximum size for one assignment to upload is 5 MB and only PDF or DOCX files are permitted.

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You can use any Scanner (CamScanner) in your Mobile Phone and can scan the pages of written assignments to a PDF file in that Scanner App.

Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs)

How much assignments marks are added in final result.

It is mandatory for every student to submit the assignments and get passing marks in Assignments. In the final result, 70% Marks are counted from your Final Exams and 30% Marks are counted from your Assignments.

What if I do not submit Assignments?

If you do not submit your assignments or you are failed to get passing marks in assignments then in your result Re-Appear will be written. This means that you have to take the exams again and have to submit your assignments again.

Is it necessary to submit Assignments to Allama Iqbal Open University- AIOU?

Yes, It is necessary to submit AIOU Assignments to your tutor else you will be considered to fail in your final result. You will also get failed in your final results if you are unable to get passing marks in your assignments. Your AOU Tutor marks your assignments in the same way as your papers are checked in the annual examination.

How I can download these AIOU Solved Assignments?

Well, you can download these solved assignments in PDF by going to the section for which you want to download Solved Assignments. If you want to download AIOU Solved Assignment for the B.Ed program then click on the Button above for B.Ed solved assignment. And, you will be directed toward a dedicated page for B.Ed Solved Assignments where you can download them in PDF.

What if I get failed in Assignment Marks even after sending them to Tutor?

If you sent your written assignments to your tutor or uploaded them on AIOU LMS portal and still you get failed in Assignments Marks then you should contact AIOU Regional office. Provide them your receipt of sending assignments to Tutor and fill an Application Form for the correction of your result.

Ask your Question

You can easily ask your questions in the  comments  below. Our team will try their best to promptly help you and will answer your questions as soon as possible.

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CBCS (B.COM, B.SC, BAG) assignments

  • BA CBCS (BAG)
  • BSC CBCS (BCSG)
  • BCOM CBCS (BCOMG)

bachelor (honours) courses

  • B.A. Honours History (BAHIH)
  • B.A. Honours Sociology (BASOH)
  • B.A. Honours Psychology (BAPCH)
  • B. A. Economics Honours (BAECH)
  • B.A. Honours Political Science (BAPSH)
  • B.Sc. Honours Anthropology (BSCANH)
  • B.A. Honors Sanskrit Program (BASKH)
  • B.A. Hindi Honours Programme (BAHDH)
  • B.A. English Honours Programme (BAEGH)
  • B.A. Honours Public Administration (BAPAH)

Bachelor Degree assignments

  • BBA (General)
  • BA Sociology | ESO
  • Tourism | BTS | TS
  • BCOM | BCOE | ECO
  • BA Philosophy | BPY
  • BA(Gender Studies)
  • BA Social Work | BSW
  • BA Hindi | BHDE | EHD
  • BA History | BHIE | EHI
  • BA Foundation Courses
  • BA English | BEGE | EEG
  • BAAUD  (BA Applied Urdu)
  • BAAHD  (BA Applied Hindi)
  • BA Psychology | BPC | BPCE
  • BA in Economics |BECE | EEC
  • BAASK  (BA Applied Sanskrit)
  • Bachelor of Education (B.Ed.)
  • BA Application-Oriented Courses
  • BA in Political Science | BPSE | EPS
  • BA Public Administration | BPAE | EPA
  • B.COM(A&F) /B.COM(CA & A)/B.COM(F& CA)
  • B.Sc. in Hosp. and Hotel Administration(BHM)
  • BACHELOR’S DEGREE IN SOCIAL WORK (BSWG)
  • Bachelor of Arts (Facility and Services Management)(BAFSM)
  • Bachelor of Business Administration in Retailing (BBA) (OLD)
  • Bachelor of Business Administration in Retailing (BBA) (NEW)
  • BAVTM  (B.A (VOCATIONAL STUDIES) TOURISM MANAGEMENT)
  • B.A (Vocational Studies) Micro Small and Medium Enterprises (BAVMSME)
  • Bachelor of Library and Information Science (BLIS) | BLIE BA Library Science

computer application

  • Bachelor of Computer Application(BCA)
  • Master of Computer Application(MCA)
  • Master of Computer Application (MCA_NEW)
  • POST-GRADUATE DIPLOMA IN COMPUTER APPLICATIONS PGDCA-(NEW)

Master of Commerce

  • Master of Commerce (M.Com) (NEW)
  • Master of Commerce (M.Com) 1st Year | IBO
  • Master of Commerce (M.Com) 2nd Year | MCO
  • Master of Commerce (Finance & Taxation) [M.Com (F &T)]
  • Master of Commerce (In Business Policy and Corporate Governance) [M.Com (BP &CG)]
  • Master of Commerce (Management Accounting & Financial Strategic [M.Com (MA &FS)]

Master Degree Assignments

  • MA Hindi | MHD
  • MA Hindi | MAHV
  • MA History | MHI
  • MA English | MEG
  • MA History | MAHI
  • M.A. French (MAFL)
  • MA Tourism | MTTM
  • M.A.(Economics)/MEC
  • MA Social Work | MSW
  • MA Philosophy | MPY
  • MA Education | MAEDU
  • M.A. (Hindu Studies) MAHN
  • MSc in Geography (MSCGG)
  • MA in Political Science | MPS
  • MA Sociology | MSO | MSOE
  • MA Library Science | MLIS
  • MA Psychology | MPC | MPCE
  • MA Public Administration | MPA
  • MA Rural Development | MRD
  • Masters in Anthropology (MAAN)
  • MSC GEOINFORMATICS (MSCGI)
  • M.Sc.(Applied Statistic) (MSCAST)
  • Master of Arts (Russian) (MARUS)
  • M.Sc. (Physics) Programme (MSCPH)
  • MASTER’S OF ARTS IN URDU(MAUD)
  • MASTER OF ARTS (ARABIC) (MAARB)
  • Master of Arts in Urban Studies(MAUS)
  • M.A in Development Journalism (MADJ)
  • MASTER’S OF ARTS IN SANSKRIT (MSK)
  • MASTER’S OF ARTS IN JYOTISH (MAJY)
  • MASTER OF ARTS (ECONOMICS) (MAEC)
  • Master of Arts in Adult Education (MAAE)
  • M A in Migration and Diaspora (MAMIDI)
  • Master of Arts (Entrepreneurship) (MAER)
  • Master of Arts (Translation Studies) MATS
  • Master of Arts (Drawing and Painting) (MADP)
  • MA in Women’s and Gender Studies (MAWGS)
  • Master of Arts in Sustainability Science (MASS)
  • MA in Women’s and Gender Studies (MAWGSR)
  • Master of Arts in Development Studies (MADVS)
  • Master of Arts (Environmental Studies) (MAEVS)
  • MASTER’S OF ARTS IN VAIDIK STUDIES(MAVS)
  • Master of Arts in Sustainability Science (MASS-OL)
  • MASTER OF SOCIAL WORK COUNSELLING (MSW(C)
  • MASTER OF ARTS IN DISTANCE EDUCATION (MADE)
  • Master of Arts in Gandhi and Peace Studies (MAGPS)
  • MA IN JOURNALISM AND DIGITAL MEDIA (MAJDM)
  • Master of Science (Environmental Science) (MSCENV)
  • MA (GENDER AND DEVELOPMENT STUDIES) (MAGD)
  • MASTER’S OF ARTS IN SANSKRIT (ONLINE) (MSK-OL)
  • MA in Environmental and Occupational Health (MAEOH)
  • Master of Arts in Corporate Social Responsibility (MACSR)
  • MASTER OF SCIENCE (INFORMATION SECURITY) (MSCIS)
  • Master of Science in Counselling and Family Therapy (MSCCFT)
  • MSCRWEE Programme M.Sc (Renewable Energy and Environment)
  • M.SC. IN FOOD SAFETY AND QUALITY MANAGEMENT (MSCFSQM)
  • Master of Science in Dietetics and Food Service Management M.Sc. (DFSM)
  • MASTER’S OF ARTS M.A. IN FOLKLORE AND CULTURE STUDIES(MAFCS)
  • MASTERS OF ARTS IN JOURNALISM AND ELECTRONIC MEDIA (MAJEM)
  • MASTER OF ARTS (JOURNALISM AND MASS COMMUNICATION) MA (JMC)
  • MA | MSc (Mathematics with Applications in Computer Science) (MACS) | MMT
  • MBA (NEW)/MBAOL
  • Post Graduate Diploma in Services Management (PGDISM)
  • Post Graduate Diploma in Financial Management (PGDIFM)
  • Post Graduate Diploma in Marketing Management (PGDIMM)
  • Post Graduate Diploma in Operations Management (PGDIOM)
  • Master of Business Administration (Banking and Finance) (MBF)
  • Post Graduate Diploma in Human Resource Management (PGDIHRM)
  • Master of Business Administration(Operations Management) (MBAOM)
  • Master of Business Administration(Marketing Management) (MBAMM)
  • Master of Business Administration(Financial Management) (MBAFM)/)
  • Master of Business Administration(Human Resource Management) (MBAHM)

P.G. Diploma Programmes

  • PG Diploma in Translation (PGDT)
  • PG Diploma in Animal Welfare (PGDAW)
  • Diploma in Information Security (PGDIS)
  • PG DIPLOMA IN MENTAL HEALTH (PGDMH)
  • PG Diploma in Translation (PGDT) (Revised)
  • PG Diploma in Development Studies (PGDDVS)
  • Post Graduate Diploma(Vastushastra) (PGDVS)
  • Post Graduate Diploma in Agribusiness (PGDAB)
  • PG DIPLOMA IN ELECTRONIC MEDIA (PGDEME)
  • Post Graduate Diploma in Digital Media (PGDIDM)
  • Post Graduate Diploma in Counselling (PGDCOUN)
  • Post-Graduate Diploma in Adult Education (PGDAE)
  • Post-Graduate Diploma in Book Publishing (PGDBP)
  • Post Graduate Diploma in Criminal Justice (PGDCJ)
  • Post Graduate Diploma in Rural Development (PGDRD)
  • POST GRADUATE DIPLOMA IN THE NOVEL (PGDNOV)
  • Post Graduate Diploma in Sustainability Science (PGDSS)
  • Post Graduate Diploma in Disaster Management (PGDDM)
  • Post Graduate Diploma in Environmental Studies (PGDEVS)
  • PGD/MA Degree in Women’s and Gender Studies (PGDWGS)
  • Post Graduate Diploma in Pre-primary Education(PGDPPEd)
  • POST GRADUATE DIPLOMA IN GEOINFORMATICS (PGDGI)
  • Post Graduate Diploma in Gandhi and Peace Studies ( PGDGPS )
  • POST GRADUATION DIPLOMA IN HIGHER EDUCATION PGDHE
  • POST GRADUATE DIPLOMA IN DISTANCE EDUCATION (PGDDE)
  • POST GRADUATE DIPLOMA IN WRITINGS FROM INDIA (PGDWI)
  • POST GRADUATE DIPLOMA IN INDUSTRIAL SAFETY (PGDINDS)
  • Post Graduate Diploma in Rural Development (online) (PGDRDOL)
  • POST GRADUATE DIPLOMA IN BRITISH LITERATURE (PGDBLT)
  • Post Graduate Diploma in Corporate Social Responsibility (PGDCSR)
  • Post Graduate Diploma in Counselling and Family Therapy (PGDCFT)
  • POST GRADUATE DIPLOMA IN AMERICAN LITERATURE (PGDAML)
  • Post Graduate Diploma in Women’s and Gender Studies (PGDWGS-R)
  • Post Graduate Diploma in International Business Operations (PGDIBO)
  • Post Graduate Diploma in Pharmaceutical Sales Management (PGDPSM)
  • POST GRADUATE DIPLOMA IN EDUCATIONAL TECHNOLOGY (PGDET)
  • Post Graduate Diploma in Urban Planning and Development (PGDUPDL)
  • Post Graduate Diploma in Hospital and Health management (PGDHHM)
  • Post Graduate Diploma in Journalism and Mass Communication (PGJMC)
  • Post-Graduate Diploma in School Leadership and Management (PGDSLM)
  • PG DIPLOMA IN FOOD SAFETY AND QUALITY MANAGEMENT (PGDFSQM)
  • Post Graduate Diploma in Environmental Management and Law (PGDEML)
  • Post Graduate Diploma in Population and Family Health Studies (PGDPFHS)
  • POST GRADUATE DIPLOMA IN DEVELOPMENT COMMUNICTAION (PGDDC)
  • Post Graduate Diploma in Environmental and Occupational Health(PGDEOH)
  • POST GRADUATE DIPLOMA IN WRITINGS FROM THE MARGINS (PGDWM)
  • POST GRADUATE DIPLOMA IN NEW LITERATURES IN ENGLISH (PGDNLEG)
  • Post-Graduate Diploma in Environment and Sustainable Development (PGDESD)
  • POST GRADUATE DIPLOMA IN FOLKLORE AND CULTURE STUDIES (PGDFCS)
  • POST GRADUATE DIPLOMA IN INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY RIGHTS (PGDIPR)
  • Post Graduate Diploma in Educational Management and Administration (PGDEMA)

Diploma Programmes

  • Diploma in Horticulture (DHORT)
  • Diploma in Tourism Studies (DTS)
  • Diploma in Event Management (DEVMT)
  • Diploma in Nursing Administration (DNA)
  • Diploma in Creative Writing in English (DCE)
  • Diploma in Nutrition and Health Education (DNHE)
  • Diploma in Early Childhood Care and Education (DECE)
  • Diploma in Smart City Development and Management (DSCDM)
  • DIPLOMA IN PANCHAYAT LEVEL ADMINISTRATION AND DEVELOPMENT (DPLAD)
  • DIPLOMA PROGRAMME IN WOMEN’S EMPOWERMENT AND DEVELOPMENT (DWED)

Certificate Programmes

  • Certificate in Bee Keeping (CIB)
  • Certificate in Vedic Ganit (CVG)
  • Certificate in Sericulture (CIS)
  • Certificate in Human Rights (CHR)
  • CERTIFICATE IN GUIDANCE (CIG)
  • Certificate in Tourism Studies (CTS)
  • Certificate in Organic Farming (COF)
  • Certificate in Fashion Design (CFDE)
  • Certificate Programme in Yoga (CPY)
  • Certificate in NGO Management (CNM)
  • Certificate in Food and Nutrition (CFN)
  • Certificate in Rural Development (CRD)
  • Certificate in Gender and Science (CGSCI) 
  • Certificate in Information Technology (CIT)
  • CERTIFICATE IN GENDER IN LAW (CGSL)
  • Certificate in Nutrition and Childcare (CNCC)
  • Certificate in Apparel Merchandising CAPMER
  • CERTIFICATE IN GERMAN LANGUAGE [CGL]
  • Certificate Programme in French Language CFL
  • Certificate Program in Indian Chronology (CBKG)
  • Certificate Programme in Functional English CFE
  • Certificate Programme in Value Education (CPVE)
  • Diploma in HIV and Family Education CAFE/DAFE
  • Post-Graduate Certificate in Patent Practice (PGCPP)
  • Certificate in Health Care Waste Management (CHCWM)
  • Certificate in Water Harvesting and Management (CWHM)
  • BPCCHN/CCH (Certificate in Community Health for Nurses)
  • Certificate in Communication and IT Skills programme (CCITSK)
  • Certificate in Social Work and Criminal Justice System (CSWCJS)
  • CERTIFICATE PROGRAMME IN DISASTER MANAGEMENT (CDM)
  • Advanced Certificate in Power Distribution Management (ACPDM)
  • Certificate Programme in Library and Information Science (CLIS)BLII
  • CERTIFICATE IN SPANISH LANGUAGE AND CULTURE (CSLC) (CSLCOL)
  • Certficate Programme in Teaching of Primary School Mathematics (CTPM)
  • Certificate Programme in Peace Studies and Conflict Management (CPSCM)
  • CERTIFICATE PROGRAMME ON LIFE AND THOUGHT OF B.R. AMBEDKAR (CLTA)
  • CERTIFICATE PROGRAMME IN THE TEACHING OF ENGLISH AS A SECOND LANGUAGE (CTE)
  • CERTIFICATE PROGRAMME IN GENDER, AGRICULTURE AND SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT (CGAS)

P.G. CERTIFICATE PROGRAMMES

  • Post Graduate Certificate in Cyber Law (PGCCL)
  • Post-Graduate Certificate in Adult Education (PGCAE)
  • Post Graduate Certificate in Agriculture Policy (PGCAP)
  • POST GRADUATE CERTIFICATE IN GEOINFORMATICS (PGCGI)
  • POST GRADUATE CERTIFICATE IN CLIMATE CHANGE (PGCCC)
  • Post Graduate Certificate in Translation and Translation (PGCAR)
  • Post Graduate Certificate in Gandhi and Peace Studies ( PGCGPS )

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We have categorized the IGNOU Solved Assignments Papers by UG, PG, Diploma, and Certificates so that the students can easily find their course assignments only by looking at their respective lists of assignments.

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Ignou bachelor degree courses solved assignments, ignou master degree courses solved assignments, ignou diploma courses solved assignments, ignou post graduate diploma courses solved assignments, ignou post graduate certificate courses solved assignments, ignou certificate courses solved assignments, ignou ph.d. courses solved assignments.

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Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs)

✅ what is the last date for the submission of the ignou assignment.

It is 30th April 2023 for TEE June 2023.

✅ IGNOU Assignment Weighted and Minimum Marks

Assignments play a big role in IGNOU programs, counting for 30% of your final grade. So, it’s important to work hard on them to get good marks and improve your overall grade. Remember, you must finish your assignments to complete your course. To pass an assignment, you need at least 40% marks. Once you pass, you can fill out the IGNOU Exam Form to take the TEE Examination. For example, if an assignment has 100 marks in total, you need to get at least 40 marks to pass it.

✅ Is IGNOU Assignment Submission Compulsory?

Yes , all IGNOU students must write and submit their assignments to their study center before the deadline. If you don’t submit your assignments, you won’t be allowed to take the Term End Exam organized by IGNOU University. You can use IGNOU Solved Assignments as a guide to help you prepare a great assignment for submission to your center.

✅ Can I Submit IGNOU Assignment Online?

Now, Only a few IGNOU centers are accepting Assignment Submissions online for TEE 2023.

✅ Can I Send IGNOU Assignments by Post or Courier?

No, Candidates have to submit the assignment either through email or personally.

✅ To whom I can Submit IGNOU Assignment?

Coordinator of the Concerned Study Centre of IGNOU.

✅ How to access assignments questions of my ignou course from the Official IGNOU Website?

In order to access unsolved previous year’s question papers of your respective IGNOU Course you can follow below mentioned links. 1. Official IGNOU Website Link – https://www.ignou.ac.in/ 2. Direct Link – https://webservices.ignou.ac.in/assignments/

✅ What is IGNOU?

Indira Gandhi National Open University, known as IGNOU , is a public research university located at Maidan Garhi, New Delhi, India. Named after the former Prime Minister of India Indira Gandhi, the university was established in 1985 with a budget of ₹20 million, after the Parliament of India passed the Indira Gandhi National Open University Act, 1985 (IGNOU Act 1985). IGNOU is run by the central government of India, and with a total active enrollment of over 4 million students, it is the largest university in the world.

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IGNOU BCA Solved Assignment 2021 free Download

Indira Gandhi National Open University is one of the best distance learning and corresponding education institutions in India. Indira Gandhi National Open University is shortly called as IGNOU and it’s head office is situated in New Delhi, India. IGNOU BCA division uploads assignment questions for every subjects on it’s website. IGNOU will upload the solved assignment based on the subjects and semesters of the students. The students who are pursuing BCA can get and download their assignments of IGNOU BCA from the official site. But, You must be searching for IGNOU BCA Solved Assignment Download . Then You are at right place.

Related:- IGNOU BCA all study Materials Free Download

IGNOU BCA Assignment 2021-22 Details

IGNOU has uploaded the BCA assignments for Session 2021-22 on the official website. As per rules and regulations of IGNOU, the exam board will consider 70 % marks for theory papers and 30 % marks for solved assignments. The exam board of IGNOU will provide the assignments questions to the students. The students have to write the answers for assignment questions. All students should provide the answers with different format and submit the solved assignments to the study center of IGNOU.

The students those who have submitted the solved assignments will be allowed to appear in IGNOU TEE examination. If a student fails to submit the assignments before last date than his grade card will not be completed. IGNOU exam division conducts the semester exam twice in the academic year in June & December. IGNOU organizes the odd semester exam in the month of November-December and the even semester exam in the month of June.

Also Check:- How to submit IGNOU Assignments online

How to make Your IGNOU Assignment

To solve the assignments You can take help of the study materials, where you can get the idea about assignment solutions and can know how to solve the answers for assignment questions. The students have to provide the answers in different format with their own skills and knowledge. The students should not copy their answers from the previous solved assignment and study materials.

You should Use A4 size paper for solving any IGNOU Assignment. Handwriting should be very neat and clean. At least fonts should be readable by examiner. Try to right on your own but you can take help of other sources to write your answers.

The students have to prepare well and then they should start writing the answers in assignment solution. Before going to filling the paper, the students have to write the answers in their own language and own skills. Examiners in IGNOU will check the student’s skill and knowledge from the assignment papers. The exam board will be considered the solved assignment strictly for all students.

Related:- IGNOU BCA Admission, Course details, Fees, Syllabus etc.

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How to Get IGNOU BCA Assignment questions

IGNOU will provide the assignment questions to the students for all semesters and all courses in this university. All Assignment questions are available on the IGNOU Assignment official Portal. You can directly download and print Assignment questions in pdf format from there.

We will upload solved assignments for previous year students and study materials about solved assignment in this site. The study materials and solved assignments are also available in ignounews.com . It will be compulsory to provide the answers for all questions and submit the solved assignments to study center of IGNOU. The existing solved assignments will be provided in PDF format. The students should be requested to take the hard copy of IGNOU BCA solved assignment for their reference purpose.

Related:- IGNOU Assignment front page format download

Download IGNOU BCA Solved Assignment free

The students can download BCA solved assignment from the links given below in this page. Even though, some students have the hesitation with the computer, then they can go through the given instructions. We are providing the simple steps to explain about how to get and access IGNOU BCA solved assignments from the official website.

Here are the downloading links for assignments

Download From Here:

BCS-062 E-Commerce MCS-022 Operating System Concepts and Networking Management BCSL-063 Operating System Concepts and Networking Management Lab BCSP-064 Project BCSL-022 Assembly Language Programming Lab Solved Assignment 2019-20 Free MCS-015 Communication Skills Solved Assignment 2019-20 Free

FEG-02 Foundation course in English Solved Assignment 2019-20 Free ECO-01 Business Organization BCS-011 Computer Basics and PC Software Solve Assignment 2019-20 Free BCS-012 Mathematics BCSL-013 Computer Basics and PC Software Lab

ECO-02 Accountancy-1 MCS-011 Problem Solving and Programming MCS-012 Computer Organization and Assembly Language Programming MCS-015 Communication Skills MCS-013 Discrete Mathematics BCSL-021 C Language Programming Lab

MCS-021 Data and File Structures MCS-023 Introduction to Database Management Systems MCS-014 Systems Analysis and Design BCS-031 Programming in C++ BCSL-032 C++ Programming Lab BCSL-033 Data and File Structures Lab BCSL-034 DBMS Lab

BCS-040 Statistical Techniques MCS-024 Object Oriented Technologies and Java Programming BCS-041 Fundamentals of Computer Networks BCS-042 Introduction to Algorithm Design MCSL-016 Internet Concepts and Web Design BCSL-043 Java Programming Lab BCSL-044 Statistical Techniques Lab BCSL-045 Algorithm Design Lab

BCS-051 Introduction to Software Engineering BCS-052 Network Programming and Administration BCS-053 Web Programming BCS-054 Computer Oriented Numerical Techniques BCS-055 Business Communication BCSL-056 Network Programming and Administration Lab BCSL-057 Web Programming Lab BCSL-058 Computer Oriented Numerical Techniques Lab

FAQs related to IGNOU BCA solved Assignments

Q1. How to download IGNOU BCA solved Assignments

If you want to get solved assignment of IGNOU BCA then you can visit to website of Gullybaba for ordering there book online or you can also purchase their books offline. But, i don’t much prefer solved assignment books because may be they are misprint due to lack of professional editing. It will be better to you that you must find solved assignment of those papers by yourself.

Q2. What to do after taking admission in IGNOU ODL?

If you missed the introduction class of IGNOU then this would be a big problem to you. Just follow the below steps for knowing about it.

  • You should keep in touch with university study centre and students of that University so that you will also get benefit.
  • You can transfer the asignment from IGNOU site, ordinarily assignments are provided with book,answer the task with most extreme consideration as they convey 30% weightage of imprints in the results.This become progressively significant as checking in composed test is exceptionally low in IGNOU. Present the composed task at your investigation focus, keep the acknowledment till you breeze through the test.
  • You should keep a track on your assignment marks if your marks are not updated.

Q3. How much tough is the viva of BCA IGNOU exam?

I examined BCA at Kerala University and my last venture was ‘Online Bike Showroom’. It was a gathering venture and consequently there was 3 additional individuals in my gathering. The undertaking was a triumph yet as a group head, I truly dreaded Viva. Be that as it may, the minute after Viva..I felt loose. I examined just points identified with our task, and got full checks.

There were 3 educators and we 4 understudies. They were requesting to give a short depiction about the undertaking and posed a few inquiries identified with that venture.

Also check : MCS-015 COMMUNICATION SKILLS SOLVED ASSIGNMENT (FOR 2017-18 SESSION)

We hope that you get something useful from the above points. Thanking you for visiting our site – IGNOU News and reading our post. We ensure that we will provide more details in our latest updates in the regular basis.

ramandeep

sir, plz send me bcsl 45 solved assignment 2018

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IGNOU MCS 211 Solved Assignment Download 2021

If You Are in this Page You Wants to Download IGNOU MCS 211 Solved Assignment  2021  Free Download,  IGNOU MCS 211 Solved Assignments in English Medium  You can Download from Here.

This is A 2 years MCA programme from January, 2021 admission Cycle for students who have opted program MCA ,  IGNOU MCS 211 Solved Assignment 2021,We Also Provide All The IGNOU Books And Study Material Here.

IGNOU MCA SOLVED ASSIGNMENTS 2021 have been uploaded. IGNOU University Assignment of MCA Program of New Session MCA Student Assignment Questions can be downloaded from this page. Students must download compulsory assignments. With which he can give term and exam.

To get good marks in the exam, Read Study Material  and Solved The Assignment carefully With The Properly.

                  

Download IGNOU MCA Study Material  

Course Code : MCS-211 Course Title : Design and Analysis of Algorithm Assignment Number : MCA(1)/211/Assign/21 Maximum Marks : 100 Weightage : 30% Last date of Submission : 31st May, 2021 (for January session) 31st October, 2021(for July session)

Q1: (4+4 marks) (a) Write a brute force method and Horner’s algorithm to evaluate a polynomial expression and compute their complexities (b) Evaluate the following polynomial expression using Horner’s rule. Assume the value of x is 3. Q3: (i) Identify two problems in each category of the following time complexities and derive the complexity of these identified problems. (4+6 marks) O(n log n), and O(n2 ). (ii) Suppose you are given n sets: S1, S2…..Sn.. Each set is having n elements. The problem is to find whether some pairs of these sets are disjoint, i.e. there are no common elements in these sets. Write pseudo code and calculate its time complexity Show all the intermediate steps.

Click Here to See Full

Click Here For Download English Medium

Important Note For Writing The MCS 211 Assignment.

Write all the assignments with your own hand.

Do not write to anyone else in a quick affair. This assignment can also be cancelled.

The weight of IGNOU assignment is: 30% in total marks, so take this carefully.

The viva voce is compulsory for the assignments. For any course, if a student submitted the assignment and not attended the viva-voce, then the assignment is treated as not successfully completed and would be marked as ZERO.

  • Assignment submission before due dates is compulsory to become eligible for appearing in corresponding Term End Examinations. For further details, please refer to Programme Guide of MCA.
  • To become eligible for appearing the Term End Practical Examination for the lab courses , it is essential to fulfill the minimum attendance requirements as well as submission of assignments (on or before the due date). For further details, please refer to the Programme Guide of MCA (2yrs).

How to Download IGNOU MCS 211 Solved Assignment ?

  • Go to the download link of our page and click on it
  • Choose Your Subject .
  • Click On the Download Link.
  • And Print or save PDF of study material in your phone or laptop.

What is Last Date of IGNOU MCS 211 Assignment Submission ?

  • For July Session Admission  : 31st October Session
  • For Jan Session Admission   : 31st May  Session

एग्जाम मे अच्छे मार्क्स लाने के लिए Study Material  को ध्यानपूर्वक पढ़े .यहां दी गई सभी बुक फ्री मे Download  होती है आपको किसी प्रकार का Registration  करने की जरुरत नहीं है सिर्फ एक क्लिक मे बुक डाउनलोड हो जाएगी

सभी  Latest Assignment, Question Paper, Study Material, Important Question   यहां उपलब्ध है

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IGNOU Solved Assignment

We Provide Solutions to IGNOU Students

Phone Number

Contact address, email address.

Ignouassignment123@gmail.com

Download IGNOU Solved Assignment for Bachelor, Master, Diploma & Certificate courses and get better grades our free IGNOU Solved assignments! Click this link Here you can find all IGNOU solved assignment 2023-24 & 2024-25 for various courses BAG, BCOMG, MCOM, MAPC, BA, MA MSO, MBA, MMPC MHD BA etc.We provide high-quality IGNOU Solved Assignment 2023-24 & 2024-25.We will help all candidates to prepare the correct assignments which they need to submit at IGNOU Study center.in this page you can download assignment of Bachelor,Master, Diploma and Certificate Courses Solved Assignment.

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Submission of IGNOU Solved Assignment Are Follows:

For July 2023 session 31st March 2024

For January 2024 session 30th September 2024

Date Will be change or extended (according to course or notice)

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  • Pick your course and the subjects you need.
  • Put the assignments you want in your cart or buy them right away.
  • After you’ve paid, we’ll email you the assignments as PDFs – sometimes we might send them on WhatsApp too.
  • Pay with Credit Card, Debit Card, Internet Banking, Paytm, Google Pay, PhonePe, or UPI. Our website is super safe because it’s protected with special security.

Checking IGNOU Assignment Solved Submission Status

pon admission to IGNOU, each student is required to collect their assignments, available at the nearest study center or downloadable from the IGNOU website. According to IGNOU’s regulations, completing and submitting these assignments is mandatory. They play a significant role in your academic progression, contributing 30% to your final grade, while theory and practical exams make up the remaining 70%.

Checking your assignment status, marks, and results is straightforward:

  • Visit the dedicated section for assignment status on the  IGNOU website.
  • Enter your 9 or 10-digit enrollment number and select your program code.
  • Click submit to view your assignment status.

Scoring 90+ in IGNOU Solved Assignments

Aiming for the stars? Here’s how to score 90+:

  • Understand Requirements : Know what’s expected in the assignment.
  • Research Thoroughly : Dive deep into your topics.
  • Follow Formats and Structures : Adhere to IGNOU’s guidelines.
  • Write Clearly : Be concise and coherent.
  • Reference Correctly : Cite all sources accurately.
  • Proofread and Edit : Eliminate all errors.
  • Submit On Time : Never miss a deadline.
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Downloading IGNOU Solved Assignment Question Papers

Embarking on your IGNOU journey? Start by getting your hands on solved assignment question papers. Here’s how:

  • Navigate to IGNOU’s Website : Visit  www.ignou.ac.in .
  • Seek Student Support : Look for the “Student Support” section.
  • Access Student Zone/Downloads : Click on “Student Zone” or “Downloads.”
  • Find Assignment Papers : Look for “Assignment” or “Question Papers”.
  • Select Your Course : Choose your course or program.
  • Pick the Correct Year/Session : Ensure you choose the right year/session.
  • Download and Save : Click to download and save the PDF.

Stuck? Contact the regional IGNOU center or student support helpline.

IGNOU Solved Assignment Writing Guidelines

  • Question Presentation : Begin by writing down the question, followed by the answer.
  • Color Coordination : Use black ink for the question and blue ink for the answer. Alternatively, this order can be reversed.
  • Each answer should span between 2 to 5 pages.
  • Ensure a 4cm margin on the left side of every page.
  • Avoid essay-style answers. Instead, structure your answers in a manner that facilitates easy comprehension for the evaluator.
  • Construct answers with clear logical progression.
  • Maintain clarity and continuity between sentences and paragraphs.
  • Ensure correctness in your writing.
  • Pay attention to your expression, style, and overall presentation.
  • Word Limit : Do not exceed the word limit specified in the question.
  • Base your answers on the provided study materials.
  • Avoid copying directly from the textbooks. Read, comprehend, and then present the content in your own words.

Following these guidelines will ensure that your assignments are well-prepared and meet the expectations of the IGNOU evaluators.

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Thanks for checking out GSPH PUBLICATION. We’re excited to help you do awesome in your studies!

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Important Note for IGNOU Solved Assignment

Remember, timely and accurate submission of assignments is essential for your academic progress and evaluation. Double-check all the submission requirements, including the format and details, to avoid any potential issues. If you face any difficulties or have specific submission guidelines for your study center or course, consult your IGNOU regional center or the study center coordinator for further assistance.

When you buy Solved assignments from us, you’ll get them as PDF files sent by email once you’ve paid. Paying is easy too – you can use Paytm, Google Pay, or PhonePe. Got questions about payment? Call us at 9891268050.

Are you worried about completing IGNOU Solved Assignment 2023-24/2022-23 academic year? Does the thought of researching and writing high-quality, insightful responses feel overwhelming? Well, we have a solution for you! Our team of academic experts has worked diligently to provide comprehensive solutions for IGNOU Solved Assignment 2023-24/2022-23   across all subjects. We’re offering you the opportunity to purchase these ready-made, solved assignments that will not only save you time but also ensure that you achieve the best possible grades!

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35 thoughts on “ IGNOU Solved Assignment 2023-24 ”

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IGNOU HUB

IGNOU FST 1 Solved Assignment 2021

  • 1.1 IGNOU FST 1 Assignment Free Download
  • 2 Last Date of Ignou FST 1 Assignment submission
  • 3 Guidelines to write IGNOU FST 1 Solved Assignment
  • 4 How to obtain IGNOU FST 1 Solved Assignment?

Students of Indira Gandhi National Open University who are pursuing Bachelor’s Degree Programme in Science (B.Sc.) have to submit Ignou FST 1 solved assignment 2021.They can download this Tutor Marked assignment question papers in English & Hindi medium from the official website for the session 2021.

Are you looking for IGNOU BSHF 101 solved assignment as well?

For FST 1 Solved Assignment, Whatsapp at: 7428482160

Students who have to appear in June 2021 and December 2021 examination can write Ignou FST 1 assignment answers from the questions uploaded on the website.The university uploads the assignment questions once in a year for both sessions.

Important Note: It should be noted that the students should submit the assignment at their study centre before filling up Ignou exam form online

The details of IGNOU FST-01 assignment has been mentioned below:

  • Programme Name: Bachelor of Science (B.Sc.)
  • Course Code: FST 1
  • Assignment code: FST-1/TMA/2021
  • Validity of Assignment:  These assignments will remain valid for July 2020 and January 2021 session.

IGNOU FST 1 solved assignment

Ignou FST 1 assignment is of 100 makrs.There are total of 10 questions. Students have to answer all the questions. All questions are of 10 marks each.The word limit of answer should not exceed 500-700 words.

Related Post: IGNOU solved assignment , IGNOU EPA solved assignment

The university gives 30% weightage to this assignment. It means the 30% of the total marks obtained by the students in the assignments will be added in the total marks of the course.Therefore total marks for any course will be combination of 70% theory and 30% assignment marks.

IGNOU FST 1 Assignment Free Download

Students can easily download IGNOU FST-01 assignment question papers free of cost from the university official website.They do not have to pay any charges or fee for that.

The university also send the hard copy of FST 1 assignment 2021 at the physical communication address of student. In case, if anyone do not receive it, he/she may download it from the link mentioned below.

Here is the link to download Ignou foundation course in Science and Humanities assignment 2021:

Last Date of Ignou FST 1 Assignment submission

Guidelines to write ignou fst 1 solved assignment.

  • Please read the assignments thoroughly and carefully
  • Students have to answer the questions as per the word limit.
  • Write the answers in your own handwriting.
  • Try to write answers in your own words.Don’t just copy & paste the answers from the study material.

How to obtain IGNOU FST 1 Solved Assignment?

It is always good to solve assignment by yourself.Because it help students to go through complete study material.It also help them in exam preparation.

In case, if someone is unable to solve assignment then he/she may request for IGNOU FST-1 solved assignment 2021 in the form of PDF file at cheap price.

All you have to do is to send email at  [email protected] or click here to get assignment solution of FST-1. Please mention your complete requirement while writing email. e.g. subject code

12 Comments

uttam kumar yadav

fst-1 handi 2018

Arshad

Pls send me fst1

Arjun kr.Das

please send me fst 1 solve assignment of english

sk

Pls send link for download FST 01 assignment in hindi…

Himakshi Das

Fst1 question no 8

shraddhaparab

send me fst soled assignment paper 2018

pratibha

fst1ka assignment ka answers plz send kr dijiye

Abi

Fst 1 question num 6

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Fst 1 in Hindi solved assignment required

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Allina Y

please send me the assignment for FST-01 (July 2018 – january 2019)

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Moscow court restricts Navalny’s anti-corruption foundation

FILE- In this file photo taken on Friday, July 17, 2020, Russian opposition leader Ivan Zhdanov speaks to the media as police raids the offices of Alexei Navalny's Foundation for Fighting Corruption in Moscow, Russia. A court in Moscow has ruled Tuesday April 27, 2021, to restrict activities of an organization founded by Russia's imprisoned opposition leader Alexei Navalny, pending a ruling on whether it should be outlawed as an extremist group. According to Ivan Pavlov, a lawyer representing the foundation, it is no longer allowed to use the media or the internet to distribute content, organize rallies and public events, take part in elections and use bank deposits. (AP photo/Alexander Zemlianichenko, File)

FILE- In this file photo taken on Friday, July 17, 2020, Russian opposition leader Ivan Zhdanov speaks to the media as police raids the offices of Alexei Navalny’s Foundation for Fighting Corruption in Moscow, Russia. A court in Moscow has ruled Tuesday April 27, 2021, to restrict activities of an organization founded by Russia’s imprisoned opposition leader Alexei Navalny, pending a ruling on whether it should be outlawed as an extremist group. According to Ivan Pavlov, a lawyer representing the foundation, it is no longer allowed to use the media or the internet to distribute content, organize rallies and public events, take part in elections and use bank deposits. (AP photo/Alexander Zemlianichenko, File)

FILE - In this Thursday, Dec. 26, 2019 file, Russian opposition leader Alexei Navalny speaks to the media in front of security officers standing guard at the Foundation for Fighting Corruption office in Moscow, Russia. A court in Moscow has ruled to restrict activities of an organization founded by Russia’s imprisoned opposition leader Alexei Navalny, pending a ruling on whether it should be outlawed as an extremist group. The Moscow City Court’s decision to restrict activities of Navalny’s Foundation for Fighting Corruption came amid a sweeping crackdown on President Vladimir Putin most prominent critic and his allies. (AP Photo/Alexander Zemlianichenko, File)

FILE- In this file photo taken on Friday, July 17, 2020, Police raid the offices of Alexei Navalny’s Foundation for Fighting Corruption in Moscow, Russia. A court in Moscow has ruled Tuesday April 27, 2021, to restrict activities of an organization founded by Russia’s imprisoned opposition leader Alexei Navalny, pending a ruling on whether it should be outlawed as an extremist group. The Moscow City Court’s decision to restrict activities of Navalny’s Foundation for Fighting Corruption came amid a sweeping crackdown on President Vladimir Putin most prominent critic and his allies. (AP Photo/Alexander Zemlianichenko, File)

FILE- In this file photo taken on Thursday, Dec. 26, 2019, Russian security officers walk at the Foundation for Fighting Corruption office in Moscow, Russia. A court in Moscow has ruled Tuesday April 27, 2021, to restrict activities of an organization founded by Russia’s imprisoned opposition leader Alexei Navalny, pending a ruling on whether it should be outlawed as an extremist group. The Moscow City Court’s decision to restrict activities of Navalny’s Foundation for Fighting Corruption came amid a sweeping crackdown on President Vladimir Putin most prominent critic and his allies. (AP Photo/Alexander Zemlianichenko, File)

FILE- In this file photo taken on Wednesday, Jan. 27, 2021, Police stand guard at the Foundation for Fighting Corruption office in Moscow, Russia. A court in Moscow has ruled to restrict activities of an organization founded by Russia’s imprisoned opposition leader Alexei Navalny, pending a ruling on whether it should be outlawed as an extremist group. The Moscow City Court’s decision to restrict activities of Navalny’s Foundation for Fighting Corruption came amid a sweeping crackdown on President Vladimir Putin most prominent critic and his allies. (AP Photo/Pavel Golovkin, File)

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MOSCOW (AP) — A Moscow court on Tuesday restricted the activities of an organization founded by imprisoned opposition leader Alexei Navalny, pending a decision on whether it and his offices across Russia should be outlawed as extremist groups.

The ruling on the Foundation for Fighting Corruption by the Moscow City Court was another step in the sweeping crackdown on Navalny, his allies and his political infrastructure.

The Moscow prosecutor’s office had petitioned the court to label the foundation and Navalny’s network of regional offices as extremist groups and effectively outlaw their activities. Such a move would expose members and supporters to lengthy prison terms.

If the court grants the request, it would be a crippling blow to the beleaguered team of Navalny, who is President Vladimir Putin’s most prominent critic. Navalny has been behind bars since January, and many of his aides and associates were arrested or face criminal charges.

On Monday, the prosecutor’s office issued an injunction ordering Navalny’s offices in dozens of Russian regions to suspend their activities, after which they effectively shut down. Tuesday’s court ruling on the foundation barred it from performing certain activities, and Navalny’s allies argued it wouldn’t affect the foundation’s work.

Ivan Pavlov, a lawyer for the foundation, said it is no longer allowed to use the media or the internet to distribute content or to organize rallies and public events, participate in elections or use bank deposits.

Such restrictions won’t disrupt the foundation’s work, said director Ivan Zhdanov, arguing that most of the restrictions don’t apply to the anti-corruption organization’s activities.

“Some nonsense,” Zhdanov tweeted. “(These) aren’t going to influence our work in any way.”

Still, Pavlov said he will appeal the court’s decision to impose the restrictions.

“It seems to me that the court hastily considered and sustained this motion of the prosecutor’s office,” Pavlov told The Associated Press, referring to the motion that was filed Monday.

Navalny’s foundation started 10 years ago and has alleged high-ranking government officials are corrupt by posting colorful and widely watched videos on social media platforms such as YouTube.

One of its latest posts, which has received 116 million views, alleges that a lavish palace on the Black Sea shore was built for Putin through an elaborate corruption scheme. The Kremlin has denied there are any links to Putin.

Along with the foundation, Navalny set up a network of regional offices in dozens of regions when he was campaigning to run against Putin in the 2018 presidential election. He eventually was barred from running but kept the infrastructure in place.

The regional sites began their own investigations of graft by local officials and recruited activists, some of whom later ran for public office themselves. The locations also were instrumental in organizing nationwide rallies in support of Navalny this year.

Navalny was arrested in January upon returning from Germany, where he spent five months recovering from a nerve agent poisoning that he blames on the Kremlin — accusations that Russian officials reject.

His arrest triggered protests across Russia that proved to be the biggest show of defiance in years. But they didn’t stop authorities from putting Navalny on trial for violating the terms of a suspended sentence while he was in Germany. The sentence stemmed from a 2014 embezzlement conviction that Navalny has characterized as politically motivated. He was ordered to serve 2½ years in prison and last month was transferred to a penal colony notorious for its harsh conditions.

Navalny said he developed severe back pain and numbness in his limbs and began a hunger strike in order to get authorities to have his doctor see him at the penal colony. Instead, they moved him to another prison with a hospital ward. According to his physicians, his health had deteriorated significantly after he refused food for more than three weeks. He ended the fast after undergoing tests and examinations in a civilian hospital and getting a warning from his doctors that his life was at risk.

In an emotional message posted to his Instagram account Tuesday, Navalny thanked all the medical workers he has encountered in the past year — from those who treated him after the poisoning to nurses in the prison hospital. “After all, I understand they’re (acting) within limits imposed by their superiors, and in turn by the Kremlin. But I am seeing now that people are genuinely trying to help,” he said.

The foundation and the regional offices have been targeted regularly with raids, fines and detentions of activists before, but Navalny’s allies say the extremism petition takes the pressure to a new level.

It remains unclear what evidence the prosecutor’s office has against Navalny’s organizations because all court proceedings are taking place behind closed doors, and some of the case files have been classified as secret.

The defense team has been reviewing the files since Monday, and Pavlov told the AP they have not yet figured out exactly what implicates Navalny’s groups.

“So far (the authorities) have been trying to impress us with the quantity and not the quality of the evidence the prosecutor’s office uses to substantiate its demand to liquidate and ban the activities of these organizations,” he said.

Authorities in Moscow, meanwhile, continued their clampdown on people in connection with the April 21 demonstration in support of Navalny. Police didn’t interfere with thousands of protesters who marched in the central streets of the capital, but they arrested people in the days that followed instead.

Sergei Davidis, member of the Memorial human rights group, was ordered jailed for 10 days by a Moscow court on Tuesday for retweeting a post ahead of the protest. Davidis was detained Sunday.

Police also briefly detained two reporters who covered the Moscow protest who had to give statements about their work. Officers visited two other journalists to discuss what they did at the rally.

Some reports have suggested Moscow authorities used facial recognition technology to identify and detain those who attended the demonstration. Amnesty International condemned the reported use of facial recognition to target protesters.

“Previously the protesters’ main risk was being beaten and arbitrarily detained by police at a rally,” said Natalia Zviagina, Amnesty International’s Moscow office director. “As of now, avoiding this fate does not mean that you can feel safe -– the repressive state knows who you are and can come for you at any point.”

She added that “the risk of attempting to exercise your right to freedom of peaceful assembly has never been so high in Russia.”

Associated Press journalist Anna Frants contributed.

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MEG 05 Solved Assignment 2021-22

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Literary Criticism & Theory

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Answer all questions.

1. Bring out the salient features of Plato's attack on poetry'

In order to understand Plato's attack on poetry we have to take in consideration the political and social context of Athens at that time. It was the context where Plato devoted all his efforts to uplift the moral condition of the individuals and the well being of the state. The aim of his literary criticism was to educate the youth and form them into good citizens of his ideal state. It was the age of political decline and the moral and educational standard of the citizens were in a poor state.

The epics of Homer were very much rooted in every sphere of the society, and the influence of the poets on the society was too deep. Plato being a philosopher, to prove the superiority of the philosophy, he severely attacked poetry. Apart from poetry he criticized every other form of arts. Plato’s concepts on art were base son his Theory of Ideas. He believed that ideas are the ultimate reality. The ideas of everything are the original pattern and the things are the copies. So he viewed all forms of art as merely copies of copy, twice moved from reality.

Things itself being imperfect and copies of the ideas, their reproduction in art must be more imperfect. He believed that the works of art takes man away from reality rather than leading to it. It neither helped to mould the character nor to promote the well being of the state. These were the basic principles underlined behind Plato’s critics on arts in general. Plato criticizes poetry in several of his dialogues, beginning with Apology, his first work, and ending with Laws, his last. Plato’s critics on poetry are basically concerned of two standards. The first concern was for the good of the individual and the state.

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Based on this standard he finds in poetry more to condemn it than approve. Same like his concepts about the other types of arts, his concepts about poetry also was under severe critic due to its unrealistic nature and its incapacity to be worthy to the society and individual. He severely condemned the incapacity of the art forms to get in to the roots/ reality and being concerned with only the twice removed reality. This was the first standard he used to condemn the poetry and other art forms in general. He attacked poetry on four grounds—moral, emotional, intellectual and utilitarian.

Poetic inspiration

Poets does not write what he has thought to say, but because he is inspired. It means they do not compose the poem based on some virtue and reason, but based on some impulses and non-rational kind coming from supernatural source. A sudden outpouring of the soul based on the sudden impulse of the moment does not be based on reason. Hence their pronouncements are unreliable and uncertain. They are not safe guides and it cannot be followed, it also cannot make the individuals a better citizens and the state a better organization.

There might be some truth in them, for they are divinely inspired, but such partial and imperfect truths must be carefully examined. Such truths cannot use as a substitute for knowledge based on reason. As the poems are based on the ‘divinely inspired’ and completely based on inspiration, sometimes the poets themselves cannot explain what they write. Another aspect of poetry which he criticizes is, the imitation or blind reliance on the passionate elements of the soul. He Plato divides the soul into three parts:

1.     rational,

2.     spirited,

3.     appetitive.

The imitation of the non-rational part of the soul will give greater pleasure.

The poets and the other artists imitates this baser, non-rational part of the soul, and it leads them to away from reality and reason and become merely indulged in emotional outburst. The poets will be ashamed in their real-life of the emotional over pouring which takes place during their poetic or other artistic performances. He condemns poetry in Republic X, for the poets, “they feed and water the passions instead of drying them up, and let them rule instead of ruling them as they ought to be ruled, with a view to the happiness and virtue of ‘mankind.”

2. Write short notes on the following:

a) Aristotle's theory of tragedy

Plato is answered, in effect and perhaps intentionally, by Aristotle’s Poetics. Aristotle defends the purgative power of tragedy and, in direct contradiction to Plato, makes moral ambiguity the essence of tragedy. The tragic hero must be neither a villain nor a virtuous man but a “character between these two extremes a man who is not eminently good and just, yet whose misfortune is brought about not by vice or depravity, but by some error or frailty [hamartia].” The effect on the audience will be similarly ambiguous. A perfect tragedy, he says, should imitate actions that excite “pity and fear.” He uses Sophocles’ Oedipus the King as a paradigm.

b) Poet as "a man speaking to men"

c) The woman as the 'second sex'

d) Base-superstructure relationship in Marxist criticism

e) Patriarchy

3. How are myths and archetypes examined to grasp the significance of twentieth century English writing? Explain.

4. What is Structuralism? How is it helpful in grasping the appeal and intent of a literary text?

5. Postmodernism lays special emphasis on identity and difference. Discuss.

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MEC-108: Economics of Social Sector and Environment

Ignou solved assignment solution for 2021-22, if you are looking for mec-108 ignou solved assignment solution for the subject economics of social sector and environment, you have come to the right place. mec-108 solution on this page applies to 2021-22 session students studying in mec courses of ignou., looking to download all solved assignment pdfs for your course together, mec-108 solved assignment solution by gyaniversity.

Assignment Code: MEC-108/AST/2021-22

Course Code: MEC-108

Assignment Name: Economics Of Social Sector and Environment

Year: 2021-2022 (July 2021 and January 2022 Sessions)

Verification Status: Verified by Professor

Note: Answer all the questions. While questions in Section A carry 20 marks each (to be answered in about 500 words each) those in Section B carry 12 marks each (to be answered in about 300 words each). In the case of numerical questions word limits do not apply.

1) Discuss the limitations of Coase Theorem.

Ans) In law and economics, the Coase theorem describes the economic efficiency of an economic allocation or outcome in the presence of externalities. The theorem states that if trade in an externality is possible and there are sufficiently low transaction costs, bargaining will lead to a Pareto efficient outcome regardless of the initial allocation of property. In practice, obstacles to bargaining or poorly defined property rights can prevent Coasean bargaining. This 'theorem' is commonly attributed to Nobel Prize winner Ronald Coase.

There are limitations to the Coase theorem. If there are multiple polluters, or more than one party affected by the pollution, the assignment of property rights actually can determine the level of pollution. Take, for example, a plant that expels waste into a river. If the river flows through two towns, the one that is further way incurs fewer costs associated with cleaning the water. The amount each town is willing to pay to reduce waste would be different, and therefore the allocation of property rights among the plant and the two towns could determine the outcome. Another limitation becomes clear when we consider transaction costs such as measurement and enforcement. For example, if more than one firm is polluting, determining how much pollution is coming from each firm could be costly or difficult. These costs could be more significant than property rights in determining the level of pollution.

The Coase Theorem also has its limitations. First of all, its assumptions are too harsh. Only when the transaction cost is zero, can the result stated by the Coase theorem appear. In reality, transaction costs cannot be equal to zero. Second, even if the transaction cost is zero, there are strategic behaviors that Western scholars call in reality. Because of the strategic behavior, there will be no Pareto ideal state as mentioned in the Coase Theorem. This kind of strategic behavior is widespread, and we also have it in China. For example, in urban demolition, you often encounter "nail households". If you don't agree to his harsh conditions, he just won't move. This behavior is strategic behavior. Finally, the Coase Theorem ignores the effect of income distribution. This is the most important reason. The Coase Theorem attempts to prove that the distribution methods of different property rights will not affect the efficiency of resource allocation, that is: any property rights distribution method will lead to the Pareto optimal state.

Recall that MNPB is defined as :

MNPB = P – MC

and the socially optimal level of pollution occurs where,

MNPB = MEC.

Thus, the above two equations entail:

P = MC + MEC = MSC

Identifying the bargaining parties

Even if transaction costs are less than the benefits to be obtained from a bargain, no bargain may take place. Many pollutants are long lived – they stay in the environment for a long period of time and may affect people, years or decades later. Toxic chemicals, radioactive wastes, ozone layer depletion and global carbon dioxide pollution are some examples of this category. If bargaining has to exist, then some groups of the present generation would have to bargain on behalf of the future generations, which is more unlikely to happen.

A further problem of identifying the polluters and sufferers arise in case of open access resources. In such cases, it is not clear who will bargain with whom, since no one individual has an incentive to reduce his or her access to the resource. In some other situations, it is difficult to say who the polluters and sufferers are. Sufferers may be unaware of the source of pollution from which they suffer, or even be unaware that damage is being done. The cost of generating the information for the sufferers need to be added to the costs of transacting any bargain. The likelihood of bargain being socially efficient, even if it occurred, is remote given the need to identify the damage done and its distribution among sufferers.

2) Explain Arrow’s perspective of healthcare market.

Ans) Kenneth Arrow (1963) suggested that healthcare markets are characterised by a significant amount of ambiguity, particularly among patients on the consequences of purchasing medical treatments. Patients, for example, have a natural apprehension regarding the efficacy of medical therapies, i.e., which treatment will best heal their condition or relieve their pain. Treatment success is determined not only by the effectiveness of the treatment, but also by idiosyncratic elements specific to the patient. Thus, two individuals with the same condition who are treated in the same way may recover at different rates depending on random factors such as individual immunity, mental strength, and so on. Even between two episodes of the same sickness in the same person, there will be differences, making each episode unique. Patients will find it incredibly difficult to learn about and evaluate the quality of medical care services as a result of this. As Arrow notes, in medical markets, uncertainty over product quality is arguably more profound than in any other. Disease recovery is as unexpected as its occurrence. Furthermore, the level of uncertainty (measured by the utility variable) is unquestionably bigger for medical care in extreme circumstances than other products such as houses or automobiles, despite the fact that these are also rare expenditures like a costly medical treatment for a catastrophic ailment.

Second, correct 'information' becomes extremely valuable in times of uncertainty. The 'elusive nature' of knowledge, on the other hand, limits its marketability on both demand and supply sides. Consumers' capacities to collect and comprehend information, in particular, are limited. In traditional markets, dealing with uncertainty is learned through repeated transactions that allow one to find an ideal approach through trial and error. In the case of healthcare markets, this is not possible because transactions may not be repeated, or if they are, they are repeated at extended periods when the underlying parameters have changed. The constraints on obtaining information in cases of severe sickness are imposed by an insufficient number of trials to learn from and 'the underlying difficulty of prognosis.'

When it comes to the limitations of consumers' ability to comprehend information, Arrrow sees them as unaware of the value of information purchased from physicians. Patients, in general, are unable to assess concerns like as whether diagnostic tests are required, whether all drugs prescribed are appropriate for the disease, whether cheaper or better alternatives to the same medicines are available, and so on. Even if the patient possesses the essential skills and knowledge to assess the quality and relevance of treatment in normal circumstances, the disease may impede the patient's ability to function and process information. In the case of serious illnesses, the possibility of impairment (or even death) can exacerbate the evaluation dilemma.

Furthermore, people who are newly diagnosed with a disease frequently have limited time to gather information, because the efficiency of a medical therapy is dependent on the shortest possible period between the onset of the sickness and the start of treatment. In the absence of the ability to assess the effectiveness of the treatment provided, the patient is sometimes left with little choice but to trust and rely on the physician. This means that physicians and other supply-side agents are expected to behave differently than other people in traditional marketplaces. While all service-oriented products have an element of trust, the morally understood limits on a physician's activities are far more severe than in the case of others (e.g. a barber). There is thus a 'collective-orientation' that distinguishes medicine from other professions in which participants"self-interest' is the accepted norm. The profit motive's relative insignificance in healthcare markets is significant since it can assure recurring contacts between parties, such as patients preferring to seek treatment from, or refer others to, a trusted physician. In fact, trust may serve as a placebo, increasing the effectiveness of treatment.

Fourth, Arrow understood that certain market participants will have more information than others (i.e. there is variability in the extent of information gathered and processed). Information, like other commodities, has a cost of production and a cost of transmission, therefore it's only reasonable that it's not freely shared. The amount of information a consumer obtains is determined by the individual's estimated costs and advantages of obtaining information. Due to variances in money (or opportunity costs of time), analytical talents, and other factors, consumers' costs and benefits will vary. In light of this, it was previously claimed that some knowledge could be considered a public benefit, necessitating government action and provisioning.

As a result, according to Arrow, the four characteristics of the healthcare market are I uncertainty; (ii) the importance of obtaining accurate or reliable information; (iii) trust vis-à-vis limited consumer's'ability' to process information received; and (iv) variability in information received and processed.

3) Briefly explain the concept of Capability Approach propounded by Sen.

Ans) The human capital hypothesis is concerned with enhancing an individual's ability to produce goods and services through their skills, knowledge, and effort. The goal is to relate an individual's productive efficiency to their lifetime earnings through investing in human capital building. Amartya Sen's human capability approach focuses on the ability that individuals develop by choosing to live a life that they value, hence increasing the substantive choices available to them.

The 'capability approach' (CA) posits that social arrangements should be judged largely on the degree of flexibility people have in accomplishing their goals. It's a framework for measuring and evaluating social arrangements in terms of quality of life and happiness. Sen's CA is thus a moral framework aimed at expanding informational space on matters affecting people's overall well-being. In a broad sense, it emphasises the significance of extending human skills to broaden people's choices. Education is regarded crucial to the notion of capability in this framework of development, and it plays a far larger part in an individual's and thus social growth. Sen describes human capital in this way as a means of producing quality human beings through education, learning, and skill development.

In other words, whereas education is viewed as a method of growth in the 'human capital' approach, education is viewed as development in and of itself in the 'human capacity' approach. Sen describes poverty as a lack of 'capability deficiency,' not only a lack of income. Education is viewed as a useful role that should be pursued for its own sake, and it is maintained that it will eventually lead to progress by improving the quality of life through freedom of choice. The CA is thus based on education's dual role of I intrinsic value and (ii) instrumental value, i.e. education is important both as a means of economic progress and as a way of enriching people's personal and social lives. Sen's capability approach has been criticised on the grounds that expanding educational possibilities does not always imply expanding human capacities. Several core challenges remain unsolved in the theoretical and empirical work on the capacity approach to well-being and growth.

4) In what way the ‘organisational change and technical efficiency’ impacts the supply of healthcare services? Discuss.

Ans) Variations in healthcare worker efficiency could also be related to disparities in healthcare infrastructure efficiency levels, as well as the presence of other negative health outcome correlations such as social factors (like poverty and lack of education). The importance of organisational variables is highlighted in this context in terms of increased budgetary provision, which often aids countries and specialised hospital units in obtaining the necessary allocations. Technical efficiency is useful for assessing such organisational characteristics, which in the case of a healthcare system are frequently estimated using non-parametric approaches such as Data Envelopment Analysis and Stochastic Frontier Approach. These approaches do not make any assumptions about the distribution of outputs, and they do not require any a priori price information. As a result, they are currently being used in industries like as health and education, where profit is not the primary motivation.

Technical efficiency can be measured in two ways: I input-oriented technical efficiency measurement, and (ii) output-oriented technical efficiency measurement. The former is concerned with the smallest amount of input quantities (which can be proportionately reduced) without affecting the quantity of output produced, whereas the latter is concerned with the maximisation of output quantities (which can be proportionately increased) without affecting the quantity of inputs. The TE of a Decision-Making Unit (DMU) is calculated using an output-oriented metric by comparing its actual output to the maximum producible amount on the frontier. Input-oriented measures compare a DMU's actual input in use with the minimum input that would create the desired output level, i.e. determining how much input quantities may be proportionately lowered for each DMU without affecting the actual output bundle.

The idea of input and output oriented technical efficiency can be presented by a graphical presentation for the case of a single input and single output (Figure below). The horizontal axis represents the input used by the firm and the vertical axis shows the output produced with the point A(xo,yo) representing the actual input-output bundle from which y*= f(x0), the maximum output producible from input x0, can be potentially realised. The output-oriented measure of technical efficiency is given by TEo =

solved assignment 2021

Which is the comparison of actual output with the maximum producible quantity from the observed input. Assuming that for the output level the quantity of input can be proportionately reduced till the frontier y0 is reached with an input x*, the input-oriented technical efficiency measure for the concerned DMU is given as TEI = 

Since the value of TE, calculated by this method, lies between 0 and 1, a score of 1 will signify that the firm is fully efficient and a score below 1 signifies inefficiency.

solved assignment 2021

Input and Output Oriented Technical Efficiency

solved assignment 2021

The healthcare finance, along with other inputs, is often not fully utilised to reach the maximum output (health status) and therefore there remains a large scope for improving the effect of health finance on the health status. Since improving the efficiency of spending would remain a critical strategy in the financing for ‘universal health coverage’, funding would remain an important correlate in improving the health status of people.

5) How are ‘market prices’ and ‘shadow prices’ are useful as valuation tools for environmental services? Explain.

Ans) Market Prices

Natural resources that are marketed can be valued using market values. As we all know, market price is established when demand for a commodity matches supply. It is regarded as a form of equilibrium price because it is determined as a result of interaction between multiple buyers and sellers. The advantage of a market price is that it represents the consumers' willingness to pay. As a result, assuming there is no market failure or policy failure, it could be an appropriate way for valuing (environmental resources). The market price, on the other hand, is frequently distorted and does not reflect the underlying economic value of a commodity. As a result, allocating resources based on market prices does not represent economic efficiency in resource utilisation. Taxes levied by the government and government subsidies could be distorting factors. Subsidies, for example, lower the price of fertiliser compared to what it would have been otherwise. As a result, the market price of fertiliser is lower than its genuine economic value, encouraging farmers to purchase more. Fixation of exchange rates, particularly for goods sold abroad, could be a second source of market pricing distortion.

Many environmental resources are not exchanged at all, and hence do not enter the market. In such circumstances, market pricing cannot be used to value the resources, and we must seek for alternate valuation methods. Second, in most situations, the government owns the property rights to natural resources. Unauthorized sales of minerals, forest products, animal hides and horns, and other items are common in many nations, including India. Because the seller is not responsible for the product's production costs, he or she can sell it for a lower price.

Shadow Prices

Due to market failure and policy failure, market prices do not reflect the genuine economic value of a thing, as previously stated. Market failure refers to the market mechanism's inability to adequately reflect the value of environmental goods and services in particular conditions. When a government policy has unanticipated consequences or wastes resources inefficiently, it is called policy failure. For example, in the past, certain Indian state governments have subsidised modest irrigation using tube wells in order to boost food grain output. Farmers were given the necessary incentives in the form of lower credit rates and financial subsidies, which encouraged them to drill more and more deep tube wells, increasing irrigation capacity. The unintended environmental impact, on the other hand, was a shift in cropping patterns in favour of water-intensive crops, resulting in excessive depletion of underground water resources and a lowering of the water table, which eventually dried up shallow tube wells, resulting in overall water shortage.

The use of market prices has a drawback in that, while it reflects the unit cost of production of products or services to individuals, it ignores the societal cost and benefit. The use of shadow prices addresses this problem by accounting for the societal impact of the commodity or service's production. However, because the estimation approach is incomplete, the shadow prices method has the potential to be biassed. Furthermore, it may be tainted by the researcher's or decisionmaker's personal bias.

6) Specify the functional form of ‘Gini Coefficient’ with its underlying rationale. Outline how it is useful to measure income and consumption inequalities.

Ans) The Gini coefficient, created by Italian statistician Corrado Gini, is a frequently used metric for measuring income and consumption inequality. It's a metric for determining the degree of concentration in a variable's inequality in a distribution of its constituents. It assumes a value of zero when there is perfect equality in society, with values ranging from 0 to 1. On the other hand, it takes the theoretical maximum of 1 when every individual's income level except one is 0 in a population. As a result, the Gini coefficient serves as a summary figure for the Lorenz curve. It is calculated as the ratio of the area below the Lorenz curve's line of equality to the entire area of the triangle ABD in Figure 1.1. The Gini Coefficient (G) is derived as G = area AEDF/ area AEDB, as previously stated. Because the Gini coefficient is between zero and one, as the index rises from zero to one, the inequality grows. The Gini-coefficient is determined using the formula in empirical experiments.:

solved assignment 2021

        Computation of Gini Coefficient

solved assignment 2021

where n is the number of individuals and Yi is the income of the individual occupying the ith row of the sorted income data. The income of the poorest individual is Y1 and that of the richest is Y10. The calculation of the Gini is illustrated in Table above. The Gini coefficient G is:

solved assignment 2021

While comparing the same for two or more regions, a lower Gini indicates a higher level

of social or economic inequality.

Many other inequality indices have been developed, and some of these have additional desirable properties not satisfied by the Gini coefficient. One such important index is the Theil index (on which you will study more in the course MEC 009/109 on Research Methods in Economics). Different inequality indices implicitly represent different value judgments, notably on the relative weight to be given to different parts of the distribution. For instance, the simplest way to measure inequality is by dividing the population into five quintiles – from poorest to richest and calculating the proportions of income (or expenditure) that accrue to each level.

Q7) Characterise the basic features of health services distinguishing between healthcare and medical care.

Ans) The terms "healthcare" and "medical care" are not interchangeable. Although the two terms are sometimes used interchangeably, they are not synonymous in terms of health economics. When compared to medical care, healthcare is a far larger notion. When a person becomes sick or ill, medical attention is required. However, healthcare should ideally begin at a young age and focus on healthy eating choices, frequent physical activity, avoiding excessive drinking and smoking, and so on. Doctors give medical treatment to patients, however every individual can provide healthcare to himself or herself. WHO's notion of an integrated system of healthcare services includes a three-tiered preventative healthcare system. Primary prevention, in this context, is described as the prevention of health problems before they occur (e.g. by health education, antenatal care, disease prevention, immunization, etc.). Secondary prevention, often known as curative healthcare, is the early detection and intervention of diseases. Correction and prevention of deterioration, rehabilitation, and terminal care are all examples of tertiary prevention.

Both commercial and public healthcare services coexist in most nations around the world. However, in terms of objectives, functions, and management, the role of private healthcare is fundamentally different from that of public healthcare. As a result, healthcare is primarily provided by publicly funded organisations rather than private insurance premiums in a democratic and planned economy. The main difference between the public and private healthcare systems is that, in addition to most of the services provided by public hospitals being largely free, the number of patients per doctor in public hospitals is far higher than in private hospitals due to the ‘non-rivalry (in consumption) and non-excludability properties' of public healthcare. This has an effect on the quality of care delivered by public hospitals.

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‘His Fight Is in Russia.’ Why Navalny Flew Home Straight Into Putin’s Clutches

TOPSHOT-GERMANY-RUSSIA-POLITICS-OPPOSITION-NAVALNY

R ussian opposition activist Alexei Navalny flew straight into the hands of the Russian police on Jan. 17 when he returned from Germany, where he spent five months recovering from an assassination attempt that he and his supporters blamed on the Kremlin.

Police detained Navalny, Russia’s most prominent critic of President Vladimir Putin, at border control on Sunday evening at Moscow’s Sheremetyevo airport. On Monday, he was tried in a local police precinct in the town of Khimki near Moscow, where the judge placed him under arrest for 30 days pending his next trial scheduled for Jan. 29.

Navalny stands accused of violating the terms of his probation for embezzlement, a 2014 case he says was fabricated. If the court agrees, he will be put behind bars for three and half years. Dozens of people gathered outside the precinct in the bitter cold, shouting “let him out!”.

Navalny, the head of Russia’s Anti-Corruption Foundation, has increasingly become a thorn in Putin’s side in recent years through his street protests, political campaigns, and exposés of government corruption which have helped unseat the president’s allies in local elections . He has been jailed more than ten times, spent hundreds of days in police custody since 2011, and was left in a coma after being poisoned by a powerful nerve agent last year.

The anti-corruption activist knew what awaited him on his return. At the end of December, his name was added to the Federal Wanted List over his alleged probation violations. On top of that, Russia’s investigative committee opened a new criminal case on Dec. 29, accusing him of the supposed misallocation of crowd-sourced funds at his Anti-Corruption foundation. If found guilty, he could be imprisoned for up to ten years. The question some are asking is why he would risk his freedom, and his life, to return?

Exile from Russia was not an option for Navalny

Navalny, for one, said he never doubted he would come back to his homeland. “The question ‘to return or not’ never stood before me,” he said in an Instagram post on Jan. 14. “Mainly because I never left. I ended up in Germany, having arrived in an intensive care box, for one reason: they tried to kill me.”

His close colleague, Vladimir Ashurkov, executive director of the Anti-Corruption Foundation living in exile in London, tells TIME that back in August he entertained the idea of discussing with Navalny how he could continue his fight from the safety of another country. “But when we started talking, I understood this was not an option. His fight is in Russia and he did not do anything wrong,” he says.

In August last year, Navalny was poisoned by Novichok, an internationally banned nerve agent developed in the Soviet Union and Russia, during a visit to the Siberian city of Tomsk. When he emerged from his medically induced coma in Berlin, having been airlifted there from Omsk, he immediately accused Putin of being behind the attack. Russia has consistently denied any involvement. The attack prompted the E.U. and U.K. to impose sanctions—asset freezes and visa bans—against some six Russian officials and drove relations between Russia and Europe to a new low.

A December report by the investigative news organization Bellingcat, in collaboration with independent media outlets, identified eight FSB operatives working for a clandestine unit, who according to the investigation, were behind the attack. By analysing cell phone and travel data, they found that these operatives had followed Navalny on more than 30 occasions since 2017. Eliot Higgins, founder of Bellingcat says, “We found multiple instances where this FSB team seems to have been involved in the successful assassination of other figures, and failed assassinations of some others.”

A few days later, Navalny published a phone recording on YouTube of him duping an FSB officer allegedly involved in the assasination attempt, Konstantin Kudryavtsev, into divulging how he’d tried to poison him. During the 49-minute conversation , in which Navalny posed as an aide, Kudryavtsev revealed that operatives poisoned him via his underpants.

Putin, who never refers to Navalny by name, instead calling him the “Berlin patient” or a “blogger”, denied that the FSB was involved. “If they’d wanted to [poison him] then they probably would have finished the job,” he said during a press conference on Dec. 17.

High stakes for the Kremlin

Navalny’s return has put Putin in an awkward situation. “Every step taken by the Kremlin has the potential to make Navalny more well known,” says Ben Noble, a lecturer in Russian politics at the U.K’s University College London. It is clear from Navalny’s swift arrest that the authorities are trying to “take him out of public view as soon as possible”, says Noble. “They don’t want him to be greeted at home as a hero,” he adds. That could explain why the authorities diverted his plane last minute from Vnukovo airport, where journalists and hundreds of supporters gathered, to a different Moscow airport.

Navalny’s return has “particular high stakes” for the Kremlin due to the parliamentary elections scheduled for September, says Noble. Putin’s United Russia (UR) party faces a challenge like never before in maintaining a supermajority in parliament with support hovering at around 31 %, according to the state-run pollster VCIOM, having hit a record low of 30.5% in August. “The Kremlin does not want Navalny and his team to make them any more difficult than they’re going to be, especially given the economic situation and uncertainty over the pandemic,” says Noble.

The elections will put to the test Navalny’s “smart voting” initiative, which directs voters to support candidates most likely to defeat the United Russia nominee. In the 2019 Moscow city elections—the first vote targeted by “smart voting”—the ruling party lost a third of its seats on the city council and saw its majority slashed to only five.

What also concerns the Kremlin, says Noble, is that Navalny is more recognisable than ever in Russia. In May 2013, the number of people who said they had never heard of him stood at 59%, according to the Levada Center, an independent polling agency in Moscow. By September last year, that had fallen to 18%. It also found that 20% of respondents approved of him, up from 6%, and people who disapprove of him increased to 50%, from 35%.

What will the world do now about Navalny?

Experts say Navalny is not going to walk free anytime soon. “Given the speed with which authorities have moved to take Navalny out of public view, they’re most likely going to lock him up,” says Noble.

Officials in the U.K. and E.U. have condemned the move, with some urging new sanctions against Russia for violating human rights. Joe Biden’s incoming national security adviser, Jake Sullivan, called for Navalny’s immediate release and said the “perpetrators of the outrageous attack on his life must be held accountable”.

But many doubt this will do much for Navalny. Higgins of Bellingcat says the reaction to Navalny’s arrest is “utterly toothless.” Navalny’s poisoning is just one event that Bellingcat say they have linked to the FSB, he says. “Assassinations, coup attempts, let alone attempts to interfere in democratic processes by Russia have been going on across the world. This is just what we know about. Russia doesn’t care about sanctions,” he says.

Ashurkov argues that sanctions are largely ineffective because they fail to target enough decision-makers in Putin’s regime, who stash their money in the West. A few days before Navalny boarded his flight, he and Ashurkov agreed on a list of eight individuals, who they think should be sanctioned. The list that Ashurkov published to his Facebook page on Jan. 18, includes Russia’s health minister and agriculture minister.

Even if he does remain behind bars, Navalny’s return and arrest may yet be a defining moment for Russia and governments around the world. “If the international community doesn’t do something that Russia cares about, Russia will realise that it can get away with whatever it wants,” says Higgins.

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Rainstorms impacts on water, sediment, and trace elements loads in an urbanized catchment within Moscow city: case study of summer 2020 and 2021

  • Published: 07 December 2022
  • Volume 151 , pages 871–889, ( 2023 )

Cite this article

  • Sergey Chalov   ORCID: orcid.org/0000-0002-6937-7020 1 , 2 ,
  • Vladimir Platonov 1 ,
  • Oxana Erina 1 ,
  • Vsevolod Moreido 1 , 3 ,
  • Mikhail Samokhin 1 ,
  • Dmitriy Sokolov 1 ,
  • Maria Tereshina 1 ,
  • Yulia Yarinich 1 &
  • Nikolay Kasimov 1  

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In 2020 and 2021, the city of Moscow, Russia, has experienced two historical rainfall events that had caused major flooding of small rivers. Based on long-term observation datasets from the surrounding weather stations, regional mesoscale COSMO-CLM climate model results, and a detailed hydrological and water quality monitoring data, we performed a pioneer assessment of climate change and urbanization impact on flooding hazard and water quality of the urban Setun River as a case study. Statistically significant rise of some moderate ETCCDI climate change indices (R20mm and R95pTOT) was revealed for the 1966–2020 period, while no significant trends were observed for more extreme indices. The combined impact of climate change and increased urbanization is highly non-linear and results in as much as a fourfold increase in frequency of extreme floods and shift of water regime features which lead to formation of specific seasonal flow patterns. The rainstorm flood wave response time, involving infiltrated and hillslope-routed fraction of rainfall, is accounted as 6 to 11 h, which is more than twice as rapid as compared to the non-urbanized nearby catchments. Based on temporal trends before and after rainfall flood peak, four groups of dissolved chemicals were identified: soluble elements whose concentrations decrease with an increase in water discharge; mostly insoluble and well-sorted elements whose concentrations increase with discharge (Mn, Cs, Cd, Al); elements negatively related to water discharge during flood events (Li, B, Cr, As, Br and Sr); and a wide range of dissolved elements (Cu, Zn, Mo, Sn, Pb, Ba, La, Cs, U) which concentrations remain stable during rainfall floods. Our study identifies that lack of research focused on the combined impacts of climate change and urbanization on flooding and water quality in the Moscow urban area is a key problem in water management advances.

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Field studies were supported by Russian Science Foundation project 19–77-30004. The analytical experiments were done under Ministry of Science and Higher Education of Russian Federation project 075–15-2021–574. COSMO-CLM model setup is a part of RFBR project 21–55-53039. The methodology of this study is developed under the Interdisciplinary Scientific and Educational School of Lomonosov Moscow State University «Future Planet and Global Environmental Change» and Kazan Federal University Strategic Academic Leadership Program (“PRIORITY-2030”). The research is carried out using the equipment of the shared research facilities of HPC computing resources at Lomonosov Moscow State University. Streamflow patterns analysis was carried out under Governmental Order to Water Problems Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, subject no. FMWZ-2022–0003, project 3.7.

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Sergey Chalov, Vladimir Platonov, Oxana Erina, Vsevolod Moreido, Mikhail Samokhin, Dmitriy Sokolov, Maria Tereshina, Yulia Yarinich & Nikolay Kasimov

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Conceptualization, original draft preparation—Sergey Chalov; numerical experiments conducting and evaluation, precipitation data analysis, writing—Vladimir Platonov; the rainfall-runoff patterns analysis—Vsevolod Moreido; methodology, validation, writing—Oxana Erina, Dmitriy Sokolov, Maria Tereshina, Mikhail Samokhin; precipitation data preparation and visualization—Yulia Yarinich; review, editing—Nikolay Kasimov. All authors have read and agreed to the published version of the manuscript.

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Chalov, S., Platonov, V., Erina, O. et al. Rainstorms impacts on water, sediment, and trace elements loads in an urbanized catchment within Moscow city: case study of summer 2020 and 2021. Theor Appl Climatol 151 , 871–889 (2023). https://doi.org/10.1007/s00704-022-04298-9

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