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Biological Treatment Processes pp 427–448 Cite as

Rotating Biological Contactors

  • Mu Hao Sung Wang 3 ,
  • Lawrence K. Wang 4 &
  • Calvin P. C. Poon 5  

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Part of the Handbook of Environmental Engineering book series (HEE,volume 3)

Rotating biological contactors (RBCs) were originally developed in Europe and recently accepted by America and Asia. The process system, as shown in Fig. 1 is primarily a fixed-film biological reactor consisting of a synthetic medium mounted on a horizontal shaft and placed in a contour-bottomed tank. The general concept of rotating biological contactors is to let wastewater flow through the tank, and to rotate the medium in the wastewater to be treated, alternatively exposing the medium (and the attached biological growth) to air and the wastewater. The slowly rotated media are about 40% immersed in the wastewater for aerobic removal of organic waste by the biological film developing on the media. The lattice-structured medium, and to a lesser extent the disc structure, is fragile and should be protected from direct exposure to wind, sun, and weather fluctuation. Therefore, the media are usually enclosed in a superstructure or individual shaft covers.

  • Hydraulic Loading
  • Rotate Biological Contactor
  • Biological Contactor
  • Wastewater Flow
  • BODs Removal

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R. L. Antonie, “Application of the Bio-Disc Process to Treatment of Domestic Wastewater,” technical paper presented at the 43rd Annual Conference of the Water Pollution Control Federation, Boston. Mass.. Oct. 4 - 9, 1970.

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Department of Environmental Conservation, Albany, New York, State of New York, USA

Mu Hao Sung Wang

Lenox Institute for Research Inc., Lenox, Massachusetts, USA

Lawrence K. Wang

Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Rhode Island, Kingston, Rhode Island, USA

Calvin P. C. Poon

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© 1986 The HUMANA Press Inc.

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Wang, M.H.S., Wang, L.K., Poon, C.P.C. (1986). Rotating Biological Contactors. In: Wang, L.K., Pereira, N.C. (eds) Biological Treatment Processes. Handbook of Environmental Engineering, vol 3. Humana Press. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4612-4820-0_9

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A Review on Rotating Biological Contactors

Profile image of M Roil Bilad

treatment process that provides a both acceptable effluent quality and organic removal efficiency at a comparatively very low costs. It is highly attractive due to simplicity of operation, low sludge production, small foot-print, low maintenance, and low operational cost. Complete nitrification/denitrification can be achieved by varying the disk submergence level and operating the process under both anaerobic/anoxic conditions in a single unit. In this review, pros and cons of RBC are discussed in detail along with the factors affecting its performances. Organic and hydraulic loading and hydraulic retention time are the main parameters followed by additional parameters such as rotational speed, media, disk submergence, dissolved oxygen level, influent and effluent characteristics, and step-feeding in affecting the performance of an RBC system. RBC has shown promising results for the removal of biodegradable matter, nitrogen and phosphorous removal. The approaches for hybridization...

Related Papers

ghawi ;Ie7ESd0

research paper on rotating biological contactor

Izabela Kruszelnicka

The rotating biological contactor (RBC) is resistant to toxic chemical and shock loadings, and this results in significant organic and nutrient removal efficiencies. The RBC system offers a low-energy footprint and saves up to 90% in energy costs. Due to the system’s low-energy demand, it is easily operable with renewable energy sources, either solar or wind power. An RBC was employed to degrade pollutants in domestic wastewater through biodegradation mechanisms in this study. The high microbial population in the RBC bioreactor produced excellent biological treatment capacity and higher effluent quality. The results showed that the RBC bioreactor achieved an average removal efficiency of 73.9% of chemical oxygen demand (COD), 38.3% of total nitrogen (TN), 95.6% of ammonium, and 78.9% of turbidity. Investigation of operational parameters, disk rotational speed, HRT, and SRT, showed the biological performance impact. Disk rotational speed showed uniform effluent quality at 30–40 rpm, ...

Water, Air, and Soil Pollution

Bram Klapwijk

Journal of Environment and Earth Science

Vaibhav Chate

Susana Cortez

Rotating biological contactors (RBCs) constitute a very unique and superior alternative for biodegradable matter and nitrogen removal on account of their feasibility, simplicity of design and operation, short start-up, low land area requirement, low energy consumption, low operating and maintenance cost and treatment efficiency. The present review of RBCs focus on parameters that affect performance like rotational speed, organic and hydraulic loading rates, retention time, biofilm support media, staging, temperature, influent wastewater characteristics, biofilm characteristics, dissolved oxygen levels, effluent and solids recirculation, step-feeding and medium submergence. Some RBCs scale-up and design considerations, operational problems and comparison with other wastewater treatment systems are also reported.

Michael Stenstrom

The pet6otmance o6 a Rotating Biotogicat Contactot (RBC) was studied using a nape o6 0 .1 gallon/6t2/day The biochemicaZ oxygen demand (BOV 5 ) o6 domestic waztewatet was teduced 98% nom 150 mg/Zitet to 3 mg/LLten . The total suspended zotids were reduced Qom 73 mg1titm to 32 mg/ titet and ammonia was comptetety oxidized to nittate . The economics o6 waztewatet treatment at this tow Zoading /ale watt be 6avotabte bon apptications which tequi&e maintenance-6tee operation, on where ope;aKonaZ expettize is unavaitabZe . A mathematicat model bon the RBC was also developed . The model incZudez matetiat balances on both oxygen and subWate in the biojiZm and bulk solutions . The tezuttant set o6 non-Zineat, patabotic pattiat &66etentiaZ equations was solved using an impticit numeticaZ technique zimitat to Ctank-Nicohon . Since model ptedictions were within 10% o6 the expetimentat thuW, the model should ptovide a basis bon bu.tune development . The 6ottowing is a condensation o6 the otigina...

Biochemical Engineering Journal

Ahmed Tawfik

Environmental engineering and management journal

Dragan Cvetkovic

The aim of this paper was to study the performance of a single-stage rotating biological contactor with supplemental aeration in terms of removal efficiency of organic and nitrogen content. Research was based on fifteen samples collected during the four year period. The wastewater was low strength with maximal measured concentration of 362 mg COD/l, 100 mg NH4/l, and 324 mg TSS/L. The maximal measured removal efficiency of COD (chemical oxygen demand) and TSS (total suspend solids) were 71% and 56%, respectively. The high rate of nitrogen removal was achieved using supplemental aeration. The removal efficiency of NH4, NO2 and NO3 were 83%, 60% and 52%, respectively.

IJSTE - International Journal of Science Technology and Engineering

Due to fading of natural water resources (Surface source), sewage treatment is becoming more critical. The disposal regulations of sewage discharge firmer have reduced levels of contaminants allowed in waste-streams (nallah). The sewage management extreme objective is the assurance of the earth in a way too equivalent the general well-being and financial concerns. Understanding the nature and characterization of the sewage is essential for the design of appropriate sewage treatment plant and sanitation technologies. This project is study to show the general sewage characteristics collected from the sewage treatment plant and also to treat the domestic sewage by attach growth process. The attach growth process considered for treating domestic sewage is Rotating Biological Contactor (RBC) model. Result showed removal efficiency for partially submerged Rotating Biological Contactor (RBC) for Biochemical Oxygen Demand was efficient for rotational speed of disc at 6rpm. It is also seen that after treatment the values are within desirable limits of effluent standards as per CPCB, New Delhi.

Rao Surampalli

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  1. An integrated rotating biological contactor and ...

    This paper assesses a rotating biological contactor (RBC) integrated with membrane (RBC-MI) filtration that potentially offers inherent membrane fouling control as well as enhances biological performance, in which the membrane is placed inside the RBC bioreactor.

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    Rotating biological contactors (RBCs) offer an alternative treatment technology to the conventional activated sludge process. The principal advantages of the RBC stem from the fact that the interfa... Rotating Biological Contactors: A Review | Industrial & Engineering Chemistry Research ACS ACS Publications C&EN CAS Find my institution Log In

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  7. [PDF] Rotating biological contactors: a review on main factors

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  8. Design, construction and optimization a flexible bench-scale rotating

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  10. Mechanical evolution of the rotating biological contactor into the 21st

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  17. Rotating biological contactors : A critical review

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