U.S. flag

An official website of the United States government

The .gov means it’s official. Federal government websites often end in .gov or .mil. Before sharing sensitive information, make sure you’re on a federal government site.

The site is secure. The https:// ensures that you are connecting to the official website and that any information you provide is encrypted and transmitted securely.

  • Publications
  • Account settings
  • Advanced Search
  • Journal List

Logo of plosone

Diversity impact on organizational performance: Moderating and mediating role of diversity beliefs and leadership expertise

Jamshid ali turi.

1 Department of Management Studies, Bahria Business School, Bahria University, Islamabad, Pakistan

Sudhaishna Khastoori

2 Department of Management Sciences, SZABIST, Larkana, Pakistan

Shahryar Sorooshian

3 Department of Business Administration, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden

Nadine Campbell

4 Business school, Western Sydney University, Sydney, Australia

Associated Data

The data has been sent to the SZABIST center of research in Shaheed Zulfikar Ali Bhutto Institute of Science and Technology, 79 Clifton Road, Karachi 75600, Pakistan. To obtain the archive, should use the main author's name followed by the year 2021, "Ali Turi / Khastoori - 2021. Data set, the contact information for the SZABIST center of research is: Tel: (021) 358-21538-42 (EXT # 407) Fax: (021) 35830446 Email: kp.ude.tsibazs@ofni .

The current research examines the impact of four independent diversity variables, gender, age, educational background, and ethnicity, on the moderating role of diversity beliefs and the mediating role of leadership expertise to measure organisational performance in Pakistan. A self-administered questionnaire using a 6-point Likert scale approach was adopted to collect the responses from 176 employees. Quantitative analysis was done using SPSS, and SMART-PLS3 were used for was used to comprehend the objectives of the research. The findings indicate that age diversity, diversity beliefs, and leadership expertise have a statistically significant impact on organisational performance. Moreover, moderating variable diversity belief did not affect organisational performance, but leadership expertise plays a significant mediating role in organisational performance. Our study provides critical theoretical contributions to research diversity and organisational performance in Pakistan and examines the impact of workforce diversity on organisational performance with leadership expertise as mediator and diversity beliefs as a moderator.

1. Introduction

Diversity has many meanings, applications, and implications. Some organisations see it as an asset from which innovation and competitive advantages can springboard, while others see it as a hindrance, constrain, and biases. Traditionally, diversity included religion, language, age, gender, ethnicity, education, cultural and personality orientation [ 1 ]. Today, the concept of diversity has evolved to encompass strategic targets to improve organisational performance and effectiveness [ 2 ]. Therefore, organisations promote workforce diversity to bolster organisational performance [ 3 ]. However, many studies suggest that diversity exists in different forms with different intensities. If not managed properly, it has the potential to harm morale, intensify turnover and result in substantial communication problems.

The lack of diversity training and understanding of diversity beliefs, especially in developing countries with rigid social and cultural bonds, leads to organisational bias. To overcome these organisational biases, E-Vahdati et al. [ 4 ] recommended that firms should emphasise corporate governance, accountability, ethics, trust, and diversity. Moreover, organisations also need diversity for rational decision-making and promoting a conducive environment, where everyone’s beliefs are respected, leading to employees self-reflecting on the positive benefits [ 5 , 6 ]. However, if workforce diversity is mismanaged, this could lead to emotional conflicts, perceived organisational politics, miscommunication, power struggle, and higher employee turnover. As a result, having a diverse workforce would become an inhibitor for organisational development [ 7 , 8 ].

Muhammad Ali Jinnah, the founder of Pakistan, believed that diversity management involves four key concepts. One is democratisation which would guarantee cooperation amongst its citizens. Two, consistent social equity and equivalence through egalitarian Islamic values. Three, stringent laws with no room for bias or discrimination. Four, protectionism for minorities, women, and other disadvantaged groups [ 9 ]. Despite this, Pakistan is among the lowest-ranked diverse countries in the world. It ranked in the 22nd percentile for gender diversity and female economic activity in emerging economies due to its religious and cultural norms. Additionally, Pakistan’s sectoral diversity falls in the bottom five [ 10 ].

Previous studies on diversity focused on culture and ethnicity, but elements such as age, gender, and education have not been fully explored. Therefore, there is a need to examine different elements of diversity in different settings to understand its applications and managerial implications for sustainable organisational performance [ 11 – 13 ]. However, the subjective nature of diversity has left many practitioners ill-equipped to manage diversity effectively or determine which components play a role in diversity management and diversity-related issues [ 14 ].

The contradictory research results on diversity need to be further examined to increase our comprehension and better explain this phenomenon. Previous research has considered various diversity dimensions to identify their impact on organisational performance. For example, García-Granero et al. [ 15 ] and Georgakakis [ 16 ] explored the relationship between top management team functional diversity and the firm’s performance with the moderating role of top management (CEO) attributes. Other studies have used negative descriptors such as discrimination and racial prejudice to explore diversity.

However, no studies have examined the projectized environments or considered the role of leadership expertise and diversity beliefs. This research’s main queries are to determine how leadership expertise adds to organisational performance, value diversity beliefs, and organisational performance? Therefore, our contribution to the diversity literature will help us better understand and assess the impact of diversity on organizational performance by examining leadership expertise as a mediating variable and determining the extent to which diversity and organizational performance are related, using diversity beliefs as a moderating variable within Pakistan.

2. Literature review and hypotheses

Diversity is considering, recognising, and respecting others’ opinions and differences irrespective of their culture, gender, age, social status, race, physical capability, and so on [ 7 , 17 ]. It is used to find opportunities, face challenges, and explore new avenues [ 18 ]. Furthermore, diversity can be used to enhance knowledge and skill levels, help to understand behaviour, conflicts and fill the gaps within the organisation [ 7 , 19 ]. While there are many facets to diversity, this research aims to look more especially at gender, age, ethnicity, and educational diversity.

2.1 Gender diversity

Gender diversity represents the gender identities of men and women. It describes the emotional difference and experience publicly and culturally attached to men and women within any firm [ 20 ]. Research has found that a moderate level of gender diversity boosts the competitive edge, whereas greater levels of gender diversity reduce organizational performance. Other studies have shown that organisational success depends upon gender equality and equity [ 21 , 22 ];. Although western organisations have been moving closer to gender equality, Pakistan is way behind [ 21 ]. The gender-oriented inequities within the Pakistani workplace are reinforced by personal biases and stereotypes, referring that the status of men is perceived as superior to women. Many organisations prefer hiring male employees because they perceive men as better performers [ 23 ].

2.2 Age diversity

Age diversity is the ability of an organisation to accept different age groups. The business environment can only grow and succeed when various age groups within an organisation come with diverse experiences [ 24 – 26 ]. Recently, age diversity issues have gained significance because professionals are choosing to work past retirement age, and young adults are working part-timers while completing their studies [ 27 – 29 ]. Many organisations are welcoming this trend because they need skilled employees with experience and young talent with an innovative mindset for new ventures better organisational performance [ 30 , 31 ]. However, In Pakistan, young people face more discrimination in the labour market than old workers [ 32 ], as cultural norms are founded on respect for their elders.

2.3 Ethnic diversity

Ethnic diversity refers to differences in religion, language, and cultural background. Employees from different backgrounds working in the same organisation represent different lifestyles, cultures, beliefs, and skills that can improve strategic decisions [ 14 ]. Due to these perceived attributes and globalisation, organisations are focusing on multiplicity diversity building, but many companies struggle to produce and implement policies that reduce ethnic discrimination, which negatively impacts organisational performance [ 32 – 35 ]. Pakistani laws espouse that all citizens are equal irrespective of their religion, language, gender, or caste, but for minorities in Pakistan, this is a farfetched dream. According to EEOC data, ethnic diversity violations cost companies $112.7 million per annum due to ethnic diversity violations [ 3 ].

2.4 Educational diversity

Educational diversity denotes differences in knowledge, training, skills, experience, and qualification [ 18 , 36 ]. Some organisations refuse to employ highly qualified workers because they do not believe highly educated individuals are better performers, while others see employees with less education, skills, and training underperform [ 22 ]. The lowest level of education affects the earnings of rural workers in Pakistan, but old earners who receive more education earn more in urban areas. Organisations use educational diversity to have a mix of soft and hard-tech skills [ 37 ], and employees consider having educational diversity to significantly increase their ability in obtaining desirable jobs [ 38 , 39 ]. Age, gender, ethnicity, and educational diversity add to the synergetic pragmatism of the projects and organisation [ 30 , 40 ]. These findings lead us to the stance that H1 : Diversity has a significant positive impact on project performance .

2.5 Leadership expertise

Leadership expertise plays a crucial role in organisational performance, as it creates new directions, new philosophies, optimism, boost enthusiasm and cooperation among employees, and devises appropriate visions and strategies. Furthermore, leadership expertise considers diversity an organisational strength and promotes inclusion and diversity using various leadership styles as one leadership style may not work in diverse teams. The leader-member exchange (LMX) theory explains this approach best. It is a relationship-based approach with a dyadic relationship between the leader and their employees [ 41 ].

According to LMX [ 41 ], a leader uses a specific leadership style for each team member based on their mindset. The leaders share more knowledge and information, delegate responsibilities, and encourage participation in decision-making with some members and not others. LXM theory allows leaders to develop in-groups and spend more resources on the members they expect to perform better. This relationship between a leader and members gradually develops and reaches a high degree of dependence, mutual trust, and support. As a result, productivity increases. That eventually enhances employee retention, loyalty, and sustainable organisational growth.

Previous results maintain that effective diversity management at the workplace adds to both organisational and organisational performance [ 7 , 40 ]. Diversity, which has become an integral part of every organisation and project in this unified world, needs better leadership expertise to manage it at the micro and macro levels [ 34 , 42 ]. Research supports that a leader’s expertise, i.e., leading employees with respect regardless of their caste and creed, leading them with self-assurance, positively shaping their behaviour, results in enhanced employee performance, which eventually reflects increased organisational performance [ 43 ]. The findings lead us to H2 : Diversity with leadership expertise has a positive impact on organisational performance .

2.6 Role of diversity beliefs as a moderating variable

Diversity beliefs mean understanding that everyone is unique, and there is a need to recognise individual differences. These differences include race, ethnicity, gender, sexual orientation, socio-economic status, age, physical abilities, religious beliefs, political beliefs, or other ideologies [ 11 ]. Today, globalisation is one of the driving forces of diversity within organisations. However, accommodating diversity beliefs in terms of spiritual, cultural, and political views sometimes challenges a diverse organisation [ 12 , 25 ]. Staff needs to be reminded that they should not impose their opinions on others as their personal and ethnic beliefs are independent of their work obligations [ 27 , 44 ]. The employment practices linked with unbiased diversity beliefs can lead to constructive organisational results [ 11 , 26 ].

These diversity beliefs can be polarised perceptions or preferences towards homogeneity or heterogeneity [ 7 , 17 ]. A leader’s diversity beliefs may be one of the factors influencing organisational performance. Manoharan and Singal [ 42 ] found diversity positively affects organisational performance when supported by positive beliefs and values. Kundu and Mor [ 45 ] concluded that a generally positive view of workforce diversity could positively impact organisational and new venture (project) performance. Additionally, the perception of employees about workforce diversity is positively linked with organisational performance [ 46 ], and employees perceive their organisation more favourably when diversity management is perceived as positive [ 18 ]. However, due to organisational variations and cultural settings, diversity needs to be managed differently [ 14 , 47 ]. As such, we hypothesise that H3 : Diversity beliefs moderates the relationship between leadership expertise and organisational performance .

Furthermore, organisations bring people from different cultures to boost creativity, knowledge, and rational problem-solving approaches. Consequently, the leaders in this 21 st century have become highly alarmed with diversity management in organisations [ 48 ]. It is believed that diversity at the workplace positively impacts organisational performance, and the leadership expertise mediates this relationship. According to prior research [ 8 , 49 ], organisational leaders play a vital role in forming and promoting the workplace culture, free of prejudice and personal biases. The workforce mainly follows leaders to set the perspective wherein they would work in an organisational setting. Thus, forming such an environment that imitates respect, ethical behaviour, understanding, and encouraging cross-cultural values improves organisational performance. However, this relationship is moderated by the diversity beliefs. Everyone in the organisation does not hold the same values and beliefs. Still, a true leader who can determine the varied beliefs of employees and manage diversity in a way that is convincing for each team member can help organisations reach new heights [ 50 ]. The research findings lead to the hypothesis that H4 : Diversity significantly impacts organisational performance with the mediation of leadership expertise and moderation of diversity beliefs .

The Conceptual Model ( Fig 1 ) was developed based on the relationship between four dimensions of diversity most relevant to the Pakistani context, the leadership expertise, diversity beliefs, and organisational performance. This conceptual framework indicates the impact of workforce diversity on organisational performance in the presence of leadership expertise as mediating variable and diversity beliefs as moderating variable in the services sector and projectized organisations in Pakistan’s major cities.

An external file that holds a picture, illustration, etc.
Object name is pone.0270813.g001.jpg

3. Methodology

A quantitative approach using a correlational study was undertaken to determine the extent of a relationship constructs under investigation. A structured questionnaire was adopted from previous studies [ 51 , 52 ] to collect primary data using a survey, keeping in mind the objectives of the studies. The study used a 6-point Likert scale for grading the responses with the scale (1 = strongly disagree, 2 = disagree, 3 = partially disagree, 4 = partially agree, 5 = agree, 6 = strongly agree). The target population of the study was the project management professionals, working in the major cities of Pakistan. These cities were selected because many of the national and international developmental projects take place here. Organizations were selected from the services sector. The questionnaires were self-administered.

Additionally, a muti-level sampling procedure was adopted to make the respondent selection process more accurate and precise. In the first phase, stratified random sampling was applied to select the strata of the potential respondents. In the second phase, the quota sampling technique was applied to select the qualifying organizations, and in the third phase, convenient sampling was used to collect data. A total of 550 questionnaires were distributed, and 482 were returned. Questionnaires were assessed and screened for completeness. A total of 17 questionnaires were discarded as more than 10% of the values were missing. A further 12 were removed because of outliers. The remaining 451 were analysed using SPSS and Smart PLS.

4. Results and findings

4.1 participant demographics.

Table 1 contains the demographic details of the respondents. Among 176 respondents, 97 were male, and 79 were female. Most of the respondents were aged 30–35, had more than 5years’ experience working for their organisation, and held a bachelor’s degree or higher. This indicates that the participants were well educated and possessed sufficient skills and knowledge to answer all the survey questions proficiently.

4.2 Instrument validity

Table 2 indicates the loading factors for all the items are in the acceptable range of greater than 0.70. The average variance extracted (AVE) falls between 0.612–0.678 for the constructs, indicating a high-reliability level. Moreover, the composite reliability (CR) values range from 0.862 to 0.947 and are highly consistent and satisfy the convergent validity criteria. Furthermore, predictive accuracy, effect size, and predictive relevance were conducted for the goodness of fit, and their values fell in an acceptable range.

*OL = Organisational Leadership; AD = Age Diversity; ED = Ethnic Diversity; GD = Gender Diversity; EDD = Educational Diversity LE = Leadership Expertise; DB = Diversity Beliefs.

4.3 Discriminant validity: Fornell-Larcker Criterion

Discriminant validity of the constructs was checked using Fornell-Larcker Criterion. Discriminant validity confirms correlation among constructs if the values do not exceed 0.85 and the square root of AVEs is greater than the correlation of other constructs. Table 3 maintains that all values are less than 0.85, and their square root of AVEs was greater than their constructs’ off-diagonal values. These details satisfy the discriminant validity requirements.

*AD = Age Diversity; DB = Diversity Beliefs; ED = Ethnic Diversity; EDD = Educational Diversity GD = Gender Diversity; LE = Leadership Expertise; OP = Organisational Performance.

4.4 Discriminant validity: HTMT Criterion

HTMT refers to the average of the correlations of indicators between different constructs relative to the average of the correlations of indicators within the same construct. It measures the discriminant validity between the construct of the instrument. While conservative cut-off values are 0.9 is advocated a more stringent ratio of 0.85 as it offers the best criterion compared to all other methods of assessing discriminant validity [ 53 ]. Thus, any inter-construct ratio greater than 0.85 would be considered as having poor discriminant validity. The HTMT ratios obtained in this study, as shown in Table 3 , indicate no discriminant validity problems between the constructs.

4.5 Hypothesis testing

The path estimation or hypothetical relations was performed to observe the significant relationship in the inner path model. The entire hypothetical path in the framework was examined through the regression coefficient (β). Using the PLS Bootstrap technique, the value of β was checked to observe the proposed hypotheses in the structural model. Table 4 demonstrates the path coefficient assessment result where out of 10 direct hypotheses, six were supported, and four were not supported. The supported hypotheses were significant at least at the level of 0.05, have expected positive sign directions, and consist of a path coefficient value (β) ranging from 0.181 to 0.515.

Additionally, Table 5 shows that all six direct relationships were significant as the p-value is less than 0.05 and the t-value is higher than 1.96, depicted in Fig 2 . However, the other four hypotheses were unsupported because the p-value was higher than 0.05, and the t-values were less than 1.96.

An external file that holds a picture, illustration, etc.
Object name is pone.0270813.g002.jpg

In the case of moderating hypothesis, DB does not moderate the relationship between LE and OP. Therefore, it confirms that DB does not play any significant moderating role in the relationship between LE and OP.

4.6 Mediation hypothesis

For the mediating analysis, the bootstrapping technique was applied [ 54 ]. The mediation analysis results are presented in Table 6 and in Fig 3 , where among the four mediating hypotheses, three were supported, and one was not supported. The mediating path AD -> LE -> OP, ED -> LE -> OP, and EDD -> LE -> OP was significant as p < .005 and the values of LL and UL do not have zero (0) in between, which confirmed a mediating effect. However, the other mediating path GD -> LE -> OP was not significant as p < .005, and the zero (0) exists between LL and UL. In addition, among the three hypotheses, the AD -> LE -> OP path was partially mediated as the direct hypothesis was significant. However, the other two significant paths were fully mediated as their direct relationships were not significant.

An external file that holds a picture, illustration, etc.
Object name is pone.0270813.g003.jpg

5. Discussion

After many years of research on workplace diversity, there is considerable misperception over what diversity is. The broad definitions state that diversity seeks inclusion but does not identify the difference between social diversity where individuals of different races, ethnicity, religious beliefs, socio-economic status, language, geographical origin, gender, and/or sexual orientation bring their different knowledge, background, experience, and interest to increase organisational performance. Similarly, functional diversity where individuals with a variety of educational and training backgrounds are not examined. As a result, organisations are left confused about how to manage diversity to maximise organisational performance [ 55 – 58 ].

The present research provides a better understanding of the prevailing diversity scenario in Pakistan’s service sector and projectized organisations. The research indicates that three diversity variables, ethnic, gender, and education, do not significantly impact organisational performance. In contrast, age diversity has a significant impact on organisational performance.

The moderating hypothesis indicates that diversity beliefs play no significant role in improving organisational performance. This study challenges previous findings in the literature review sections, which proclaims that diversity and diversity beliefs significantly affect organisational performance. Therefore, organisations prefer to engage the workforce with diverse social, cultural, and ethnic backgrounds, bringing multi-facet experiences, learning, tacit and explicit knowledge to the organisation, boom effectiveness, and efficiencies, face challenges, and accept future challenges. This may be due to regional and cultural factors, that diversity beliefs are not promoting organisational performance, which may be explored in the future. Moreover, this study indicates that leadership expertise plays a significant mediating role, and diversity beliefs play a significant moderating role in organisational performance.

5.1 Theoretical implications

Our study provides critical theoretical contributions to research diversity and organisational performance. There is a gap in the current literature on the impact of workforce diversity on organisational performance, with leadership expertise as mediating variable and diversity beliefs as moderating variable in the services sector and projectized organisations in Pakistan. Specifically, we determined that leadership expertise mediates age, ethnicity, and educational diversity, and organisational.

Second, we contribute to research on the effective path by which diversity influences organisational performance by exploring the mediating role of leadership expertise. That is, our study not only examined that leadership expertise positively influences organisational performance. Building on these studies, our research uses leader-member exchange theory as an effective path and organisational performance as a goal. Drawing on the leader-member exchange theory, we determine that leadership expertise can impact diversity and enhance organisational performance. Our results suggest that leadership expertise is a crucial mechanism for diversity management and improving organisational performance in Pakistan.

Finally, our research explored the value of incorporating the moderator, diversity beliefs, and the mediator leadership expertise into a single theoretical model helps us better to understand the relationship between diversity and organisational performance. Our study showed that diversity beliefs do not moderate the relationship between leadership expertise and organisational performance. However, there were direct relationships between age diversity and leadership expertise, age diversity and organisational performance, diversity beliefs and organisational performance, and ethnic diversity and leadership expertise. Additionally, this study also found that there is partial and no mediation between age diversity, gender diversity, and organizational performance.

5.2 Practical implications

In addition to the theoretical contributions, our research informs practitioners in several ways. First, our results show that age, ethnicity, and educational diversity directly contributes to organisational performance via leadership expertise. There was also a direct relationship between age and ethnic diversity and leadership expertise. These findings emphasise the relevance of diversity management in light of globalisation.

Leaders should employ leader-member exchange procedures to help sustain organisational performance in an increasingly diverse workforce. That is, leadership styles need to change based on the mindset of the various groups within the organisation. The leaders share more knowledge and information, delegate responsibilities, and encourage participation in decision-making with some members and not others. LXM theory allows leaders to develop in-groups and spend more resources on the members they expect to perform better. However, this study added to the body of knowledge, that leadership expertise may not contribute to well managed and effective group development, due to social, religious, and cultural limitations of the locality/respondents.

5.3 Limitations and future research directions

This study has several limitations. First, it focused on age, gender, ethnic, and education diversity management and did not take into account other demographic diversity practices implemented within the organisations. Previous research recognises that a broad spectrum of demographic diversity influences organisational performance [ 55 ]. Future research should investigate a broader range of demographic diversity to understand better what constitutes a comprehensive approach to diversity management. Second, the research is quantitative, and its moderate response rate may limit the generalisability of the results [ 59 ]. Future research could combine qualitative and quantitative methods to leverage both structured and unstructured data to enhance the depth of insights and provide more specific practical outcomes [ 60 ]. Third, the generalisability of findings should be interpreted with caution. Every society has its own culture, norms, and social values, and previous research has identified that organisational culture may influence the findings related to diversity management [ 61 ].

6. Conclusions

Workplace diversity is becoming one of the most popular ways to evaluate organisational performance. Thus, conducting training and creating awareness regarding diversity will lead to value generation, better productivity, and vitality. Managing diversity at the workplace considers leveraging and respecting cultural differences in employees’ competencies, ideas, and innovativeness to persuade them to contribute towards a common goal and do it in a way that gives a competitive edge to organisations. Hence, it is recommended to encourage a more diversified workforce and create awareness to increase organisational performance. In addition, this research has focused on diversity beliefs as a moderating variable. However, future research can be conducted that how leadership expertise can mediate between age and gender diversity and organizational performance. Additionally, organisational justice as a moderator between diversity dimensions and organisational performance needs to be explored. Moreover, in the current paper, the social traits of diversity have been studied, providing opportunities or gaps to study functional diversity traits in the future.

Ethical consent

The study was approved by the ethical committee of the SZABIST Larkana Campus. The consent was informed, and the information was collected through an approved structured questionnaire. Moreover, the authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Funding Statement

The author(s) received no specific funding for this work.

Data Availability

  • PLoS One. 2022; 17(7): e0270813.

Decision Letter 0

16 Dec 2021

PONE-D-21-09151Diversity Impact on Organizational performance: Moderating and Mediating role of Diversity Beliefs and Leadership ExpertisePLOS ONE

Dear Dr. Sorooshian,

Thank you for submitting your manuscript to PLOS ONE. After careful consideration, we feel that it has merit but does not fully meet PLOS ONE’s publication criteria as it currently stands. Therefore, we invite you to submit a revised version of the manuscript that addresses the points raised during the review process.

Please submit your revised manuscript by 01/30/2022. If you will need more time than this to complete your revisions, please reply to this message or contact the journal office at  gro.solp@enosolp . When you're ready to submit your revision, log on to https://www.editorialmanager.com/pone/ and select the 'Submissions Needing Revision' folder to locate your manuscript file.

Please include the following items when submitting your revised manuscript:

  • A rebuttal letter that responds to each point raised by the academic editor and reviewer(s). You should upload this letter as a separate file labeled 'Response to Reviewers'.
  • A marked-up copy of your manuscript that highlights changes made to the original version. You should upload this as a separate file labeled 'Revised Manuscript with Track Changes'.
  • An unmarked version of your revised paper without tracked changes. You should upload this as a separate file labeled 'Manuscript'.

If you would like to make changes to your financial disclosure, please include your updated statement in your cover letter. Guidelines for resubmitting your figure files are available below the reviewer comments at the end of this letter.

If applicable, we recommend that you deposit your laboratory protocols in protocols.io to enhance the reproducibility of your results. Protocols.io assigns your protocol its own identifier (DOI) so that it can be cited independently in the future. For instructions see: https://journals.plos.org/plosone/s/submission-guidelines#loc-laboratory-protocols . Additionally, PLOS ONE offers an option for publishing peer-reviewed Lab Protocol articles, which describe protocols hosted on protocols.io. Read more information on sharing protocols at https://plos.org/protocols?utm_medium=editorial-email&utm_source=authorletters&utm_campaign=protocols .

We look forward to receiving your revised manuscript.

Kind regards,

José Gutiérrez-Pérez

Academic Editor

Journal Requirements:

When submitting your revision, we need you to address these additional requirements.

1. Please ensure that your manuscript meets PLOS ONE's style requirements, including those for file naming. The PLOS ONE style templates can be found at 

https://journals.plos.org/plosone/s/file?id=wjVg/PLOSOne_formatting_sample_main_body.pdf and 

https://journals.plos.org/plosone/s/file?id=ba62/PLOSOne_formatting_sample_title_authors_affiliations.pdf

2. We suggest you thoroughly copyedit your manuscript for language usage, spelling, and grammar. If you do not know anyone who can help you do this, you may wish to consider employing a professional scientific editing service. 

Whilst you may use any professional scientific editing service of your choice, PLOS has partnered with both American Journal Experts (AJE) and Editage to provide discounted services to PLOS authors. Both organizations have experience helping authors meet PLOS guidelines and can provide language editing, translation, manuscript formatting, and figure formatting to ensure your manuscript meets our submission guidelines. To take advantage of our partnership with AJE, visit the AJE website ( http://learn.aje.com/plos/ ) for a 15% discount off AJE services. To take advantage of our partnership with Editage, visit the Editage website ( www.editage.com ) and enter referral code PLOSEDIT for a 15% discount off Editage services.  If the PLOS editorial team finds any language issues in text that either AJE or Editage has edited, the service provider will re-edit the text for free.

Upon resubmission, please provide the following:

The name of the colleague or the details of the professional service that edited your manuscript

A copy of your manuscript showing your changes by either highlighting them or using track changes (uploaded as a *supporting information* file)

A clean copy of the edited manuscript (uploaded as the new *manuscript* file)”

3.  Please improve statistical reporting and refer to p-values as "p<.001" instead of "p=.000". Our statistical reporting guidelines are available at https://journals.plos.org/plosone/s/submission-guidelines#loc-statistical-reporting 

4. Please consider changing the title so as to meet our title format requirement ( https://journals.plos.org/plosone/s/submission-guidelines ). In particular, the title should be "Specific, descriptive, concise, and comprehensible to readers outside the field" and in this case it is not informative and specific about your study's scope and methodology (in particular the study is observational and based on self-reports from surveys).

5. Please provide additional details regarding participant consent. In the Methods section, please ensure that you have specified (1) whether consent was informed and (2) what type you obtained (for instance, written or verbal). If your study included minors, state whether you obtained consent from parents or guardians. If the need for consent was waived by the ethics committee, please include this information. Furthermore, please include your ethics statement in the online submission.

6. In your Data Availability statement, you have not specified where the minimal data set underlying the results described in your manuscript can be found. PLOS defines a study's minimal data set as the underlying data used to reach the conclusions drawn in the manuscript and any additional data required to replicate the reported study findings in their entirety. All PLOS journals require that the minimal data set be made fully available. For more information about our data policy, please see http://journals.plos.org/plosone/s/data-availability .

Upon re-submitting your revised manuscript, please upload your study’s minimal underlying data set as either Supporting Information files or to a stable, public repository and include the relevant URLs, DOIs, or accession numbers within your revised cover letter. For a list of acceptable repositories, please see http://journals.plos.org/plosone/s/data-availability#loc-recommended-repositories . Any potentially identifying patient information must be fully anonymized.

Important: If there are ethical or legal restrictions to sharing your data publicly, please explain these restrictions in detail. Please see our guidelines for more information on what we consider unacceptable restrictions to publicly sharing data: http://journals.plos.org/plosone/s/data-availability#loc-unacceptable-data-access-restrictions . Note that it is not acceptable for the authors to be the sole named individuals responsible for ensuring data access.

We will update your Data Availability statement to reflect the information you provide in your cover letter.

7. Please note that in order to use the direct billing option the corresponding author must be affiliated with the chosen institute. Please either amend your manuscript to change the affiliation or corresponding author, or email us at gro.solp@enosolp with a request to remove this option.

8. Please ensure that you refer to Figures 1 and 3 in your text as, if accepted, production will need this reference to link the reader to the figure.

Reviewer's Responses to Questions

Comments to the Author

1. Is the manuscript technically sound, and do the data support the conclusions?

The manuscript must describe a technically sound piece of scientific research with data that supports the conclusions. Experiments must have been conducted rigorously, with appropriate controls, replication, and sample sizes. The conclusions must be drawn appropriately based on the data presented.

2. Has the statistical analysis been performed appropriately and rigorously?

4. Is the manuscript presented in an intelligible fashion and written in standard English?

PLOS ONE does not copyedit accepted manuscripts, so the language in submitted articles must be clear, correct, and unambiguous. Any typographical or grammatical errors should be corrected at revision, so please note any specific errors here.

Reviewer #1: No

5. Review Comments to the Author

Please use the space provided to explain your answers to the questions above. You may also include additional comments for the author, including concerns about dual publication, research ethics, or publication ethics. (Please upload your review as an attachment if it exceeds 20,000 characters)

Reviewer #1: The study is interesting, and the results are useful for diversity related research. However, the manuscript needs to be thoroughly checked for language including grammar. Detailed review comments are attached.

Reviewer #2: Dear Authors

You get a minor revision, make a revision immediately, pay attention to the marked reviews, the introduction is quite clear but there are some things that need to be improved, the methods, data processing and others are quite good

See reviewer comments as an attachment file.

While revising your submission, please upload your figure files to the Preflight Analysis and Conversion Engine (PACE) digital diagnostic tool,  https://pacev2.apexcovantage.com/ . PACE helps ensure that figures meet PLOS requirements. To use PACE, you must first register as a user. Registration is free. Then, login and navigate to the UPLOAD tab, where you will find detailed instructions on how to use the tool. If you encounter any issues or have any questions when using PACE, please email PLOS at  gro.solp@serugif . Please note that Supporting Information files do not need this step.

Submitted filename: PLOS Review_2021.docx

Submitted filename: PS Paper-01.docx

Author response to Decision Letter 0

24 Jan 2022

General: The whole paper was revisited and the help of the expert/native speaker was also incorporated. Additionally, some technical quality improvements are also considered.

Reviewer #1: The study is interesting, and the results are useful for diversity related research. However, the manuscript needs to be thoroughly checked for language including grammar. Detailed review comments are attached.

Suggestion accepted and incorporated . Thanks for your appreciation, the whole paper was revisited and the suggestions were incorporated

Reviewer #2: You get a minor revision, make a revision immediately, pay attention to the marked reviews, the introduction is quite clear but there are some things that need to be improved, the methods, data processing and others are quite good

Suggestion accepted and incorporated. Thanks for your appreciation, the whole paper was revisited and the suggestions were incorporated

Submitted filename: reviewers comments and responses.docx

Decision Letter 1

21 Jun 2022

Diversity Impact on Organisational Performance:

Moderating and Mediating Role of Diversity Beliefs and Leadership Expertise in Pakistan

PONE-D-21-09151R1

Dear Dr. Shahryar Sorooshian,

We’re pleased to inform you that your manuscript has been judged scientifically suitable for publication and will be formally accepted for publication once it meets all outstanding technical requirements.

Within one week, you’ll receive an e-mail detailing the required amendments. When these have been addressed, you’ll receive a formal acceptance letter and your manuscript will be scheduled for publication.

An invoice for payment will follow shortly after the formal acceptance. To ensure an efficient process, please log into Editorial Manager at http://www.editorialmanager.com/pone/ , click the 'Update My Information' link at the top of the page, and double check that your user information is up-to-date. If you have any billing related questions, please contact our Author Billing department directly at gro.solp@gnillibrohtua .

If your institution or institutions have a press office, please notify them about your upcoming paper to help maximize its impact. If they’ll be preparing press materials, please inform our press team as soon as possible -- no later than 48 hours after receiving the formal acceptance. Your manuscript will remain under strict press embargo until 2 pm Eastern Time on the date of publication. For more information, please contact gro.solp@sserpeno .

María del Carmen Valls Martínez, Ph.D.

Reviewers' comments:

1. If the authors have adequately addressed your comments raised in a previous round of review and you feel that this manuscript is now acceptable for publication, you may indicate that here to bypass the “Comments to the Author” section, enter your conflict of interest statement in the “Confidential to Editor” section, and submit your "Accept" recommendation.

Reviewer #2: All comments have been addressed

Reviewer #3: All comments have been addressed

2. Is the manuscript technically sound, and do the data support the conclusions?

Reviewer #2: Yes

Reviewer #3: Yes

3. Has the statistical analysis been performed appropriately and rigorously?

4. Have the authors made all data underlying the findings in their manuscript fully available?

The PLOS Data policy requires authors to make all data underlying the findings described in their manuscript fully available without restriction, with rare exception (please refer to the Data Availability Statement in the manuscript PDF file). The data should be provided as part of the manuscript or its supporting information, or deposited to a public repository. For example, in addition to summary statistics, the data points behind means, medians and variance measures should be available. If there are restrictions on publicly sharing data—e.g. participant privacy or use of data from a third party—those must be specified.

5. Is the manuscript presented in an intelligible fashion and written in standard English?

6. Review Comments to the Author

Reviewer #2: Based on the results of the previous reviewer's comments, which generally have to be revised by the author. Well done.

Reviewer #3: The study is very interesting, and the overall results are useful for related research areas. Therefore, I recommend to publish this article in its current form.

7. PLOS authors have the option to publish the peer review history of their article ( what does this mean? ). If published, this will include your full peer review and any attached files.

If you choose “no”, your identity will remain anonymous but your review may still be made public.

Do you want your identity to be public for this peer review? For information about this choice, including consent withdrawal, please see our Privacy Policy .

Reviewer #2: No

Reviewer #3:  Yes:  Dr. Asad Ali

Acceptance letter

15 Jul 2022

Diversity Impact on Organizational performance: Moderating and Mediating role of Diversity Beliefs and Leadership Expertise

Dear Dr. Sorooshian:

I'm pleased to inform you that your manuscript has been deemed suitable for publication in PLOS ONE. Congratulations! Your manuscript is now with our production department.

If your institution or institutions have a press office, please let them know about your upcoming paper now to help maximize its impact. If they'll be preparing press materials, please inform our press team within the next 48 hours. Your manuscript will remain under strict press embargo until 2 pm Eastern Time on the date of publication. For more information please contact gro.solp@sserpeno .

If we can help with anything else, please email us at gro.solp@enosolp .

Thank you for submitting your work to PLOS ONE and supporting open access.

PLOS ONE Editorial Office Staff

on behalf of

Dr. María del Carmen Valls Martínez

To read this content please select one of the options below:

Please note you do not have access to teaching notes, workforce diversity in strategic human resource management models: a critical review of the literature and implications for future research.

Cross Cultural Management: An International Journal

ISSN : 1352-7606

Article publication date: 1 February 2013

Workforce diversity is considered one of the main challenges for human resource management in modern organizations. Despite its strategic importance, the majority of models in this field implicitly consider workforce as a generic and homogeneous category, and do not take into account cultural differences among employees. The aim of this paper is to present a systematic review of the literature on diversity among employees in strategic human resource management (SHRM). The objective of this conceptual analysis is to identify limitations in previous research and unresolved issues that could drive future research in this field.

Design/methodology/approach

To develop this conceptual analysis, the paper reviews previous literature on SHRM, drawing on the distinction between the universalistic, contingent and configurational perspectives. Each of these approaches is explored, looking for the way in which they have treated workforce diversity and cross‐culturality.

The paper concludes that managing a heterogeneous workforce requires a holistic transformation of human resource strategies. Nevertheless, efforts to define cross‐cultural and diversity‐oriented models still remain undeveloped. Limitations of previous research in the diversity‐SHRM field are indentified in the paper.

Research limitations/implications

Drawing on the limitations of the treatment given to diversity in SHRM research, the paper identifies four research questions that still need to be addressed: deeper analysis of the concept of diversity, introduction of psychological processes mediating the diversity‐performance relationship, development of diversity oriented SHRM typologies and redefinition of performance indicators to measure the effects of diversity.

Originality/value

This paper proposes a theoretical model to illustrate present state of the art and future research lines in the fields of diversity, cross‐cultural management and SHRM.

  • Workforce diversity
  • Strategic human resource management
  • Human resource management
  • Human resource strategies

Martín Alcázar, F. , Miguel Romero Fernández, P. and Sánchez Gardey, G. (2013), "Workforce diversity in strategic human resource management models: A critical review of the literature and implications for future research", Cross Cultural Management: An International Journal , Vol. 20 No. 1, pp. 39-49. https://doi.org/10.1108/13527601311296247

Emerald Group Publishing Limited

Copyright © 2013, Emerald Group Publishing Limited

Related articles

We’re listening — tell us what you think, something didn’t work….

Report bugs here

All feedback is valuable

Please share your general feedback

Join us on our journey

Platform update page.

Visit emeraldpublishing.com/platformupdate to discover the latest news and updates

Questions & More Information

Answers to the most commonly asked questions here

Academia.edu no longer supports Internet Explorer.

To browse Academia.edu and the wider internet faster and more securely, please take a few seconds to  upgrade your browser .

Enter the email address you signed up with and we'll email you a reset link.

  • We're Hiring!
  • Help Center

paper cover thumbnail

Managing Workforce Diversity and Inclusion: A Critical Review and Future Directions

Profile image of Christina Morfaki

International Journal of Organizational Leadership

experience D&I management, disparities in organizations and society become apparent, and a different picture begins to emerge . Consequently, there is a compelling need to continue examining the extent to which D&I management rhetoric reflects reality and to identify mechanisms that facilitate the expression of voice for silenced minorities in today's increasingly diverse organizations ).

Related Papers

Human Resource Management

Nicholas Theodorakopoulos

research paper on managing workforce diversity

Introductory chapter to "Managing Diversity and Inclusion: An International Perspective"

Advance Research in Social Science and Management

Giriraj Kiradoo

This research paper explores the critical issue of diversity, equity, and inclusion (DEI) in the workplace and the strategies that can be employed to achieve and sustain a diverse workforce. The research paper is based on a comprehensive review of relevant literature, including peerreviewed articles, reports, and other relevant documents. The paper aims to contribute to the existing body of knowledge by offering practical recommendations for organisations seeking to enhance DEI in their workplaces. The research methods employed in this study involve a systematic literature review that includes a comprehensive search of electronic databases. The review process was guided by inclusion and exclusion criteria that ensured the selection of relevant and high-quality literature. The study's findings suggest that organisations can implement various strategies to enhance DEI in the workplace. These strategies include setting DEI goals, providing diversity training, promoting inclusive leadership, implementing flexible work arrangements, and leveraging technology to support DEI initiatives. Additionally, organisations must establish an inclusive culture that recognises and values individual differences, promotes fairness and respect, and provides equal opportunities for all employees. In conclusion, this research paper emphasises the importance of DEI in the workplace and the need for organisations to develop and implement strategies that foster a diverse and inclusive workforce. The study's findings offer practical recommendations that can guide organisations in achieving and sustaining DEI. Ultimately, organisations prioritising DEI will likely enjoy significant benefits, including increased employee engagement, improved organisational performance, and enhanced innovation and creativity

Business & Management Studies: An International Journal

Emir Özeren

This paper aims at highlighting the theoretical development of diversity management by providing an integrated understanding of how diversity management has made progress and evolved in organisations. The current article adopts a conceptual and critical review to demonstrate the changes and shifts in diversity management research. This study reveals that there are four stages of workforce diversity within the business and management field. These stages are equal employment opportunity/affirmative action, valuing differences, diversity management and global diversity management. Each stage is discussed in greater details within the article. This study contributes to the broader diversity management literature in three main ways: firstly, by shedding some light on the conceptual clarity of the diversity notion itself; secondly, by foregrounding the holistic view of diversity management; thirdly, by reflecting the recent developments in diversity research. The review consistently point...

Archives of Business Research

Mohammad Ikbal Hossain

This research paper explores the dynamic landscape of managing diversity through Human Resource Management (HRM), focusing on the United States context. Evolving from a compliance concern to a strategic imperative, diversity plays a pivotal role in enhancing innovation, creativity, and problem-solving in contemporary workplaces. By aligning HRM practices with diversity initiatives, organizations can leverage the strengths of a heterogeneous workforce. The challenges posed by communication barriers, stereotypes, and resistance to change necessitate a strategic HRM approach. Tailored recruitment, training, performance management, and leadership development are key elements of this approach. Creating an inclusive organizational culture, facilitated by HRM through leadership commitment, anti-discrimination policies, and open communication, is pivotal. Legal and ethical considerations provide a foundation for this journey. The potential long-term benefits of effective diversity management include improved performance, innovation, talent attraction, and social responsibility. This paper underscores the importance of managing diversity through HRM as an investment in organizational success and a more inclusive society.

Concepts, Methodologies, Tools, and Applications

Aileen Zaballero

Jean L Pyle

IOSR Journal of Business and Management

Ekanshi Gupta

Journal of Management

Michelle Dean

RELATED PAPERS

EAD EM FOCO

Lúcia Vilarinho

Mirko Scagnet

Differentiation

Arun Sharma

Surgical Neurology

Minoru Fujiki

Food Research International

Neura Bragagnolo

JORGE RODRIGO CRUZAT ALBORNOZ

Hermando Brito

Asian Journal of Civil Engineering

Djillali Benouar

Research Square (Research Square)

Maria Malliarou

BIJI THOMAS

Research Journal of Veterinary Sciences

Khaleel I Jawasreh

SN applied sciences

Debapriya Sarkar

Durham毕业证 杜伦大学学历学位认证

Meiroza Susanti

Sustainability Science

Damjan Zazula

DOAJ (DOAJ: Directory of Open Access Journals)

hashem atapour

Journal of The American Academy of Dermatology

Riekie Smit

megah yosefa

Gaozhong Shen

RELATED TOPICS

  •   We're Hiring!
  •   Help Center
  • Find new research papers in:
  • Health Sciences
  • Earth Sciences
  • Cognitive Science
  • Mathematics
  • Computer Science
  • Academia ©2024

IMAGES

  1. What Is Workforce Diversity?

    research paper on managing workforce diversity

  2. (PDF) A THEORETICAL STUDY ON GLOBAL WORKFORCE DIVERSITY MANAGEMENT, ITS BENEFITS AND CHALLENGES

    research paper on managing workforce diversity

  3. (PDF) Managing Workforce Diversity to Enhance Cooperation in Organizations

    research paper on managing workforce diversity

  4. (PDF) Managing Workforce Diversity Through Human Resource Management

    research paper on managing workforce diversity

  5. Managing Workforce Diversity Free Essay Example

    research paper on managing workforce diversity

  6. 😂 Workforce diversity research papers. Workforce Diversity Research Paper Example. 2019-01-18

    research paper on managing workforce diversity

VIDEO

  1. How to Manage Workforce Diversity

  2. Talent Management in a Diversified Work-force

  3. Workforce diversity

  4. Group 5 Diversity, Inclusion & Org Character VLAB1

  5. Success Stories of Companies with Multicultural and Diversified Work force

  6. Skills for Building Effective Presentations

COMMENTS

  1. Managing Workplace Diversity: Issues and Challenges

    Diversity management is a process intended to create and maintain a positive work environment where the similarities and differences of individuals are valued, so that all can reach their potential and maximize their contributions to an organization's strategic goals and objectives. Diversity in Relation to Culture and Performance

  2. (PDF) THE IMPORTANCE OF WORKFORCE DIVERSITY MANAGEMENT ...

    Workplace diversity (WPD) is a holistic concept that refers to company employees' disparities. It refers to the complex physical, sociological, and psychological characteristics characterising an...

  3. Workforce Diversity: A Key to Improve Productivity

    The researcher after examining the literature and various research papers, concluded that workforce diversity is strength for any organization but people still stick to their views related to caste, religion etc and so consider diversity as a problem but if managed properly, can increase the productivity.

  4. Managing and Leading a Diverse Workforce: One of the ...

    Therefore, this research paper is focusing on one of the main recent challenges in management and business, which is managing and leading a diverse workforce. ... Managing workforce diversity as an essential resource for improving organizational performance. International Journal of Productivity and Performance Management, 53(6), 521â€"531 ...

  5. Impact of Workforce Diversity Management on Employees' Outcomes

    Workforce diversity management offers a mechanism for solving job issues related to equality, justice, inclusion, and bullying behavior, which are based on gender, age, and ethnicity ( Adams, 1965; Mor Barak, 2015; Thomas, 1990 ).

  6. Full article: Do workforce diversity, inclusion practices

    30 CrossRef citations to date 0 Altmetric Listen MANAGEMENT Do workforce diversity, inclusion practices, & organizational characteristics contribute to organizational innovation? Evidence from the U.A.E Iffat Sabir Chaudhry , Rene Ymbong Paquibut & Muhammad Nawaz Tunio | Len Tiu Wright (Reviewing editor)

  7. Literature Review on Diversity and Inclusion at Workplace, 2010-2017

    Volume 25, Issue 1 https://doi.org/10.1177/0972262920959523 Contents PDF / ePub More Abstract Purpose: The article highlights various studies conducted in the field of diversity and inclusion at workplace. This helps us to understand the evolution of diversity and inclusion and identify future research gaps. Methodology:

  8. Managing the negative impact of workforce diversity: The important

    Workforce diversity and interpersonal conflict. Workforce diversity refers to differences based on any characteristics (e.g., age, gender, race, educational and functional backgrounds) on which employees differ or perceive themselves to be different from other co-workers (Guillaume et al., 2017).Although people first may relate workforce diversity to racial diversity (i.e., employees who have ...

  9. Workforce diversity: from a literature review to future research agenda

    2729 Abstract Purpose Workforce diversity is widely believed to enhance the knowledge and perspectives of organizations. The purpose of this study is to synthesize the existing diverse literature on workforce diversity and to enlighten the avenues for future research in managing workforce diversity. Design/methodology/approach

  10. Diversity in the Workplace: A Review, Synthesis, and Future Research

    Diversity in the Workplace: A Review, Synthesis, and Future Research Agenda Annual Review of Organizational Psychology and Organizational Behavior Vol. 6:69-88 (Volume publication date January 2019) First published as a Review in Advance on October 31, 2018 https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev-orgpsych-012218-015243 Quinetta M. Roberson

  11. (PDF) The Impact of Workforce Diversity on ...

    The reviewed literature shows that workforce diversity is significantly related to organizational performance. Moreover, this paper concludes that the positive significant influence of...

  12. Diversity impact on organizational performance: Moderating and

    Future research should investigate a broader range of demographic diversity to understand better what constitutes a comprehensive approach to diversity management. Second, the research is quantitative, and its moderate response rate may limit the generalisability of the results .

  13. (PDF) Managing Diversity in Organizations: How Various Factors

    This literature study works on influencing factors that improve workforce diversity by identifying the articles published on diversity management from 1990 to 2023. We have selected...

  14. Workforce diversity in strategic human resource management models: A

    The paper concludes that managing a heterogeneous workforce requires a holistic transformation of human resource strategies. Nevertheless, efforts to define cross‐cultural and diversity‐oriented models still remain undeveloped. Limitations of previous research in the diversity‐SHRM field are indentified in the paper.

  15. Addressing workplace diversity to improve employee performance

    The findings suggested that promoting diversity management policies, cultural days, diversity training workshops, and having a diverse workforce could enhance employee performance. Diversity in the workforce has become a critical area of study, particularly in the context of its impact on organizational performance.

  16. Managing a culturally diverse workforce: Diversity perspectives in

    This research paper explores the dynamic landscape of managing diversity through Human Resource Management (HRM), focusing on the United States context. Evolving from a compliance concern to a strategic imperative, diversity plays a pivotal role in enhancing innovation, creativity, and problem-solving in contemporary workplaces.

  17. PDF A Review on Diversity and Inclusion in The Workforce for Organizational

    The paper uses secondary data gathered for the review of workforce diversity and inclusion. Findings: A literature evaluation was commissioned to focus on workplace diversity and inclusion. Through the review, it was clearly understood the implication of workforce diversity and inclusion to the modern era.

  18. Workforce diversity: from a literature review to future research agenda

    Design/methodology/approach This study performs a comprehensive review of empirical and conceptual studies published on workforce diversity and its outcomes in the top 13 peer-reviewed leading...

  19. PDF Workforce Diversity & Inclusion: a Recent Trend in Management

    In this paper, efforts have been made to explain the concept of workforce diversity and inclusion various benefits and challenges are also discussed, along with the several perspectives and practices adopted by some leading organisations are presented in a lucid manner. This paper is based on secondary data.

  20. THESIS PROPOSAL Managing workforce Diversity in the international

    The paper provides a) a literature review on diversity management that identifies its key tenets and global and domestic versions, b) a conceptual framework of influences which shape the diversity management approach that a firm may take, c) an elaboration of the research methods and techniques and d) a case study of global diversity management ...

  21. (PDF) Diversity management: a systematic review

    This study provides a comprehensive systematic review of quantitative, qualitative and theoretical studies published in leading peer-reviewed management journals from 1991 to 2018 and identifies...

  22. Managing Workforce Diversity and Inclusion: A Critical Review and

    This research paper explores the critical issue of diversity, equity, and inclusion (DEI) in the workplace and the strategies that can be employed to achieve and sustain a diverse workforce. The research paper is based on a comprehensive review of relevant literature, including peer reviewed articles, reports, and other relevant documents.

  23. Workforce Diversity at Starbucks

    The way we hire, develop and advance our partners (employees) is fundamental to our commitment to inclusion, diversity, and equity at Starbucks. Each year, we publish our current workforce diversity data in a comprehensive and detailed manner, including our most recent filings with the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission.

  24. (Pdf) a Review on Diversity and Inclusion in The Workforce for

    The paper uses secondary data gathered for the review of workforce diversity and inclusion. Findings: A literature evaluation was commissioned to focus on workplace diversity and inclusion....