How to Write a Bibliography for a Research Paper

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Do not try to “wow” your instructor with a long bibliography when your instructor requests only a works cited page. It is tempting, after doing a lot of work to research a paper, to try to include summaries on each source as you write your paper so that your instructor appreciates how much work you did. That is a trap you want to avoid. MLA style, the one that is most commonly followed in high schools and university writing courses, dictates that you include only the works you actually cited in your paper—not all those that you used.

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  • If your assignment calls for a bibliography, list all the sources you consulted in your research.
  • If your assignment calls for a works cited or references page, include only the sources you quote, summarize, paraphrase, or mention in your paper.
  • If your works cited page includes a source that you did not cite in your paper, delete it.
  • All in-text citations that you used at the end of quotations, summaries, and paraphrases to credit others for their ideas,words, and work must be accompanied by a cited reference in the bibliography or works cited. These references must include specific information about the source so that your readers can identify precisely where the information came from.The citation entries on a works cited page typically include the author’s name, the name of the article, the name of the publication, the name of the publisher (for books), where it was published (for books), and when it was published.

The good news is that you do not have to memorize all the many ways the works cited entries should be written. Numerous helpful style guides are available to show you the information that should be included, in what order it should appear, and how to format it. The format often differs according to the style guide you are using. The Modern Language Association (MLA) follows a particular style that is a bit different from APA (American Psychological Association) style, and both are somewhat different from the Chicago Manual of Style (CMS). Always ask your teacher which style you should use.

A bibliography usually appears at the end of a paper on its own separate page. All bibliography entries—books, periodicals, Web sites, and nontext sources such radio broadcasts—are listed together in alphabetical order. Books and articles are alphabetized by the author’s last name.

Most teachers suggest that you follow a standard style for listing different types of sources. If your teacher asks you to use a different form, however, follow his or her instructions. Take pride in your bibliography. It represents some of the most important work you’ve done for your research paper—and using proper form shows that you are a serious and careful researcher.

Bibliography Entry for a Book

A bibliography entry for a book begins with the author’s name, which is written in this order: last name, comma, first name, period. After the author’s name comes the title of the book. If you are handwriting your bibliography, underline each title. If you are working on a computer, put the book title in italicized type. Be sure to capitalize the words in the title correctly, exactly as they are written in the book itself. Following the title is the city where the book was published, followed by a colon, the name of the publisher, a comma, the date published, and a period. Here is an example:

Format : Author’s last name, first name. Book Title. Place of publication: publisher, date of publication.

  • A book with one author : Hartz, Paula.  Abortion: A Doctor’s Perspective, a Woman’s Dilemma . New York: Donald I. Fine, Inc., 1992.
  • A book with two or more authors : Landis, Jean M. and Rita J. Simon.  Intelligence: Nature or Nurture?  New York: HarperCollins, 1998.

Bibliography Entry for a Periodical

A bibliography entry for a periodical differs slightly in form from a bibliography entry for a book. For a magazine article, start with the author’s last name first, followed by a comma, then the first name and a period. Next, write the title of the article in quotation marks, and include a period (or other closing punctuation) inside the closing quotation mark. The title of the magazine is next, underlined or in italic type, depending on whether you are handwriting or using a computer, followed by a period. The date and year, followed by a colon and the pages on which the article appeared, come last. Here is an example:

Format:  Author’s last name, first name. “Title of the Article.” Magazine. Month and year of publication: page numbers.

  • Article in a monthly magazine : Crowley, J.E.,T.E. Levitan and R.P. Quinn.“Seven Deadly Half-Truths About Women.”  Psychology Today  March 1978: 94–106.
  • Article in a weekly magazine : Schwartz, Felice N.“Management,Women, and the New Facts of Life.”  Newsweek  20 July 2006: 21–22.
  • Signed newspaper article : Ferraro, Susan. “In-law and Order: Finding Relative Calm.”  The Daily News  30 June 1998: 73.
  • Unsigned newspaper article : “Beanie Babies May Be a Rotten Nest Egg.”  Chicago Tribune  21 June 2004: 12.

Bibliography Entry for a Web Site

For sources such as Web sites include the information a reader needs to find the source or to know where and when you found it. Always begin with the last name of the author, broadcaster, person you interviewed, and so on. Here is an example of a bibliography for a Web site:

Format : Author.“Document Title.” Publication or Web site title. Date of publication. Date of access.

Example : Dodman, Dr. Nicholas. “Dog-Human Communication.”  Pet Place . 10 November 2006.  23 January 2014 < http://www.petplace.com/dogs/dog-human-communication-2/page1.aspx >

After completing the bibliography you can breathe a huge sigh of relief and pat yourself on the back. You probably plan to turn in your work in printed or handwritten form, but you also may be making an oral presentation. However you plan to present your paper, do your best to show it in its best light. You’ve put a great deal of work and thought into this assignment, so you want your paper to look and sound its best. You’ve completed your research paper!

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How to Write a Research Paper: Annotated Bibliography

  • Anatomy of a Research Paper
  • Developing a Research Focus
  • Background Research Tips
  • Searching Tips
  • Scholarly Journals vs. Popular Journals
  • Thesis Statement
  • Annotated Bibliography
  • Citing Sources
  • Evaluating Sources
  • Literature Review
  • Academic Integrity
  • Scholarship as Conversation
  • Understanding Fake News
  • Data, Information, Knowledge

What is an Annotated Bibliography?

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Check out the resources available from the  Writing Center . 

Write an Annotated Bibliography

What is an annotated bibliography?

It is a list of citations for various books, articles, and other sources on a topic. 

An annotation is a short summary and/or critical evaluation of a source.

Annotated bibliographies answer the question: "What would be the most relevant, most useful, or most up-to-date sources for this topic?"

 Annotated bibliographies can be part of a larger research project, or can be a stand-alone report in itself. 

Annotation versus abstracts 

An abstract is a paragraph at the beginning of the paper that discusses the main point of the original work. They typically do not include evaluation comments. 

Annotations can either be descriptive or evaluative. The annotated bibliography looks like a works cited page but includes an annotation after each source cited. 

Types of Annotations: 

Descriptive Annotations: Focuses on description. Describes the source by answering the following questions. 

Who wrote the document?

What does the document discuss?

When and where was the document written? 

Why was the document produced?

How was it provided to the public?

Evaluative Annotations: Focuses on description and evaluation. Includes a summary and critically assess the work for accuracy, relevance, and quality. 

Evaluative annotations help you learn about your topic, develop a thesis statement, decide if a specific source will be useful for your assignment, and determine if there is enough valid information available to complete your project.

What does the annotation include?

Depending on your assignment and style guide, annotations may include some or all of the following information. 

  • Should be no more than 150 words or 4 to 6 sentences long. 
  • What is the main focus or purpose of the work?
  • Who is the intended audience?
  • ​How useful or relevant was the article to your topic?
  • Was there any unique features that useful to you?
  • What is the background and credibility of the author?
  • What are any conclusions or observations that your reached about the article?

Which citation style to use?

There are many styles manuals with specific instructions on how to format your annotated bibliography. This largely depends on what your instructor prefers or your subject discipline. Check out our citation guides for more information. 

Additional Information

Why doesn't APA have an official APA-approved format for annotated bibliographies?

Always consult your instructor about the format of an annotated bibliography for your class assignments. These guides provide you with examples of various styles for annotated bibliographies and they may not be in the format required by your instructor. 

Citation Examples and Annotations

Book Citation with Descriptive Annotation

Liroff, R. A., & G. G. Davis. (1981). Protecting open space: Land use control in the Adirondack Park. Cambridge, MA: Ballinger.

This book describes the implementation of regional planning and land use regulation in the Adirondack Park in upstate New York. The authors provide program evaluations of the Adirondack Park Agency’s regulatory and local planning assistance programs.

Journal Article Citation with Evaluative Annotation

Gottlieb, P. D. (1995). The “golden egg” as a natural resource: Toward a normative theory of growth management. Society and Natural Resources, 8, (5): 49-56.

This article explains the dilemma faced by North American suburbs, which demand both preservation of local amenities (to protect quality of life) and physical development (to expand the tax base). Growth management has been proposed as a policy solution to this dilemma. An analogy is made between this approach and resource economics. The author concludes that the growth management debate raises legitimate issues of sustainability and efficiency.

Examples were taken from http://lib.calpoly.edu/support/how-to/write-an-annotated-bibliography/#samples

Book Citation

Lee, Seok-hoon, Yong-pil Kim, Nigel Hemmington, and Deok-kyun Yun. “Competitive Service Quality Improvement (CSQI): A Case Study in the Fast-Food Industry.” Food Service Technology 4 (2004): 75-84.

In this highly technical paper, three industrial engineering professors in Korea and one services management professor in the UK discuss the mathematical limitations of the popular SERVQUAL scales. Significantly, they also aim to measure service quality in the fast-food industry, a neglected area of study. Unfortunately, the paper’s sophisticated analytical methods make it inaccessible to all but the most expert of researchers.

Battle, Ken. “Child Poverty: The Evolution and Impact of Child Benefits.”  A Question of Commitment: Children's Rights in Canada . Ed. Katherine Covell and R.Brian Howe. Waterloo, ON: Wilfrid Laurier University Press. 2007. 21-44.

             Ken Battle draws on a close study of government documents, as well as his own research as an extensively-published policy analyst, to explain Canadian child benefit programs.  He outlines some fundamental assumptions supporting the belief that all society members should contribute to the upbringing of children.  His comparison of child poverty rates in a number of countries is a useful wake-up to anyone assuming Canadian society is doing a good job of protecting children.  Battle pays particular attention to the National Child Benefit (NCB), arguing that it did not deserve to be criticized by politicians and journalists.  He outlines the NCB’s development, costs, and benefits, and laments that the Conservative government scaled it back in favour of the inferior Universal Child Care Benefit (UCCB).  However, he relies too heavily on his own work; he is the sole or primary author of almost half the sources in his bibliography.  He could make this work stronger by drawing from others' perspectives and analyses.  However, Battle does offer a valuable source for this essay, because the chapter provides a concise overview of government-funded assistance currently available to parents.  This offers context for analyzing the scope and financial reality of child poverty in Canada.

Journal Article Example

  Kerr, Don and Roderic Beaujot. “Child Poverty and Family Structure in Canada, 1981-1997.”  Journal of Comparative Family Studies  34.3 (2003): 321-335.

             Sociology professors Kerr and Beaujot analyze the demographics of impoverished families.  Drawing on data from Canada’s annual Survey of Consumer Finances, the authors consider whether each family had one or two parents, the age of single parents, and the number of children in each household.  They analyze child poverty rates in light of both these demographic factors and larger economic issues.  Kerr and Beaujot use this data to argue that. 

Examples were taken from  http://libguides.enc.edu/writing_basics/ annotatedbib/mla

Check out these resources for more information about Annotated Bibliographies. 

  • Purdue Owl- Annotated Bibliographies
  • University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill- Annotated Bibliographies
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How to Write a Bibliography in APA Format

Kendra Cherry, MS, is a psychosocial rehabilitation specialist, psychology educator, and author of the "Everything Psychology Book."

research paper in bibliography

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research paper in bibliography

  • APA Bibliography
  • How to Create One
  • Why You Need It

Sample Bibliography

An APA format bibliography lists all of the sources that might be used in a paper. A bibliography can be a great tool to help you keep track of information during the research and writing process. In some cases, your instructor may require you to include a bibliography as part of your assignment.

At a Glance

A well-written APA format bibliography can help you keep track of information and sources as you research and write your psychology paper. To create a bibliography, gather up all of the sources that you might use in your paper. Create an APA format reference for each source and then write a brief annotation. Your annotation should be a brief summary of what each reference is about. You can quickly refer to these annotations When writing your paper and determine which to include.

What Is an APA Format Bibliography?

An APA format bibliography is an alphabetical listing of all sources that might be used to write an academic paper, essay, article, or research paper—particularly work that is covering psychology or psychology-related topics. APA format is the official style of the American Psychological Association (APA). This format is used by many psychology professors, students, and researchers.

Even if it is not a required part of your assignment, writing a bibliography can help you keep track of your sources and make it much easier to create your final reference page in proper APA format.

Creating an APA Bibliography

A bibliography is similar in many ways to a reference section , but there are some important differences. While a reference section includes every source that was actually used in your paper, a bibliography may include sources that you considered using but may have dismissed because they were irrelevant or outdated.

Bibliographies can be a great way to keep track of information you might want to use in your paper and to organize the information that you find in different sources. The following are four steps you can follow to create your APA format bibliography.

Start on a New Page

Your working bibliography should be kept separate from the rest of your paper. Start it on a new page, with the title "Bibliography" centered at the top and in bold text. Some people use the title "References" instead, so it's best to check with your professor or instructor about which they prefer you to use.

Gather Your Sources

Compile all the sources you might possibly use in your paper. While you might not use all of these sources in your paper, having a complete list will make it easier later on when you prepare your reference section.

Gathering your sources can be particularly helpful when outlining and writing your paper.

By quickly glancing through your working bibliography, you will be able to get a better idea of which sources will be the most appropriate to support your thesis and main points.

Reference Each Source

Your references should be listed alphabetically by the author’s last name, and they should be double-spaced. The first line of each reference should be flush left, while each additional line of a single reference should be a few spaces to the right of the left margin, which is known as a hanging indent.

The format of each source is as follows for academic journals:

  • Last name of first author (followed by their first initial)
  • The year the source was published in parentheses
  • The title of the source
  • The journal that published the source (in italics)
  • The volume number, if applicable (in italics)
  • The issue number, if applicable
  • Page numbers (in parentheses)
  • The URL or "doi" in lowercase letters followed by a colon and the doi number, if applicable

The following examples are scholarly articles in academic journals, cited in APA format:

  • Kulacaoglu, F., & Kose, S. (2018). Borderline personality disorder (BPD): In the midst of vulnerability, chaos, and awe.  Brain sciences ,  8 (11), 201. doi:10.3390/brainsci8110201
  • Cattane, N., Rossi, R., & Lanfredi, M. (2017). Borderline personality disorder and childhood trauma: exploring the affected biological systems and mechanisms.  BMC Psychiatry,   18 (221). doi:10.1186/s12888-017-1383-2

Visit the American Psychological Association's website for more information on citing other types of sources including online media, audiovisual media, and more.

Create an Annotation for Each Source

Normally a bibliography contains only references' information, but in some cases you might decide to create an annotated bibliography. An annotation is a summary or evaluation of the source.

An annotation is a brief description of approximately 150 words describing the information in the source, your evaluation of its credibility, and how it pertains to your topic. Writing one of these for each piece of research will make your writing process faster and easier.

This step helpful in determining which sources to ultimately use in your paper. Your instructor may also require it as part of the assignment so they can assess your thought process and understanding of your topic.

Reasons to Write a Bibliography

One of the biggest reasons to create an APA format bibliography is simply to make the research and writing process easier.

If you do not have a comprehensive list of all of your references, you might find yourself scrambling to figure out where you found certain bits of information that you included in your paper.

A bibliography is also an important tool that your readers can use to access your sources.

While writing an annotated bibliography might not be required for your assignment, it can be a very useful step. The process of writing an annotation helps you learn more about your topic, develop a deeper understanding of the subject, and become better at evaluating various sources of information.

The following is an example of an APA format bibliography by the website EasyBib:

There are many online resources that demonstrate different formats of bibliographies, including the American Psychological Association website . Purdue University's Online Writing Lab also has examples of formatting an APA format bibliography.

Check out this video on their YouTube channel which provides detailed instructions on formatting an APA style bibliography in Microsoft Word.

You can check out the Purdue site for more information on writing an annotated APA bibliography as well.

What This Means For You

If you are taking a psychology class, you may be asked to create a bibliography as part of the research paper writing process. Even if your instructor does not expressly require a bibliography, creating one can be a helpful way to help structure your research and make the writing process more manageable.

For psychology majors , it can be helpful to save any bibliographies you have written throughout your studies so that you can refer back to them later when studying for exams or writing papers for other psychology courses.

American Psychological Association. Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association . 7th Edition. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association; 2020.

Masic I. The importance of proper citation of references in biomedical articles.   Acta Inform Med . 2013;21(3):148–155. doi:10.5455/aim.2013.21.148-155

American Psychological Association. How do you format a bibliography in APA Style?

Cornell University Library. How to prepare an annotated bibliography: The annotated bibliography .

By Kendra Cherry, MSEd Kendra Cherry, MS, is a psychosocial rehabilitation specialist, psychology educator, and author of the "Everything Psychology Book."

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How to Write a Bibliography (MLA, APA Examples)

TeacherVision Staff

Learn how to easily write a bibliography by following the format outlined in this article.

This resource will help your students properly cite different resources in the bibliography of a research paper, and how to format those citations, for books, encyclopedias, films, websites, and people.

What is a bibliography?

According to Infoplease.com, A bibliography is a list of the types of sources you used to get information for your report. It is included at the end of your report, on the last page (or last few pages).

What are the types of bibliography styles (MLA, APA, etc.)?

The 3 most common bibliography/citation styles are:

  • MLA Style: The Modern Language Association works cited page style
  • APA Style: The American Psychological Association style
  • Chicago Style: The bibliography style defined by the Chicago Manual of Style

We’ll give examples of how to create bibliography entries in various styles further down in this article. 

What sources do you put in a bibliography?

An annotated bibliography should include a reference list of any sources you use in writing a research paper. Any printed sources from which you use a text citation, including books, websites, newspaper articles, journal articles, academic writing, online sources (such as PDFs), and magazines should be included in a reference list. In some cases, you may need or want to cite conversations or interviews, works of art, visual works such as movies, television shows, or documentaries - these (and many others) can also be included in a reference list.

How to get started writing your bibliography

You will find it easier to prepare your MLA, APA, or Chicago annotated bibliography if you keep track of each book, encyclopedia, journal article, webpage or online source you use as you are reading and taking notes. Start a preliminary, or draft, bibliography by listing on a separate sheet of paper all your sources. Note down the full title, author’s last name, place of publication, web address, publisher, and date of publication for each source.

Haven't started your paper yet and need an outline? These sample essay outlines include a research paper outline from an actual student paper.

How to write a bibliography step-by-step (with examples)

General Format: Author (last name first). Title of the book. Publisher, Date of publication.

MLA Style: Sibley, David Allen. What It’s Like to Be a Bird. From Flying to Nesting, Eating to Singing, What Birds Are Doing, and Why. Alfred A. Knopf, 2020.

APA Style: Sibley, D.A. (2020). What It’s Like to Be a Bird. From Flying to Nesting, Eating to Singing, What Birds Are Doing, and Why . Alfred A. Knopf.

Notes: Use periods, not commas, to separate the data in the entry. Use a hanging indent if the entry is longer than one line. For APA style, do not use the full author’s first name.

Websites or webpages:

  MLA Style: The SB Nation Family of Sites. Pension Plan Puppets: A Toronto Maple Leafs Blog, 2022, www.pensionplanpuppets.com. Accessed 15 Feb. 2022.

APA Style: American Heart Association. (2022, April 11). How to keep your dog’s heart healthy. https://www.heart.org/en/news/2022/04/11/how-to-keep-your-dogs-heart-healthy

Online news article from a newspaper site:

APA Style: Duehren, A. (2022, April 9). Janet Yellen faces challenge to keep pressure on Russia. Wall Street Journal. https://www.wsj.com/articles/janet-yellen-faces-challenge-to-keep-pressure-on-russia-while-addressing-global-consequences-11650366000

Print journal articles:

MLA Style: Booch, Grady. "Patterns in Object-Oriented Design." IEEE Software Engineering, vol. 6, no. 6, 2006, pp. 31-50.

APA Style: Booch, G. (2006). Patterns in object-oriented design. IEEE Software Engineering, 6(6), 31–50.

Note: It is suggested that you include a DOI and a webpage address when referencing either a printed journal article, and electronic journal article, or an journal article that appears in both formats. 

MLA Style: Gamma, Eric, and Peter A. Coad. “Exceptions to the Unified Modeling Language in Python Patterns.” IEEE Software Engineering, vol. 2, no. 6, 8 Mar. 2006, pp. 190-194. O’Reilly Software Engineering Library, https://doi.org/10.1006/se.20061. Accessed 26 May 2009.

APA Style: Masters, H., Barron, J., & Chanda, L. (2017). Motivational interviewing techniques for adolescent populations in substance abuse counseling. NAADAC Notes, 7(8), 7–13. https://www.naadac.com/notes/adolescent-techniques

ML:A Style: @Grady_Booch. “That’s a bold leap over plain old battery power cars.” Twitter, 13 Mar. 2013, 12:06 p.m., https://twitter.com/Grady_Booch/status/1516379006727188483.

APA Style: Westborough Library [@WestboroughLib]. (2022, April 12). Calling all 3rd through 5th grade kids! Join us for the Epic Writing Showdown! Winner receives a prize! Space is limited so register, today. loom.ly/ypaTG9Q [Tweet; thumbnail link to article]. Twitter. https://twitter.com/WestboroughLib/status/1516373550415896588.

Print magazine articles:

General format: Author (last name first), "Article Title." Name of magazine. Volume number, (Date): page numbers.

MLA Style: Stiteler, Sharon. "Tracking Red-Breasted Grosbeak Migration." Minnesota Bird Journal, 7 Sept. 2019, pp. 7-11.

APA Style: Jordan, Jennifer, "Filming at the Top of the World." Museum of Science Magazine. Volume 47, No. 1, (Winter 1998): p. 11.

Print newspaper articles:

General format: Author (last name first), "Article Title." Name of newspaper, city, state of publication. (date): edition if available, section, page number(s).

MLA Style: Adelman, Martin. "Augustus Announces Departure from City Manager Post." New York Times, late ed., 15 February 2020, p. A1

APA Style: Adelman, M. (2020, February 15). Augustus announced departure from city manager post. New York Times, A1.

Encyclopedias:

General Format: Encyclopedia Title, Edition Date. Volume Number, "Article Title," page numbers.

MLA Style: “Gorillas.” The Encyclopedia Brittanica. 15th ed. 2010.

APA Style: Encyclopedia Brittanica, Inc. (1997.) Gorillas. In The Encyclopedia Brittanica (15th ed., pp. 50-51). Encyclopedia Brittanica, Inc.

Personal interviews:

General format: Full name (last name first). Personal Interview. (Occupation.) Date of interview.

MLA Style: Smithfield, Joseph. Personal interview. 19 May 2014.

APA Style: APA does not require a formal citation for a personal interview. Published interviews from other sources should be cited accordingly.

Films and movies:

General format: Title, Director, Distributor, Year.

MLA Style: Fury. Directed by David Ayer, performances by Brad Pitt, Shia LaBeouf, Jon Bernthal, Sony Pictures, 2014.

APA Style: Ayer, D. (Director). (2014). Fury [Film]. Sony Pictures.

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Creating an MLA Bibliography

If you write a research paper in MLA format, then you will need to include a Works Cited page according to the current 9th edition of the Modern Language Association (MLA) guidelines. Along with citing your sources within the body of your paper, you also need to include full citations of all sources at the end of your paper. The references in a bibliography are formatted in the same way as they would be in a Works Cited page. However, a bibliography refers to all works that you have consulted in your research, even if you did not use their information directly in your paper.

When you use the correct MLA bibliography format, it shows the reader what sources you consulted, makes finding your sources easier for the reader, and gives credibility to your work as a researcher and writer. This MLA sample paper will show you how the bibliography is incorporated into the rest of your paper. We also have a guide on APA reference pages , if you are following APA style in your paper.

Works cited or bibliography?

You may be wondering, what is a bibliography, and how is it different from a Works Cited page? The difference between the two is that while a bibliography refers to any source you consulted to write your research paper, a Works Cited page only includes full citations of the sources you quoted or paraphrased within your paper.

Typically, when someone says, “MLA bibliography” they really mean a Works Cited page, since the MLA format usually uses a Works Cited page instead of a bibliography.

A bibliography in MLA format may also refer to a Works Consulted page. If you used other sources that you did not directly quote or paraphrase within the paper, you will need to create a Works Consulted/Additional Resources page. A Works Consulted page starts on a separate page and follows the Works Cited page. It follows the same formatting guidelines as a Works Cited page, but you will use Works Consulted (or Additional Resources) as the title.

If you’re unsure of what to include in your citations list (works cited, works consulted, or both), ask your instructor. For the rest of this article, we will refer to this page as the MLA bibliography.

MLA bibliography formatting guidelines

These are the formatting rules you need to follow to create your bibliography according to MLA’s current edition guidelines. Your first page(s) will be your Works Cited page(s) and include the references that you directly refer to in your paper. Usually, this is all that is needed. If your instructor wants you to also include the works you consulted but did not include in your paper (more like a bibliography), then add Works Consulted or Additional Resources page for these sources.

  • Your MLA Works Cited (and Works Consulted or Additional Resources pages) should begin on a separate page or pages at the end of your essay.
  • Your essay should have a header on every page that includes your last name and the page number.
  • The last name/page number header should be on the top right of each page with a ½ inch margin from the top of the page.
  • One-inch margins.
  • Title the page Works Cited (no italicization or quotation marks) unless otherwise instructed. Center the title. The top should look like this:

research paper in bibliography

  • Only center the Works Cited title; all citations should be left-justified.
  • Double-space citations.
  • Do not add an additional space between citations.
  • After the first line, use a hanging indent of ½ inch on all additional lines of a citation. The hanging indent should look like this:

MLA works cited indent

  • Typically, this is the author’s last name, but sometimes it could be the title of the source if the author’s name is not available.

MLA bibliography works cited page

If you have a Works Consulted or Additional Resources page after your Works Cited page, format it in the same way, but with the title of Works Consulted or Additional Resources instead of Works Cited. Alternatively, your instructor may require a bibliography. If this is the case, all your sources, whether they are cited in your paper are not, are listed on the same page.

MLA citation guidelines

These are the rules you need to follow to create citations for an MLA bibliography. This section contains information on how to correctly use author names, punctuation, capitalization, fonts, page numbers, DOIs, and URLS in the citations on your MLA bibliography.

Author names

After the title Works Cited, the last name of the author of a source should be the first thing to appear on your page.

List the author’s last name followed by a comma, then the first name followed by the middle name or middle initial if applicable, without a comma separating the first and middle names. Add a period after the name.

Rowling, J.K.

Smith, Alexander McCall.

  • Do not include titles such as Dr., Mrs., etc. or professional qualifications such as PhD, M.S., etc. with author names.
  • Include suffixes such as Jr. or III after the author’s first name. Separate the first name and the suffix by a comma unless the suffix is a numeral. For example, to cite an author named John Smith, Jr., you would type Smith, John, Jr.

Sources with two authors

For a source with two authors, list the author names in your citation in the order they appear on the source, not alphabetically.

Type the last name of the first author listed on the source followed by a comma, then the first author’s first name followed by a comma. Then type the word “and” then list the second author’s first name and last name in the standard order. Follow the second name with a period.

Include middle names or initials and suffixes when applicable according to the guidelines for one author as listed above.

1st Author’s Last Name, First Name, and 2nd Author’s First Name Last Name.

Lutz, Lisa, and David Hayward.

Clark, Mary Higgins, and Alafair Burke.

Sources with three or more authors

For a source with three or more authors, only type the last and first name of the first author listed in the source, followed by a comma and the phrase et al., which is Latin for “and others.” Be sure to always place a period after the al in et al. but never after the et.

1st Author’s Last Name, First Name, et al.

Charaipotra, Sona, et al.

Williams, Beatriz, et al. All the Ways We Said Goodbye . HarperLuxe, 2020.

Organizations and corporations as authors

For sources with organizations or corporations listed as the author, type the name of the corporation in place of an author’s name. If the organization begins with an article like a, an, or the, it should be excluded in the Works Cited entry.

Modern Language Association of America. MLA Handbook . 2016.

*Note: If the organization is listed as both the author and the publisher, begin the citation with the title and include the organization’s name within the publisher field instead. 

For a source with no author listed, simply omit the author’s name and begin the citation with the title of the source. Use the first letter of the title when considering alphabetical order in your MLA bibliography.

Capitalization

Use MLA title case when citing titles of sources.

  • Nouns, pronouns, verbs, adverbs, adjectives, and subordinating conjunctions should be capitalized.
  • Articles, prepositions, and coordinating conjunctions should not be capitalized.

Font formatting

  • Italicize the titles of larger works such as magazines and books. Also, italicize database and website names.
  • Instead of italicization, use quotation marks around titles of shorter works such as poems, short stories, and articles.
  • End all bibliography citations with a period.

Page numbers

Include page numbers in your full citations whenever possible. This helps the reader find the information you cited more quickly than if you just cited the entire source and lends more credibility to your argument. If you cite different pages from the same source within your paper, you should cite the entire source on your MLA bibliography instead of listing all of the page numbers you used.

When including page numbers in a citation, use the abbreviation p. to cite one page and the abbreviation pp. to cite multiple pages with a hyphen between the page numbers.

p. 25 or pp. 16-37

When citing page numbers in MLA, omit the first set of repeated digits.

pp. 365-69, not pp. 365-369

DOIs and URLs

A Digital Object Identifier (DOI) is used to locate and identify an online source. While URLs may change or web pages might be edited or updated, a DOI is permanent and therefore more useful in a source citation.

  • Use a DOI (digital object identifier) whenever possible. Otherwise use a permalink or URL.
  • DOIs should be formatted with “https://doi.org/” before the DOI number.
  • Do not include “http://” or “https://” in your URLs.
  • As either one will be the last part of your citation, place a period after the DOI or URL. (Note that this period is not part of the DOI or URL.)

Butarbutar, R, et al. “Analyzing of Puzzle Local Culture-Based in Teaching English for Young Learners.” IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Science , vol. 343, 2019, https://doi.org/10.1088/1755-1315/343/1/012208.

Accessed dates

Since the previous 8th edition of the MLA Handbook was published, you do NOT need to list an accessed date for a stable source (e.g., online newspaper article, journal article, photograph, etc.). However, including an access date is good to include when a source does not have a publishing date, and some instructors will request that accessed dates be included for all sources.

If you do include an access date, here’s how to format it:

  • Place it at the end of the citation without “http://” or “https://”.
  • Write “Accessed” first, followed by the date accessed.
  • The date accessed should be formatted as Day Month (abbreviated) Year.

Butarbutar, R, et al. “IOPscience.” IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Science , IOP Publishing, 1 Oct. 2019, iopscience.iop.org/article/10.1088/1755-1315/343/1/012208/meta. Accessed 8 Oct. 2020.

Note: If you choose to list an accessed date after a DOI, the accessed date part of the citation will follow the period after the DOI and will end with a period at the end of the citation

Butarbutar, R, et al. “Analyzing of Puzzle Local Culture-Based in Teaching English for Young Learners.” IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Science , vol. 343, 2019, https://doi.org/10.1088/1755-1315/343/1/012208. Accessed 8 Oct. 2020.

MLA 8 th edition vs MLA 9 th edition

The 9 th edition of the MLA handbook re-introduces guidelines regarding paper formatting (which were not present in the 8 th edition). The guidance in the 9 th addition is consistent with the guidance in previous editions and expands on the formatting of tables, figures/illustrations, and lists. The 9 th edition also offers new guidance in areas like annotated bibliographies, inclusive language, and footnotes/endnotes.

Many of the differences between the 8 th edition and 9 th edition have to do with the formatting of the core elements in reference list entries. Some of the main changes include:

Written by Grace Turney , freelance writer and artist. Grace is a former librarian and has a Master’s degree in Library Science and Information Technology. 

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An MLA bibliography is similar to the Works Cited list that you include at the end of your paper. The only difference between a Works Cited list and a bibliography is that for the former, you need to include the entries for only the sources you cited in the text, whereas for the latter you can also include the sources you consulted to write your paper but didn’t directly cite in your writing. MLA generally prefers Works Cited lists to bibliographies.

If your instructor advises you to create an MLA bibliography, follow the same guidelines you would follow for creating an MLA Works Cited list.

The bibliography list appears at the end of the paper, after any endnotes if they are present.

All margins (top, bottom, left, and right) should be set at 1 inch.

Write the running head in the top right of the page at 0.5 inch from the top. Use the running head “Surname Page #.”

The font should be clear enough to read. Use Times New Roman font of size 12 points.

Entries should be double-spaced. If any entry runs over more than a line, indent the subsequent lines of the entry 0.5 inch from the left margin.

Bibliographic entries are arranged alphabetically according to the first item in each entry.

Title your bibliography as “Bibliography.”

Braidotti, Rosi. The Posthuman . Polity, 2013.

Brisini, Travis. “Phytomorphizing Performance: Plant Performance in an Expanded Field.” Text and Performance Quarterly , vol. 39, 2019,            pp. 1–2.

Riccio, Thomas. “Reimagining Yup’ik and Inupiat Performance.” Northwest Theatre Review , vol. 12, no. 1, 1999, pp. 1–30.

General rules for creating an annotated bibliography

The annotation is given after the source entry and is generally about 100-150 words in length. The annotation should be indented 1 inch from the left margin to distinguish it from the hanging indent within the citation entry.

The annotation, in general, should be written as short phrases. However, you may use full sentences as well.

The annotation for each source is usually no longer than one paragraph. However, if multiple paragraphs are included, indent the second and subsequent paragraphs without any extra line space between them.

The annotation provides basic information about the source, but does not include details about the source, quotes from the author, etc. The information can be descriptive (by generally describing what the source covers) or evaluative (by evaluating the source’s usefulness to the argument in your paper).

Example annotated bibliography

The below is an example of an annotated bibliography:

Morritt, Robert D. Beringia: Archaic Migrations into North America . Cambridge Scholars Pub, 2011.

The author studies the migration of cultures from Asia to North America. The connection between the North American Athabaskan language family and Siberia is presented, together with comparisons and examinations of the implications of linguistics from anthropological, archaeological, and folklore perspectives. This book explores the origins of the earliest people in the Americas, including Siberian, Dene, and Navajo Creation myths; linguistic comparisons between Siberian Ket Navajo and Western Apache; and comparisons between indigenous groups that appear to share the same origin.

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If you are using Chicago style footnotes or endnotes, you should include a bibliography at the end of your paper that provides complete citation information for all of the sources you cite in your paper. Bibliography entries are formatted differently from notes. For bibliography entries, you list the sources alphabetically by last name, so you will list the last name of the author or creator first in each entry. You should single-space within a bibliography entry and double-space between them. When an entry goes longer than one line, use a hanging indent of .5 inches for subsequent lines. Here’s a link to a sample bibliography that shows layout and spacing . You can find a sample of note format here .

Complete note vs. shortened note

Here’s an example of a complete note and a shortened version of a note for a book:

1. Karen Ho, Liquidated: An Ethnography of Wall Street (Durham: Duke University Press, 2009), 27-35.

1. Karen Ho, Liquidated , 27-35.

Note vs. Bibliography entry

The bibliography entry that corresponds with each note is very similar to the longer version of the note, except that the author’s last and first name are reversed in the bibliography entry. To see differences between note and bibliography entries for different types of sources, check this section of the Chicago Manual of Style .

For Liquidated , the bibliography entry would look like this:

Ho, Karen, Liquidated: An Ethnography of Wall Street . Durham: Duke University Press, 2009.

Citing a source with two or three authors

If you are citing a source with two or three authors, list their names in your note in the order they appear in the original source. In the bibliography, invert only the name of the first author and use “and” before the last named author.

1. Melissa Borja and Jacob Gibson, “Internationalism with Evangelical Characteristics: The Case of Evangelical Responses to Southeast Asian Refugees,” The Review of Faith & International Affairs 17, no. 3 (2019): 80-81, https://doi.org/10.1080/15570274.2019.1643983 .

Shortened note:

1. Borja and Gibson, “Internationalism with Evangelical Characteristics,” 80-81.

Bibliography:

Borja, Melissa, and Jacob Gibson. “Internationalism with Evangelical Characteristics: The Case of Evangelical Responses to Southeast Asian Refugees.” The Review of Faith & International Affairs 17. no. 3 (2019): 80–93. https://doi.org/10.1080/15570274.2019.1643983 .

Citing a source with more than three authors

If you are citing a source with more than three authors, include all of them in the bibliography, but only include the first one in the note, followed by et al. ( et al. is the shortened form of the Latin et alia , which means “and others”).

1. Justine M. Nagurney, et al., “Risk Factors for Disability After Emergency Department Discharge in Older Adults,” Academic Emergency Medicine 27, no. 12 (2020): 1271.

Short version of note:

1. Justine M. Nagurney, et al., “Risk Factors for Disability,” 1271.

Nagurney, Justine M., Ling Han, Linda Leo‐Summers, Heather G. Allore, Thomas M. Gill, and Ula Hwang. “Risk Factors for Disability After Emergency Department Discharge in Older Adults.” Academic Emergency Medicine 27, no. 12 (2020): 1270–78. https://doi.org/10.1111/acem.14088 .

Citing a book consulted online

If you are citing a book you consulted online, you should include a URL, DOI, or the name of the database where you found the book.

1. Karen Ho, Liquidated: An Ethnography of Wall Street (Durham: Duke University Press, 2009), 27-35, https://doi-org.ezp-prod1.hul.harvard.edu/10.1215/9780822391371 .

Bibliography entry:

Ho, Karen. Liquidated: An Ethnography of Wall Street . Durham: Duke University Press, 2009. https://doi-org.ezp-prod1.hul.harvard.edu/10.1215/9780822391371 .

Citing an e-book consulted outside of a database

If you are citing an e-book that you accessed outside of a database, you should indicate the format. If you read the book in a format without fixed page numbers (like Kindle, for example), you should not include the page numbers that you saw as you read. Instead, include chapter or section numbers, if possible.

1. Karen Ho, Liquidated: An Ethnography of Wall Street (Durham: Duke University Press, 2009), chap. 2, Kindle.

Ho, Karen. Liquidated: An Ethnography of Wall Street . Durham: Duke University Press, 2009. Kindle.

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How to Prepare an Annotated Bibliography: The Annotated Bibliography

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Explanation, Process, Directions, and Examples

What is an annotated bibliography.

An annotated bibliography is a list of citations to books, articles, and documents. Each citation is followed by a brief (usually about 150 words) descriptive and evaluative paragraph, the annotation. The purpose of the annotation is to inform the reader of the relevance, accuracy, and quality of the sources cited.

Annotations vs. Abstracts

Abstracts are the purely descriptive summaries often found at the beginning of scholarly journal articles or in periodical indexes. Annotations are descriptive and critical; they may describe the author's point of view, authority, or clarity and appropriateness of expression.

The Process

Creating an annotated bibliography calls for the application of a variety of intellectual skills: concise exposition, succinct analysis, and informed library research.

First, locate and record citations to books, periodicals, and documents that may contain useful information and ideas on your topic. Briefly examine and review the actual items. Then choose those works that provide a variety of perspectives on your topic.

Cite the book, article, or document using the appropriate style.

Write a concise annotation that summarizes the central theme and scope of the book or article. Include one or more sentences that (a) evaluate the authority or background of the author, (b) comment on the intended audience, (c) compare or contrast this work with another you have cited, or (d) explain how this work illuminates your bibliography topic.

Critically Appraising the Book, Article, or Document

For guidance in critically appraising and analyzing the sources for your bibliography, see How to Critically Analyze Information Sources . For information on the author's background and views, ask at the reference desk for help finding appropriate biographical reference materials and book review sources.

Choosing the Correct Citation Style

Check with your instructor to find out which style is preferred for your class. Online citation guides for both the Modern Language Association (MLA) and the American Psychological Association (APA) styles are linked from the Library's Citation Management page .

Sample Annotated Bibliography Entries

The following example uses APA style ( Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association , 7th edition, 2019) for the journal citation:

Waite, L., Goldschneider, F., & Witsberger, C. (1986). Nonfamily living and the erosion of traditional family orientations among young adults. American Sociological Review, 51 (4), 541-554. The authors, researchers at the Rand Corporation and Brown University, use data from the National Longitudinal Surveys of Young Women and Young Men to test their hypothesis that nonfamily living by young adults alters their attitudes, values, plans, and expectations, moving them away from their belief in traditional sex roles. They find their hypothesis strongly supported in young females, while the effects were fewer in studies of young males. Increasing the time away from parents before marrying increased individualism, self-sufficiency, and changes in attitudes about families. In contrast, an earlier study by Williams cited below shows no significant gender differences in sex role attitudes as a result of nonfamily living.

This example uses MLA style ( MLA Handbook , 9th edition, 2021) for the journal citation. For additional annotation guidance from MLA, see 5.132: Annotated Bibliographies .

Waite, Linda J., et al. "Nonfamily Living and the Erosion of Traditional Family Orientations Among Young Adults." American Sociological Review, vol. 51, no. 4, 1986, pp. 541-554. The authors, researchers at the Rand Corporation and Brown University, use data from the National Longitudinal Surveys of Young Women and Young Men to test their hypothesis that nonfamily living by young adults alters their attitudes, values, plans, and expectations, moving them away from their belief in traditional sex roles. They find their hypothesis strongly supported in young females, while the effects were fewer in studies of young males. Increasing the time away from parents before marrying increased individualism, self-sufficiency, and changes in attitudes about families. In contrast, an earlier study by Williams cited below shows no significant gender differences in sex role attitudes as a result of nonfamily living.

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  • What Is an Annotated Bibliography? | Examples & Format

What Is an Annotated Bibliography? | Examples & Format

Published on March 9, 2021 by Jack Caulfield . Revised on August 23, 2022.

An annotated bibliography is a list of source references that includes a short descriptive text (an annotation) for each source. It may be assigned as part of the research process for a paper , or as an individual assignment to gather and read relevant sources on a topic.

Scribbr’s free Citation Generator allows you to easily create and manage your annotated bibliography in APA or MLA style. To generate a perfectly formatted annotated bibliography, select the source type, fill out the relevant fields, and add your annotation.

An example of an annotated source is shown below:

Annotated source example

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Table of contents

Annotated bibliography format: apa, mla, chicago, how to write an annotated bibliography, descriptive annotation example, evaluative annotation example, reflective annotation example, finding sources for your annotated bibliography, frequently asked questions about annotated bibliographies.

Make sure your annotated bibliography is formatted according to the guidelines of the style guide you’re working with. Three common styles are covered below:

In APA Style , both the reference entry and the annotation should be double-spaced and left-aligned.

The reference entry itself should have a hanging indent . The annotation follows on the next line, and the whole annotation should be indented to match the hanging indent. The first line of any additional paragraphs should be indented an additional time.

APA annotated bibliography

In an MLA style annotated bibliography , the Works Cited entry and the annotation are both double-spaced and left-aligned.

The Works Cited entry has a hanging indent. The annotation itself is indented 1 inch (twice as far as the hanging indent). If there are two or more paragraphs in the annotation, the first line of each paragraph is indented an additional half-inch, but not if there is only one paragraph.

MLA annotated bibliography

Chicago style

In a  Chicago style annotated bibliography , the bibliography entry itself should be single-spaced and feature a hanging indent.

The annotation should be indented, double-spaced, and left-aligned. The first line of any additional paragraphs should be indented an additional time.

Chicago annotated bibliography

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For each source, start by writing (or generating ) a full reference entry that gives the author, title, date, and other information. The annotated bibliography format varies based on the citation style you’re using.

The annotations themselves are usually between 50 and 200 words in length, typically formatted as a single paragraph. This can vary depending on the word count of the assignment, the relative length and importance of different sources, and the number of sources you include.

Consider the instructions you’ve been given or consult your instructor to determine what kind of annotations they’re looking for:

  • Descriptive annotations : When the assignment is just about gathering and summarizing information, focus on the key arguments and methods of each source.
  • Evaluative annotations : When the assignment is about evaluating the sources , you should also assess the validity and effectiveness of these arguments and methods.
  • Reflective annotations : When the assignment is part of a larger research process, you need to consider the relevance and usefulness of the sources to your own research.

These specific terms won’t necessarily be used. The important thing is to understand the purpose of your assignment and pick the approach that matches it best. Interactive examples of the different styles of annotation are shown below.

A descriptive annotation summarizes the approach and arguments of a source in an objective way, without attempting to assess their validity.

In this way, it resembles an abstract , but you should never just copy text from a source’s abstract, as this would be considered plagiarism . You’ll naturally cover similar ground, but you should also consider whether the abstract omits any important points from the full text.

The interactive example shown below describes an article about the relationship between business regulations and CO 2 emissions.

Rieger, A. (2019). Doing business and increasing emissions? An exploratory analysis of the impact of business regulation on CO 2 emissions. Human Ecology Review , 25 (1), 69–86. https://www.jstor.org/stable/26964340

An evaluative annotation also describes the content of a source, but it goes on to evaluate elements like the validity of the source’s arguments and the appropriateness of its methods .

For example, the following annotation describes, and evaluates the effectiveness of, a book about the history of Western philosophy.

Kenny, A. (2010). A new history of Western philosophy: In four parts . Oxford University Press.

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A reflective annotation is similar to an evaluative one, but it focuses on the source’s usefulness or relevance to your own research.

Reflective annotations are often required when the point is to gather sources for a future research project, or to assess how they were used in a project you already completed.

The annotation below assesses the usefulness of a particular article for the author’s own research in the field of media studies.

Manovich, Lev. (2009). The practice of everyday (media) life: From mass consumption to mass cultural production? Critical Inquiry , 35 (2), 319–331. https://www.jstor.org/stable/10.1086/596645

Manovich’s article assesses the shift from a consumption-based media culture (in which media content is produced by a small number of professionals and consumed by a mass audience) to a production-based media culture (in which this mass audience is just as active in producing content as in consuming it). He is skeptical of some of the claims made about this cultural shift; specifically, he argues that the shift towards user-made content must be regarded as more reliant upon commercial media production than it is typically acknowledged to be. However, he regards web 2.0 as an exciting ongoing development for art and media production, citing its innovation and unpredictability.

The article is outdated in certain ways (it dates from 2009, before the launch of Instagram, to give just one example). Nevertheless, its critical engagement with the possibilities opened up for media production by the growth of social media is valuable in a general sense, and its conceptualization of these changes frequently applies just as well to more current social media platforms as it does to Myspace. Conceptually, I intend to draw on this article in my own analysis of the social dynamics of Twitter and Instagram.

Before you can write your annotations, you’ll need to find sources . If the annotated bibliography is part of the research process for a paper, your sources will be those you consult and cite as you prepare the paper. Otherwise, your assignment and your choice of topic will guide you in what kind of sources to look for.

Make sure that you’ve clearly defined your topic , and then consider what keywords are relevant to it, including variants of the terms. Use these keywords to search databases (e.g., Google Scholar ), using Boolean operators to refine your search.

Sources can include journal articles, books, and other source types , depending on the scope of the assignment. Read the abstracts or blurbs of the sources you find to see whether they’re relevant, and try exploring their bibliographies to discover more. If a particular source keeps showing up, it’s probably important.

Once you’ve selected an appropriate range of sources, read through them, taking notes that you can use to build up your annotations. You may even prefer to write your annotations as you go, while each source is fresh in your mind.

An annotated bibliography is an assignment where you collect sources on a specific topic and write an annotation for each source. An annotation is a short text that describes and sometimes evaluates the source.

Any credible sources on your topic can be included in an annotated bibliography . The exact sources you cover will vary depending on the assignment, but you should usually focus on collecting journal articles and scholarly books . When in doubt, utilize the CRAAP test !

Each annotation in an annotated bibliography is usually between 50 and 200 words long. Longer annotations may be divided into paragraphs .

The content of the annotation varies according to your assignment. An annotation can be descriptive, meaning it just describes the source objectively; evaluative, meaning it assesses its usefulness; or reflective, meaning it explains how the source will be used in your own research .

A source annotation in an annotated bibliography fulfills a similar purpose to an abstract : they’re both intended to summarize the approach and key points of a source.

However, an annotation may also evaluate the source , discussing the validity and effectiveness of its arguments. Even if your annotation is purely descriptive , you may have a different perspective on the source from the author and highlight different key points.

You should never just copy text from the abstract for your annotation, as doing so constitutes plagiarism .

Cite this Scribbr article

If you want to cite this source, you can copy and paste the citation or click the “Cite this Scribbr article” button to automatically add the citation to our free Citation Generator.

Caulfield, J. (2022, August 23). What Is an Annotated Bibliography? | Examples & Format. Scribbr. Retrieved February 19, 2024, from https://www.scribbr.com/citing-sources/annotated-bibliography/

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Research Proposal and Annotated Bibliography

Most research essays involve two particular documents that help guide, manage, and report on the on-going research process. Those two documents are the research proposal and the annotated bibliography , detailed below.

Research Proposal

A research proposal is a brief document—only one typed page—that summarizes the preliminary ideas and current progress regarding your research essay. Your purpose is to formalize your plan for research and present it to your instructor for feedback. Your research proposal should be in complete sentences and paragraphs (and lists of information where appropriate), and should use MLA format.

A research proposal should address all of the following (the order of this information is allowed to change):

  • Briefly summarize the subject and its issues, controversies, or context.
  • Briefly explain of the significance or relevance of researching this subject.
  • State your main research question about the subject.
  • List any sub-questions related to your main research question (consider who, what, when, where, why, and how).
  • State your working thesis.
  • State the kinds of sources you plan to seek, or the types you have found, and/or your plan for finding sources.

Remember that your working thesis is not set in stone. You can and should change your working thesis throughout the research writing process if the information you find does not support your original thesis. Never try to force information into fitting your argument. For example, suppose your working thesis is this: “Mars cannot support life-forms.” Yet a week into researching your subject, suppose you find an article in the New York Times detailing new findings of bacteria under the Martian surface. Instead of trying to force that information into fitting your argument, such as arguing that bacteria are not life forms, you might instead alter your thesis to something like, “Mars cannot support complex life-forms.”

Below is an example of a research proposal from a student, which addresses all of the above:

Jorge Ramirez Prof. Habib Healthcare 101 March 25, 2015

In recent years, subjects related to diet, nutrition, and weight loss have been covered extensively in the mainstream media. Different experts recommend various, often conflicting strategies for maintaining a healthy weight. One highly recommended approach, which forms the basis of many popular diet plans, is to limit the consumption of carbohydrates. Yet experts disagree on the effectiveness and health benefits of this approach. What information should consumers consider when evaluating diet plans?

In my research, I will explore the claims made by proponents of the “low-carb lifestyle.” My primary research question is this: Are low-carbohydrate diets as effective for maintaining a healthy weight as they are portrayed to be?

My secondary research questions are these:

Who can benefit from following a low-carb diet?

What are the supposed advantages of following a low-carb diet?

When did low-carb diets become a hot topic in the media?

Where do average consumers get information about diet and nutrition?

Why has the low-carb approach received so much media attention?

How do low-carb diets work?

My working thesis is this: Low-carb diets are not as effective as the mass media attention suggests. In order to do this research, I will review mass media articles as well as scholarly articles that discuss the relationship between low-carb diets, weight loss, and long-term health. I will use general Google searches as well as Google Scholar, JSTOR, and other databases available through the campus library Website.

Write a research proposal. Make sure to address all of the following in complete sentences:

  • brief summary of the subject and its issues or context
  • brief explanation of the significance of researching this subject
  • your main research question about the subject
  • any sub-questions related to your main research question
  • your working thesis
  • the kinds of sources you plan to seek or have found, or your plan for finding sources

Annotated Bibliography

A bibliography is a list of all your sources and along with their citation information (in MLA format, the Works Cited page is a type of bibliography). An annotation is a note, description, and/or commentary on an item. So an annotated bibliography is a list of sources with notes, descriptions, and/or commentary on each source.

When engaging in a research writing project, creating and updating an annotated bibliography is extremely useful. It can function as your hub for collecting sources (so that you don’t lose or forget about them), as your reminder of what the source is about (so that you don’t have to re-read the whole piece), and as your aid in the writing process when selecting which sources are best to include where (so that you don’t have to memorize all of them while drafting and revising). An annotated bibliography can also help you avoid accidental plagiarism, which sometimes happens when students forget the sources of ideas or sentences they use in their essays.

Annotated bibliographies are thus a common assignment in courses that use research writing, even in alternate forms, such as the common high-school assignment of “note cards” (which are essentially annotated bibliographies on separate cards).

Whether or not you are assigned to create an annotated bibliography along with your research essay, you are wise to start one as soon as you read your first useful source. And you should keep adding to it and updating it as your research continues.

Take a look at an example entry for an annotated bibliography:

Pollan, Michael. “The New Science of Psychedelics.” The Wall Street Journal , May 3, 2018. Michael Pollan, https://michaelpollan.com/articles-archive/the-new-science-of-psychedelics .

This article is the author’s summary of his book How to Change Your Mind: What the New Science of Psychedelics Teaches Us About Consciousness, Dying, Addiction, Depression and Transcendence . It was first published in a reliable source, then republished on the author’s website. It is about the newly legal studies by major medical research institutions of the beneficial medical effects of psychedelics. Results for treating addiction and depression have been particularly positive. Pollan is a professional writer, not a medical professional. The primary subject in his career has been the modern food system. This article’s purpose is to reveal what’s new and possible with psychedelics, and to encourage further study. It is written in a calm, neutral, rational style, but one that stays vivid and interesting. It seems to be for an educated audience, but a broad one (not specialists).

Here are more details on the parts of an annotated bibliography and how to create them (along with the example pieces from the above entry):

I. Cite the source. Create the full Works Cited entry in MLA format that you would use as the citation in your essay. For online sources, including the full URL here can save a lot of time when returning to the source during drafting, revising, and editing.

II. Start a short paragraph below the citation for the annotation, and address the following:

1. Describe the source and its publication. Also mention its context, such as what it is a part of or is connected to, or how recent or relevant it is.

2. Summarize what the source is about. Include a brief mention of a detail or two that might be useful to your research project.

3. Discuss relevant information about the author, such as credentials, experience, reputation, or other publications.

4. Discuss the source’s purpose, bias, style, and/or intended audience.

5. Adjust the information you discuss in this paragraph as needed for the source, the research project, and/or the annotated bibliography assignment. For instance, you might wish to include a note to yourself about how you plan to use this source in your essay. Or the source might lack a stated author, which requires you to discuss the institution that produced the source instead. Also note that the above information does not have to remain in this order strictly.

To format your entire annotated bibliography with all of your entries, use standard MLA page layout. This means to include the standard first-page identifying information in the upper left (name, professor, course, date), a title (typically the words Annotated Bibliography), and alphabetical order for the entries. One common exception to this format is to use single-spaced entries, and leaving double-spacing between them. Find out from your instructor whether either is spacing style is preferred, or whether both are acceptable.

Create an annotated bibliography entry for an article as assigned by your instructor. Make sure to include all of the following:

Part I: Citation entry

Part II: Annotation paragraph

  •  Describe the source and publication.
  • Summarize the source.
  • Discuss the author.
  • Discuss the purpose, bias, style, and/or audience.
  • Include any other relevant information.

Create an annotated bibliography for five sources that you might use for an upcoming research essay. Make sure use correct format and to include all of the following for each for the five entries:

  • Describe the source and publication.

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This handout provides information about annotated bibliographies in MLA, APA, and CMS.

Below you will find sample annotations from annotated bibliographies, each with a different research project. Remember that the annotations you include in your own bibliography should reflect your research project and/or the guidelines of your assignment.

As mentioned elsewhere in this resource, depending on the purpose of your bibliography, some annotations may summarize, some may assess or evaluate a source, and some may reflect on the source’s possible uses for the project at hand. Some annotations may address all three of these steps. Consider the purpose of your annotated bibliography and/or your instructor’s directions when deciding how much information to include in your annotations.

Please keep in mind that all your text, including the write-up beneath the citation, must be indented so that the author's last name is the only text that is flush left.

Sample MLA Annotation

Lamott, Anne. Bird by Bird: Some Instructions on Writing and Life . Anchor Books, 1995.

Lamott's book offers honest advice on the nature of a writing life, complete with its insecurities and failures. Taking a humorous approach to the realities of being a writer, the chapters in Lamott's book are wry and anecdotal and offer advice on everything from plot development to jealousy, from perfectionism to struggling with one's own internal critic.

In the process, Lamott includes writing exercises designed to be both productive and fun. Lamott offers sane advice for those struggling with the anxieties of writing, but her main project seems to be offering the reader a reality check regarding writing, publishing, and struggling with one's own imperfect humanity in the process. Rather than a practical handbook to producing and/or publishing, this text is indispensable because of its honest perspective, its down-to-earth humor, and its encouraging approach.

Chapters in this text could easily be included in the curriculum for a writing class. Several of the chapters in Part 1 address the writing process and would serve to generate discussion on students' own drafting and revising processes. Some of the writing exercises would also be appropriate for generating classroom writing exercises. Students should find Lamott's style both engaging and enjoyable.

In the sample annotation above, the writer includes three paragraphs: a summary, an evaluation of the text, and a reflection on its applicability to his/her own research, respectively.

For information on formatting MLA citations, see our MLA 9th Edition (2021) Formatting and Style Guide .

Sample APA Annotation

Ehrenreich, B. (2001). Nickel and dimed: On (not) getting by in America . Henry Holt and Company.

In this book of nonfiction based on the journalist's experiential research, Ehrenreich attempts to ascertain whether it is currently possible for an individual to live on a minimum-wage in America. Taking jobs as a waitress, a maid in a cleaning service, and a Walmart sales employee, the author summarizes and reflects on her work, her relationships with fellow workers, and her financial struggles in each situation.

An experienced journalist, Ehrenreich is aware of the limitations of her experiment and the ethical implications of her experiential research tactics and reflects on these issues in the text. The author is forthcoming about her methods and supplements her experiences with scholarly research on her places of employment, the economy, and the rising cost of living in America. Ehrenreich’s project is timely, descriptive, and well-researched.

The annotation above both summarizes and assesses the book in the citation. The first paragraph provides a brief summary of the author's project in the book, covering the main points of the work. The second paragraph points out the project’s strengths and evaluates its methods and presentation. This particular annotation does not reflect on the source’s potential importance or usefulness for this person’s own research.

For information on formatting APA citations, see our APA Formatting and Style Guide .

Sample Chicago Manual of Style Annotation

Davidson, Hilda Ellis. Roles of the Northern Goddess . London: Routledge, 1998.

Davidson's book provides a thorough examination of the major roles filled by the numerous pagan goddesses of Northern Europe in everyday life, including their roles in hunting, agriculture, domestic arts like weaving, the household, and death. The author discusses relevant archaeological evidence, patterns of symbol and ritual, and previous research. The book includes a number of black and white photographs of relevant artifacts.

This annotation includes only one paragraph, a summary of the book. It provides a concise description of the project and the book's project and its major features.

For information on formatting Chicago Style citations, see our Chicago Manual of Style resources.

research paper in bibliography

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How to Write a Research Paper: Compiling the Bibliography

research paper in bibliography

All your sources in one place

Write a bibliography.

A bibliography is a list of the sources you used to get information for your report. It is included at the end of your report, on the last page (or last few pages).

You will find it easier to prepare your final bibliography if you keep track of each book, encyclopedia, or article you use as you are reading and taking notes. Start a preliminary, or draft, bibliography by listing on a separate sheet of paper all your sources. Note down the full title, author, place of publication, publisher, and date of publication for each source.

Also, every time a fact gets recorded on a note card, its source should be noted in the top right corner. (Notice that in the sample note card , The World Book , Volume 2, page 21, has been shortened to: WB, 2, p.133.) When you are finished writing your paper, you can use the information on your note cards to double-check your bibliography.

When assembling a final bibliography, list your sources (texts, articles, interviews, and so on) in alphabetical order by authors' last names. Sources that don't have authors (encyclopedias, movies) should be alphabetized by title. There are different formats for bibliographies, so be sure to use the one your teacher prefers.

General Guide to Formatting a Bibliography

For a book:.

Author (last name first). Title of the book . City: Publisher, Date of publication.

For an encyclopedia:

Encyclopedia Title , Edition Date. Volume Number, "Article Title," page numbers.

For a magazine:

Author (last name first), "Article Title." Name of magazine . Volume number, (Date): page numbers.

For a newspaper:

Author (last name first), "Article Title." Name of newspaper , city, state of publication. (date): edition if available, section, page number(s).

For a person:

Full name (last name first). Occupation. Date of interview.

For a film:

Title , Director, Distributor, Year.

Disc title : Version, Date. "Article title," pages if given. Publisher.

Magazine article:

Author (last name first). "Article title." Name of magazine (type of medium). Volume number, (Date): page numbers. If available: publisher of medium, version, date of issue.

Newspaper article:

Author (last name first). "Article title." Name of newspaper (Type of medium), city and state of publication. (Date): If available: Edition, section and page number(s). If available: publisher of medium, version, date of issue.

Online Resources

Author of message, (Date). Subject of message. Electronic conference or bulletin board (Online). Available e-mail: LISTSERV@ e-mail address

World Wide Web:

URL (Uniform Resource Locator or WWW address). author (or item's name, if mentioned), date.

EXAMPLE: (Boston Globe's www address)

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How to Write a Bibliography for a Research Paper: Guide & Samples

A bibliography is undoubtedly one of the most essential parts of every research paper. A research paper without a bibliography equals poorly conducted research. As such, the importance of a bibliography in a research paper cannot be overemphasized.

To produce well-constructed research, you must consult other authors and use their materials to support your argument. This is the only way to give these authors their credit; by listing them out in your bibliography.

Acknowledging the sources used in writing the topic is an effective approach to avoiding plagiarism in your research. It is also a great way to provide and inform other scholars with sources they may not be aware of. This article seeks to provide the format of bibliography and how to write a good bibliography for your research paper.

What Is a Bibliography in a Research Paper?

Simply put, a bibliography is a list of works used in writing a research paper. Every research paper must contain a list of sources the author used in preparing the research paper. Your source can range from books to scholarly papers, speeches, private records, interviews, letters, websites, and other sources.

Your research paper was not created in a vacuum; you must have consulted other authors or sourced to create enriched content. Therefore, at the end of your research, you must attach a list of all the sources used.

How to Write Bibliography for Research Paper

Writing a bibliography isn’t so hard; all you need is a list of sources used and a format for documenting them. To make things easier for you, prepare a draft comprising all of the sources you must have used. Ensure you include the book’s full title, the author, place of publication, publication date, and publisher. All sources must be listed out alphabetically using the authors’ names.

It is also important to note that there are different formats for writing a bibliography. As such, you must decide which format to employ in your research paper. You can format your work in Modern Language Association (MLA) format, American Psychological Association (APA), or Chicago Manual of Style (CMS). Regardless of which you choose, ensure that it is done correctly.

How to Format a Bibliography

Once you have an idea of how to format a bibliography, most of the work is completed. However, when writing it you need to pay close attention to each format and its content to avoid mixing them up. For printed sources, the bibliography of a research paper should provide the following:

  • Author’s name
  • Title of publication (provide the title of the article if it’s a journal, magazine, or encyclopedia)
  • Date of publication
  • Place of Publication of a book
  • The publishing house of a book
  • Volume number of magazine or encyclopedia
  • The page numbers

To document sources from a website, you need to document the following:

  • The author or editor’s name if there’s any
  • Title of the page
  • The organization of the webpage
  • The URL of the website
  • The date the information was gotten from the website

The common formats for writing a bibliography in a research paper are MLA and APA style. A bibliography is known as “Works Cited” in MLA and on the other hand, it is called “References List” in APA. Though both formats contain similar information about the sources used, there are still slight differences in formatting style. Here’s  what MLA and APA bibliography styles should look like.

How to Write a Bibliography APA

Your research paper’s bibliography must be attached at the end of it with the tag “References” at the center. In addition to this, you need to pay attention to the basics of APA style, such as capitalization, abbreviation, punctuation, underlining or italics, hanging indentation, and others. Here’s a research paper bibliography example in APA style:

Author’s last name, first initial. (Publication date). Book title . City of Publication: Publishing company.

  • For encyclopedia:

Author’s last name, first initial. (Date). Title of Article. Title of Encyclopedia (Volumes, pages). City of Publication: Publishing Company.

  • For magazine and newspaper articles:

Author’s last name, first initial. (Publication Date). Article title. Periodical title, Volume number (issue number if there’s any), page numbers.

How to Write a Bibliography MLA

Bibliography in MLA format is called “Works cited” and must be arranged in alphabetical order according to the author’s name. Here’s the required format for MLA style for varying sources:

“Author’s last name, first name. Book title. Publication City: Publishing company, publication date.”

  • Encyclopedia & dictionary:

“Author’s last name, first name. “Title of Article.” Encyclopedia’s Title. Date.”

  • Magazine & newspaper:

“Author’s last name, first name. “Article title.” Periodical title volume Date: inclusive pages.”

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This paper is in the following e-collection/theme issue:

Published on 19.2.2024 in Vol 26 (2024)

Media Use Behavior Mediates the Association Between Family Health and Intention to Use Mobile Health Devices Among Older Adults: Cross-Sectional Study

Authors of this article:

Author Orcid Image

Original Paper

  • Jinghui Chang 1 * , PhD   ; 
  • Yanshan Mai 2 *   ; 
  • Dayi Zhang 2   ; 
  • Xixi Yang 1   ; 
  • Anqi Li 1 , MSc   ; 
  • Wende Yan 2   ; 
  • Yibo Wu 3 , PhD   ; 
  • Jiangyun Chen 1 , PhD  

1 School of Health Management, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou, China

2 School of Public Health, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou, China

3 School of Public Health, Peking University, Beijing, China

*these authors contributed equally

Corresponding Author:

Jiangyun Chen, PhD

School of Health Management

Southern Medical University

Number 1023, South Shatai Road

Baiyun District

Guangzhou, 510515

Phone: 86 1 858 822 0304

Email: [email protected]

Background: With the advent of a new era for health and medical treatment, characterized by the integration of mobile technology, a significant digital divide has surfaced, particularly in the engagement of older individuals with mobile health (mHealth). The health of a family is intricately connected to the well-being of its members, and the use of media plays a crucial role in facilitating mHealth care. Therefore, it is important to examine the mediating role of media use behavior in the connection between the family health of older individuals and their inclination to use mHealth devices.

Objective: This study aims to investigate the impact of family health and media use behavior on the intention of older individuals to use mHealth devices in China. The study aims to delve into the intricate dynamics to determine whether media use behavior serves as a mediator in the relationship between family health and the intention to use mHealth devices among older adults. The ultimate goal is to offer well-founded and practical recommendations to assist older individuals in overcoming the digital divide.

Methods: The study used data from 3712 individuals aged 60 and above, sourced from the 2022 Psychology and Behavior Investigation of Chinese Residents study. Linear regression models were used to assess the relationships between family health, media use behavior, and the intention to use mHealth devices. To investigate the mediating role of media use behavior, we used the Sobel-Goodman Mediation Test. This analysis focused on the connection between 4 dimensions of family health and the intention to use mHealth devices.

Results: A positive correlation was observed among family health, media use behavior, and the intention to use mHealth devices (r=0.077-0.178, P<.001). Notably, media use behavior was identified as a partial mediator in the relationship between the overall score of family health and the intention to use mHealth devices, as indicated by the Sobel test (z=5.451, P<.001). Subgroup analysis further indicated that a complete mediating effect was observed specifically between family health resources and the intention to use mHealth devices in older individuals with varying education levels.

Conclusions: The study revealed the significance of family health and media use behavior in motivating older adults to adopt mHealth devices. Media use behavior was identified as a mediator in the connection between family health and the intention to use mHealth devices, with more intricate dynamics observed among older adults with lower education levels. Going forward, the critical role of home health resources must be maximized, such as initiatives to develop digital education tailored for older adults and the creation of media products specifically designed for them. These measures aim to alleviate technological challenges associated with using media devices among older adults, ultimately bolstering their inclination to adopt mHealth devices.

Introduction

The 2022 United Nations report on “World Population Prospects” predicted that by 2050, the global population will reach 9.7 billion. Within this demographic shift, 1.5 billion individuals aged 65 and above are anticipated, constituting 16% of the total population [ 1 ]. Notably, the trend of population aging is intensifying. In the context of population dynamics, China, as a heavily populated nation, is undergoing significant and intricate transformations. The Seventh National Population Census of China revealed that there are 264 million individuals aged 60 or older in the country, comprising 18.7% of the overall population [ 2 ]. This underscores the profound changes in China’s demographic landscape. The rapidly increasing aging rate in China poses substantial challenges for the future development of the country’s medical services. Over 180 million older adults in China grapple with chronic diseases, and a staggering 75% of them contend with multiple chronic illnesses [ 3 ]. This places older individuals in a high-risk and vulnerable category, imposing considerable financial and operational burdens on China’s medical and health sector.

Mobile health (mHealth) devices typically encompass mHealth programs and wearable devices [ 4 ]. Functioning as portable tools leveraging internet communication technology, these devices continuously monitor diverse physiological conditions. They have the capability to track and record users’ daily lifestyle and health status data in real-time [ 5 ]. These real-time data are instrumental for users to make informed adjustments to their health behaviors, facilitated by prompt feedback on health information [ 6 ]. The utilization of mHealth devices addresses the emerging need for self-monitoring and self-management within the expanding medical service market, aligning with heightened health awareness among consumers. These devices play a pivotal role in enabling early diagnosis, intervention, clinical treatment, and monitoring of various diseases by continuously supervising vital signs in real-time. However, it is noteworthy that despite the potential benefits, mHealth devices are not widely embraced by older individuals [ 7 ]. Consequently, the robust functionalities and inherent advantages of these devices remain underutilized within this demographic group. Emerging as an inevitable outcome of the internet era and the aging society, mHealth holds substantial potential to offer a promising solution to meet the escalating demands for medical services in developing countries [ 8 ]. Recognizing that older individuals constitute the most frequent and substantial users of health services [ 9 ], it becomes imperative to cultivate a new social trend, encouraging the integration of older individuals with mHealth [ 10 ].

Prior research has demonstrated that mHealth can significantly enhance the health, well-being, and longevity of older individuals in the digital era. However, it also introduces a new social governance challenge—the digital divide among older individuals [ 11 , 12 ]. This divide arises from challenges in accessing or utilizing information infrastructure coupled with a lower level of digital education, resulting in difficulties for older individuals to stay abreast of social, economic, and technological advancements [ 13 ]. As outlined in the 50th Statistical Report on the Development of the Internet in China by the China Internet Network Information Center, individuals aged 60 and above constitute the predominant group of non-netizens, comprising 41.6% of this demographic [ 14 ]. A confluence of personal, family, social, and technological factors collectively contributes to the estrangement of older individuals from engaging with new media, such as the internet [ 15 ]. Research indicates that the motivation for older individuals to actively seek health information on the internet is closely tied to their interactions with family or friends [ 16 ]. Older adults primarily rely on their families for social support, and the cohesion within the family unit significantly influences their overall health status [ 17 , 18 ].

Family health represents a collective resource that emerges from the interconnected well-being of each family member, encompassing their health, interactions, capacities, and the family’s overall physical, social, emotional, economic, and medical resources [ 19 ]. As an interdisciplinary concept, evaluating family health necessitates a thorough examination of various factors, including but not limited to family functioning, emotional support, financial resources, and access to external services [ 20 ]. Existing literature demonstrates that family support plays a pivotal role in motivating older individuals to seek medical services [ 21 ]. Additionally, family function and overall health serve as crucial indicators for assessing the mental well-being of older individuals [ 22 ]. Communication within the family, involving interactions with children, grandchildren, and peer groups, influences older individuals’ inclination to adopt smart senior care solutions [ 23 ]. While numerous articles predominantly explore family health from a singular dimension [ 24 - 26 ], there exists a research gap concerning the specific influence of family health on older individuals’ intention to adopt mHealth devices.

The evolution of mHealth is intricately linked to the technical backing of media. Media technology plays a dual role—it not only generates visual data representing health conditions detected by mHealth devices [ 27 ] but also serves as a platform for the public to exchange and share medical information. In the case of older adults, their acceptance of new health services and access to health information are influenced in distinct ways by the utilization of media devices [ 28 , 29 ]. A Chinese empirical analysis revealed a fundamental correlation between media use and the health level of older adults [ 30 ]. Social media communication is considered an intervention measure to alleviate the loneliness experienced by older adults, achieved by enhancing social support and contact levels, thereby fostering positive responses to emerging technologies [ 31 , 32 ]. Furthermore, the utilization of mobile phones and other media significantly influences disparities in medical care. Increasing the frequency of contact and sustained use of media by older individuals can contribute to unlocking the considerable potential of mobile medical technology in the health care of older individuals [ 33 ].

In summary, there is an immediate and practical need to reduce the digital divide among older adults. The willingness of older individuals to embrace mHealth devices, as reflected in surveys, signifies their acceptance of new health technologies and, to a certain extent, their integration into the era of mHealth. Previous research on factors influencing the intention to use mHealth devices among older adults has predominantly centered on understanding the behavioral motivations and mechanisms behind users’ intentions to use, emphasizing the impact of technical and social aspects on actual usage behavior [ 34 ]. Research on influencing factors has primarily delved into age, gender, education level, BMI, income, and health status, among other individual aspects [ 35 - 37 ]. However, there is a paucity of studies examining external environmental factors, notably the influence of family and social dynamics, particularly among the older adult population in China. A previous study indicated that family internet access enhances older adults’ cognitive function and increases the frequency of media use [ 38 ]. Moreover, family support has been identified as a crucial factor aiding older adults in overcoming barriers to the utilization of mHealth services [ 39 ]. Considering the substantial impact of family factors on the proactive health information-seeking behavior of older individuals [ 40 - 43 ], it becomes imperative to delve deeper into the relationship between family health, media use behavior, and the older individual’s intention to use mHealth devices. Additionally, exploring the mediating role of media use behavior between family health and the older individual’s intention to use mHealth devices is crucial. This comprehensive investigation aims to facilitate the integration of older individuals into the “digital age” starting from the family level, foster the adoption of mHealth in the health care sector, enhance societal healthy aging, and contribute to the realization of the objectives outlined in the “Healthy China 2030 Plan.”

In this study, information pertaining to family health, media use behavior, and the intention to use mHealth devices among older adults was gathered from the Psychology and Behavior Investigation of Chinese Residents (PBICR) study. The primary objective of this study was to examine the impact of family health and media use behavior on the intention of older individuals to use mHealth devices in China. Furthermore, the study aimed to assess whether media use behavior acts as a mediating factor in the relationship between family health and the intention to use mHealth devices among older adults. Drawing upon the insights gained from the literature review, the following hypotheses were formulated: (1) family health has a direct impact on the intention to use mHealth devices among older adults; (2) family health exerts an indirect influence on the intention to use mHealth devices through the mediating factor of media use behavior; in other words, media use behavior serves as a mediator in the relationship between family health and the intention to use mHealth devices.

Study Design and Setting

The data for this study were sourced from the PBICR survey, a comprehensive cross-sectional survey initiated by the Peking University School of Public Health in 2022. The survey encompasses 148 cities spanning 23 provinces, 5 autonomous regions, and 4 municipalities directly under the central government in China. Using a multistage sampling approach, the survey uses a stratified sampling method in cities, districts, counties, and communities, and uses a quota sampling method from the community level down to the individual level.

The survey was carried out by adeptly trained investigators. Electronic questionnaires (developed previously [ 44 ]) were distributed directly to the public through one-on-one, face-to-face interactions on-site. Respondents could access the questionnaire by scanning the provided QR code. In situations where face-to-face investigations were impeded due to the constraints of the COVID-19 epidemic, investigators distributed the electronic questionnaire on a one-on-one basis through instant communication tools such as WeChat (Tencent Holdings Ltd.). Additionally, online video investigations were conducted through platforms such as Tencent Meeting (Tencent Holdings Ltd.)and WeChat video [ 45 ].

Within the PBICR survey, investigators underwent comprehensive training in sampling methods, research tools, and quality control. Only those investigators who strictly adhered to the trained survey procedures were deemed qualified and eligible to participate in the study. Furthermore, during the data processing phase, 2 researchers were designated to perform logical checks. Questionnaires that did not meet the predetermined screening criteria were excluded, ensuring the quality and reliability of the data. Additionally, in this study, further screening was implemented to eliminate questionnaires completed in an excessively short time, those containing outliers, or those with missing values.

In the 2022 PBICR survey, a total of 23,414 questionnaires were collected. Following logical checks and the elimination of outliers, 21,916 questionnaires were deemed valid. For the purposes of this study, the focus will be confined to the age group of 60 years and above. Consequently, the final sample size included 3712 older adults after sorting.

Participants

A total of 21,916 questionnaires were collected, with the screening criterion being individuals aged 60 years and above, ensuring the absence of missing data and logic errors. Following a meticulous summary and screening process, 3712 valid survey responses were obtained for analysis in this study.

The inclusion criteria for participants in this study were as follows: (1) age between 18 and 60 years old; (2) possession of the nationality of the People’s Republic of China; (3) status as a Chinese permanent resident with an annual travel time of 1 month or less; (4) willing participation in the study and voluntary completion of the informed consent form; (5) ability to independently complete the questionnaire survey or do so with the assistance of investigators; (6) capacity to comprehend the meaning of each item in the questionnaire.

The exclusion criteria for participants in this study were as follows: (1) individuals with unconsciousness or mental disorders; (2) individuals with cognitive impairment; (3) those currently participating in other similar research projects; and (4) individuals unwilling to collaborate or reluctant to participate in the study.

Ethics Approval

The study adhered to the principles outlined in the Declaration of Helsinki. Ethical approval for all experimental protocols was granted by the ethics research committees of the Health Culture Research Center of Shaanxi (approval number JKWH-2022-02) and Second Xiangya Hospital of Central South University (approval number 2022-K050). The cover page of the questionnaire provided a clear explanation of the study’s purpose and assured participants of anonymity, confidentiality, and the right to refuse participation. Informed consent was obtained from all participants involved in the study.

The questionnaire cover used in this study provided a detailed explanation of the study’s purpose and ensured participants of anonymity, confidentiality, and the right to refuse participation. All participants were required to voluntarily sign an informed consent form before engaging in the study. While respondents did not directly benefit from the survey, their input contributed to a more comprehensive and systematic understanding of the physical and mental health status of the public. The data from this study will be strictly managed and used in accordance with the Statistics Law of the People’s Republic of China. The research data are intended for academic purposes only, and when the research findings are published, no information about individual participants will be disclosed or adversely affected.

Measurements

General situation survey information.

The basic demographic information of the older individuals included gender, age rank, nationality, religion, BMI rank, political status, status of occupation, education level, chronic diseases, and family type (conjugal family, core family, backbone family, and other family).

Family types were defined as follows:

  • Conjugal family: a family consisting of only husband and wife.
  • Core family: a family consisting of parents and unmarried children.
  • Backbone family: a family consisting of parents and married children.
  • Other family: other families including joint families, single-parent families, DINK (dual income, no kids) families, and single families.

Short-Form of the Family Health Scale

The assessment of family health in this study used the Chinese version of The Short-Form of the Family Health Scale (FHS-SF), developed by Crandall et al [ 20 ]. Wang et al [ 46 ] introduced the FHS-SF cross-culturally to create a Chinese version as a quantitative tool for evaluating family health issues in China. The scale comprises 10 items, encompassing 4 dimensions: family social and emotional health processes, family health lifestyle, family health resources, and family external social supports. A 5-point Likert scale was used for each item of the FHS-SF, with response options ranging from 1=strongly disagree to 5=strongly agree. Items with negative wording were scored in reverse. The final score on the scale ranged from 10 to 50, where higher scores indicated higher levels of family health. Wang et al [ 46 ] reported that the Cronbach α for the FHS-SF was .83. Additionally, the Cronbach α for the 4 subscales ranged from .70 to .90, and the retest reliability of the scale was 0.75.

In our study, the composite reliability values for the 4 dimensions were 0.912, 0.848, 0.781, and 0.806, respectively. All these values surpass the reliability threshold of 0.7. The average variance extracted values for the dimensions were 0.775, 0.736, 0.553, and 0.677, respectively, all of which exceed the threshold of 0.5. The Cronbach α of the FHS-SF was .90, and the factor loadings ranged from 0.73 to 0.90, all within an acceptable range.

Media Use Behavior Scale

The frequency of media use in this study was gauged using the Media Use Behavior Scale developed by the PBICR survey of Peking University. The scale encompasses various media channels such as newspapers, radio, television, the internet, and mobile phones. Comprising 6 items related to social contact, self-presentation, social behavior, leisure and entertainment, access to information, and business transactions, the scale uses options that signify the degree of media use frequency, ranging from “1=infrequent” to “5=frequent.” The total score on the scale ranges from 6 to 30, with higher scores indicative of more frequent use of the media [ 45 ].

In this study, the composite reliability for the Media Use Behavior Scale was 0.894, and the average variance extracted was 0.585. The Cronbach α for the Media Use Behavior Scale was .89, indicating strong internal consistency. Additionally, the standardized factor loadings obtained from the validation factor analysis were above 0.50, all falling within acceptable limits.

Intention to Use mHealth Devices

The intention to use mHealth devices in this study was assessed through subjective evaluations. Participants were required to provide a numerical response ranging from 0 to 100 based on their individual subjective awareness. This formed a continuous variable, where a higher numerical value indicated a stronger intention to use mHealth devices.

Data Analysis

Continuous variables were assessed for normality using the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test and presented as the median and IQR. Categorical variables were reported in terms of frequency and percentage. Nonparametric methods were used to test the differences in characteristics related to the total score of the intention to use mHealth devices. Specifically, the Mann-Whitney U test was used for dichotomous variables, while the Kruskal-Wallis H test was used for multicategorical variables. The partial correlation coefficient between family health scores, media use behavior scores, and intention to use mHealth devices scores was calculated using a regression model. Linear regression models were used to assess the association between family health scores and media use behavior/intention to use mHealth devices scores, both with and without adjustment for covariates. The associations between media use behavior and intention to use mHealth devices scores were also examined. The results are reported as coefficients along with 95% CIs. Covariates, determined based on previous studies and general knowledge, were included in the models for adjustment. To examine the mediating role of media use behavior scores in the association between family health scores and intention to use mHealth devices scores, we conducted a Sobel-Goodman Mediation Test. This analysis was performed while controlling for all selected covariates. The significance of the indirect effect, direct effect, and the total effect was determined using the bootstrap algorithm.

All P values were 2-sided, with a significance level (α) of .05 used to define statistical significance. The data were analyzed using IBM SPSS Statistics 26 and R version 4.1.3 (R Foundation).

Subgroup Analysis

Indeed, empirical studies have consistently indicated a positive association between education and health. Individuals with higher levels of education often exhibit a tendency to adopt healthier lifestyles, and their increased income may lead to greater investment in health-related expenses [ 47 ]. Furthermore, education is closely linked to varying levels of internet participation. Generally, individuals with higher educational attainment are more likely to use online platforms for accessing health-related information [ 48 ]. In diverse educational and cultural backgrounds, individuals may exhibit varying levels of concern regarding health risks, subsequently influencing their acceptance of health care technology [ 49 ]. Additionally, preliminary analysis in our study revealed significant differences in the total score of family health across different education levels ( P <.001). Building on the established influence of education on health behavior and media use, as outlined in the existing literature and supported by our results, this paper intends to analyze education level as a subgroup. The aim is to comprehensively explore the mediating role of media use behavior among older adults with different education levels in the relationship between family health and their intention to use mHealth devices.

General Characteristics

A total of 3712 older individuals aged 60 and above participated in this study, with an average age of 69.23 (SD 6.13) years. The majority of older adults (3036/3712, 81.79%) fell within the age range of 60-74 years. Basic demographic data for the 3712 older adult participants are detailed in Table 1 . Among them, 1839 were males (49.54%) and 1873 were females (50.46%). The majority identified as Han nationality (3370/3712, 90.79%) and nonreligious (3416/3712, 92.03%), with the majority expressing mass political views (3151/3712, 84.89%). There were noteworthy differences in the willingness to use mHealth devices among older adults with varying political statuses, occupational statuses, and chronic disease conditions ( P <.001). However, no significant differences were observed in the willingness to use mHealth devices among older adults with different family types ( P =.97; Table 1 ).

a Median (IQR) was used to describe the continuous variable, whereas n (%) was used to describe the categorical variable.

Association Analysis

After adjusting for covariates, the intention to use mHealth devices exhibited a positive correlation with the total score of family health ( r =0.077, P <.001) and the media use behavior score ( r =0.178, P <.001). Additionally, the total score of family health was positively correlated with the media use behavior score ( r =0.079, P <.001; Table 2 ).

a The model was adjusted for various covariates, including religion, BMI rank, political status, occupational status, education degree, and chronic diseases. Variables achieved statistical significance at P ≤.05.

b N/A: not applicable.

Relationship Between Family Health and Media Use Behavior Score/Intention to Use mHealth Devices

In the linear regression models before adjustment, the 4 dimensions of family health (ie, family socialization, family healthy lifestyle, family health resources, and family external social support) and the total score were significantly ( P <.001) associated with media use behavior. Moreover, they were significantly ( P <.001) related to the intention to use mHealth devices, except for family health resources ( P= .15). After adjusting for gender and age rank, as well as political status, nationality, religion, BMI rank, occupation status, education level, family type, and chronic diseases, all dimensions remained statistically significant ( P <.001) except for family health resources ( P= .29; Table 3 ).

a Data were adjusted for gender and age rank, political status, nation, religion, BMI rank, status of occupation, education degree, family type, and chronic diseases.

Relationship Between Media Use Behavior Score and Intention to Use mHealth Devices

In the linear regression models before adjustment, media use behavior was significantly ( P <.001) associated with the intention to use mHealth devices. After adjusting for gender and age rank, as well as political status, nationality, religion, BMI rank, occupation status, education level, family type, and chronic diseases, the association remained statistically significant ( P <.001; Table 4 ).

Mediation Analysis

The family health total score demonstrated a positive association with the intention to use mHealth devices among older adults. Mediation analysis, including media use behavior, revealed that the relationship between the total score of family health and the intention to use mHealth devices was mediated through media use behavior. In this study, media use behavior partially mediated the association between family health and the intention to use mHealth devices. The mediating variable accounted for nearly a quarter (22.46/100) of the association when adjusting for covariates. The total score of family health was associated with media use behavior (β=.088, P <.001) and intention to use mHealth devices (β=.244, P <.001). Additionally, media use behavior was linked to the intention to use mHealth devices (β=.810, P <.001). The final mediation models depicting the independent variable (total score of family health), the mediating variable (media usage behavior), and the dependent variable (intention to use mHealth devices) are illustrated in Figure 1 .

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The 4 dimensions of family health were positively associated with the use of mHealth devices among older adults, except for the dimension of family health resources, which had a nonsignificant association ( P= .72). The mediation analysis involving media use behavior indicated that the direct and total effects of family health resources were not significant ( P =.72 and P =.20, respectively). Media use behavior acted as a full mediator when adjusting for covariates. Media use behavior partially mediated the relationship between family social, family healthy lifestyle, family external social support, and the intention to use mHealth devices, with mediating effects of 35.18/100, 31.78/100, and 31.33/100, respectively, under adjusted covariates ( Table 5 ).

a The Sobel-Goodman Mediation Test was applied in adjusted models for religion, BMI rank, political status, occupation status, education level, and chronic diseases.

b The Sobel test was used to assess the hypothesis that the indirect role was equal to 0, adjusting for covariates such as religion, BMI rank, political status, occupation status, education level, and chronic diseases. Values reach statistical significance at P ≤.05.

Subgroup analyses based on education degrees are presented in Table 6 . Among the older adult population with primary school education and below, media use behavior showed no mediating effect between the total score of family health and the intention to use mHealth devices ( z =–0.942; indirect effect=–0.019, P =.35; direct effect=0.252, P =.007). Additionally, the mediating effect of media use behavior between family healthy lifestyles and the intention to use mHealth devices was not significant ( z =1.953, P =.052). Media use behavior fully mediated the association between family health resources scores and intention to use mHealth devices scores in different education degrees among the older adult population: primary school and below degree older adult population ( z =–5.832; indirect effect=–0.331, P <.001; direct effect=0.218, P= .29), middle school/vocational school/high school degree older adult population ( z =–3.439; indirect effect=–0.136, P <.001; direct effect=–0.066, P =.76), and college and above degree older adult population ( z =–2.516; indirect effect=–0.212, P= .01; direct effect=0.026, P =.93).

a The Sobel-Goodman Mediation Test was applied in adjusted models for religion, BMI rank, political status, status of occupation, and chronic diseases.

Principal Findings

Previous studies have consistently demonstrated that family factors play a crucial role in influencing the frequency of media use and the acceptance of mHealth among older adults [ 50 ]. The findings of our study further confirm that family health positively contributes to increasing the willingness of older adults to use mHealth devices. Additionally, a high frequency of media use behavior emerges as a significant driver for the utilization of mHealth devices, a behavior that is profoundly influenced by the state of family health. The results align with previous research on the digital divide among older adults, indicating that those with higher family health scores tend to engage in more frequent media contact behaviors. This heightened connectivity to the internet makes them more adaptable to a big data–based mHealth environment, fostering a greater willingness to use mHealth devices. Before conducting the mediation analysis, the study also observed, through univariate analysis, that older individuals over 90 years and those who were unemployed exhibited a lower willingness to use mobile medical devices. The results confirm the existence of differences in the digital divide among age groups, especially with older age groups experiencing inequalities in social and economic support [ 51 , 52 ]. These disparities may further impact their access to and utilization of media devices.

In addition to the descriptive findings, this study delves into the intricate relationship between family health and the willingness to use mHealth devices, uncovering the mediating role of media use behavior. Primarily, the study supports the positive impact of media use behavior, which partially mediates the influence of overall family health levels on the intention to use mHealth devices. Furthermore, the results indicate that media use behavior serves as a fully mediating variable in the dimension of family health resources. In essence, the findings suggest that older adults lacking family health resources completely lose their willingness to use mHealth devices, primarily due to their challenges in accessing or using media. This underscores the crucial role of family health resources in integrating older adults into the internet sphere and enabling them to benefit from mHealth technology. The study emphasizes the practical importance of addressing resource-related health inequities, with financial support from the family being identified as a critical factor in the daily lives of seniors [ 52 ]. To address the imbalance in the distribution of resources among families in different regions at the societal level, it is crucial for the government to assist socioeconomically disadvantaged older adults in gaining greater access to various devices. This can be achieved through economic empowerment initiatives and the development of policies aimed at bridging the digital divide [ 53 ].

Building upon the crucial role of media contacts in linking family health resources and the willingness to use mHealth devices among the older population, there is an opportunity to further motivate the desire for mHealth device usage. Leveraging the positive influence of family health resources to increase the frequency of media exposure can enhance the motivation of older individuals. Effective communication within the family emerges as a catalyst for improving the technology literacy and information-seeking skills of older adults [ 16 ]. Family members play a crucial role in supporting seniors to build confidence in using internet technology while alleviating their anxiety and fear of new technologies. Encouraging older adults to adapt and learn information technology, such as WeChat and health-related mobile apps, through straightforward and repeated demonstrations can be an effective strategy [ 54 ]. Additionally, family support may help mitigate the economic challenges associated with using health care services by influencing older adults’ subjective perceptions of financial accessibility [ 55 ]. To address financial challenges and enhance older adults’ access to technology, a comprehensive approach can be adopted. This involves leveraging both the financial support within the family and external economic resources. Encouraging family members to provide suitable financial assistance to each other, coupled with ensuring stable financial security for older individuals, can be achieved by gradually increasing pensions for retirees. This approach aims to augment the purchasing power of older adults, enabling them to acquire media devices and enhancing their ability to use technological devices in the health care sector to a greater extent.

The subgroup analysis further indicated that media use behavior did not mediate the relationship between the total family health score and the intention to use mHealth devices among older adults with primary school education or below. However, it did partially mediate the association among those with primary school education and above, aligning with the study hypothesis. Given that the older adult population with low education levels may experience relatively weak cognitive function and lack personal health literacy [ 56 , 57 ], the mechanisms by which they are influenced by family, social, and economic environments in the acceptance of new health technologies become more intricate. Conversely, older adults with a high school education or higher often perceive themselves as having an above-average ability to learn, making them less uncomfortable with the changing social environment brought about by technological developments [ 58 ]. Moreover, older individuals with limited education often lack access to information technology education or the ability to operate mobile devices [ 59 ]. For these individuals, exposure to media devices or mHealth devices is relatively homogeneous. Consequently, they may lack a progressive transition from regular media contact behaviors to the use of mHealth devices.

Disparities in internet participation levels due to education constitute a significant barrier hindering older adults from using media devices to access the mHealth era. To bridge the “digital divide” and enhance the effective use of mHealth devices among older individuals, it is imperative to consider implementing relevant education measures. These measures can focus on improving their ability to use smart technology, thus empowering them to navigate and benefit from the advancements in health care technology. In alignment with the comprehensive “Smart Senior Care” action plan in China [ 60 ], communities can implement health education initiatives through a blend of technology-supported learning and traditional lectures. For instance, using touchscreen tablets for courses on healthy diet and nutrition guidance can enhance the older individual’s interest in the internet while imparting essential health and hygiene knowledge [ 61 ]. This approach serves to bridge the transition from traditional modes of access to mobile health care. Adopting adaptive behaviors and learning strategies can further enhance the efficiency and effectiveness of mobile health care apps [ 62 ]. In the mHealth era, the design of mHealth devices should be tailored to the cognitive abilities and mindset of older individuals. Full consideration should be given to their eHealth literacy, incorporating improvements in usability, emphasizing the responsiveness of operations, and integrating monitoring functions that align with the physical activities of older individuals [ 63 ]. Such considerations aim to enhance the overall satisfaction of older individuals with mobile health care apps [ 64 ]. Moreover, due to prevailing stereotypes about older people, digital platforms often harbor ageist mechanisms that categorize them as users uninterested in technology [ 65 ]. This results in an unfavorable digital environment for older individuals. In general, the development and application of internet technology must not overlook the realistic capacity and objective demands of older individuals [ 66 ]. Digital platforms should strive to create more inclusive algorithms and use statistical models of social digital media practices that cater to all literacy levels [ 65 ]. This may involve reducing complex and lengthy text that is difficult to understand, avoiding in-depth and complex hierarchical options, and adopting simple page designs [ 67 ] to mitigate the impact of technological differences on the accessibility of digital health care for older adults.

Strength and Limitations

This study contributes significantly to the existing literature by evaluating the connection between family health, media use behavior, and the intention to use mHealth devices among older adults, using cross-sectional data from the PBICR survey. The findings of this study support our hypothesis that media use behavior serves as a mediator between family health status and the intention to use mHealth devices among older adults. Furthermore, a subgroup analysis based on education level revealed that the impact of family health on the willingness to use mHealth devices through media use behavior was not significant among older adults with lower education levels, indicating a nuanced mechanism at play. All of the aforementioned studies contribute to the body of research on the digital divide among older individuals.

Despite comprehensive consideration, the results of this study have several limitations. First, due to the exploratory cross-sectional design, no causal inferences can be drawn. Second, the majority of seniors included in this study were in the young-old age group (60 to 74 years old), lacking representation of the entire age spectrum of older adults and potentially neglecting variations in social background associated with age factors. Third, the results obtained in this study may be influenced by economic factors and psychological variables. As mHealth devices represent an evolving component of the health system, their development trajectory is still undergoing exploration. It is possible that various latent factors influencing the relationship between family health, media use behavior, and the intention to use mHealth devices are yet to be uncovered.

Conclusions

In conclusion, this study highlights the substantial impact of family health and media use behavior on the intention of older adults to use mHealth devices. Media use behavior acts as a mediator in the relationship between family health and the intention to use mHealth devices, with more intricate dynamics observed among older adults with lower educational levels. These findings emphasize that robust family health, particularly sufficient family health resources, plays a crucial role in enhancing the media engagement of older individuals, ultimately fostering their interest in embracing mHealth devices. The insights from this work provide valuable recommendations for bridging the gap in digital health adoption among older adults. Furthermore, encouraging teaching by family members can create a supportive environment for seniors to embrace mobile technology, while financial support can enhance their accessibility to health-related mobile devices. Additionally, developing age-specific digital education programs and media products tailored to the needs and preferences of older individuals can contribute to overcoming technological barriers and fostering a positive digital experience for older adults in the realm of mobile health care. These strategies align with the goal of promoting inclusive and user-friendly digital solutions for seniors, ensuring they can benefit from advancements in health technology.

Acknowledgments

This study was conducted with the support of data from the Psychology and Behavior Investigation of Chinese Residents (PBICR). We appreciate all the participants who showed great patience in answering the questionnaires. None of the portions of this article used generative artificial intelligence. This work was supported by the 2023 Guangdong Province Education Science Planning Project (Specialized in Higher Education; 2023GXJK252), the Science and Technology Program of Guangzhou (grant numbers 2023A04J2267 and 2024A04J02668), the Guangdong Basic and Applied Basic Research Foundation (grant number 2021A1515110743), the Health Economics Association of Guangdong Province (grant number 2023-WJMZ-51), the Student Innovation and Entrepreneurship Training Program of Guangdong Province (grant number S202312121283), the Key Laboratory of Philosophy and Social Sciences of Guangdong Higher Education Institutions for Health Policies Research and Evaluation (grant number 2015WSY0010), and the Research Base for Development of Public Health Service System of Guangzhou.

Data Availability

The data sets generated and analyzed during this study are not publicly available because the data still need to be used for other research but are available from the corresponding author on reasonable request.

Authors' Contributions

JHC, YBW, and JYC designed and conducted this study. YBW collected data. YSM, AQL, and XXY participated in the data screening. DYZ and WDY conducted data analysis. JHC and YSM wrote the first draft of the paper. JYC contributed to supervising data analysis and developing the manuscript. All authors made contributions to the critical revision of the manuscript. The authors read and approved the final manuscript.

Conflicts of Interest

None declared.

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Abbreviations

Edited by T de Azevedo Cardoso; submitted 18.06.23; peer-reviewed by R Sun, X Zhang; comments to author 08.08.23; revised version received 29.08.23; accepted 28.01.24; published 19.02.24.

©Jinghui Chang, Yanshan Mai, Dayi Zhang, Xixi Yang, Anqi Li, Wende Yan, Yibo Wu, Jiangyun Chen. Originally published in the Journal of Medical Internet Research (https://www.jmir.org), 19.02.2024.

This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work, first published in the Journal of Medical Internet Research, is properly cited. The complete bibliographic information, a link to the original publication on https://www.jmir.org/, as well as this copyright and license information must be included.

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Computer Science > Artificial Intelligence

Title: an interactive agent foundation model.

Abstract: The development of artificial intelligence systems is transitioning from creating static, task-specific models to dynamic, agent-based systems capable of performing well in a wide range of applications. We propose an Interactive Agent Foundation Model that uses a novel multi-task agent training paradigm for training AI agents across a wide range of domains, datasets, and tasks. Our training paradigm unifies diverse pre-training strategies, including visual masked auto-encoders, language modeling, and next-action prediction, enabling a versatile and adaptable AI framework. We demonstrate the performance of our framework across three separate domains -- Robotics, Gaming AI, and Healthcare. Our model demonstrates its ability to generate meaningful and contextually relevant outputs in each area. The strength of our approach lies in its generality, leveraging a variety of data sources such as robotics sequences, gameplay data, large-scale video datasets, and textual information for effective multimodal and multi-task learning. Our approach provides a promising avenue for developing generalist, action-taking, multimodal systems.

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  1. How to Write a Bibliography for a Research Paper

    How to Write a Bibliography for a Research Paper How to Write a Bibliography for a Research Paper Bibliographies and works cited are not the same. Bibliographies include all the sources you consulted in your research whether or not you cite or mention them at all in your research paper.

  2. How to Write a Bibliography, With Examples

    A bibliography is a list of all the sources you consulted while writing your paper. Every book, article, and even video you used to gather information for your paper needs to be cited in your bibliography so your instructor (and any others reading your work) can trace the facts, statistics, and insights back to their original sources.

  3. Common Research Paper Bibliography Formats

    Simply put, a bibliography is a list of references that is created at the end of your research paper. This resource discusses either all the sources that were used to create the work or just those that were cited in the work. The type of citation page you create depends on the style that you use.

  4. How to Write a Research Paper: Annotated Bibliography

    How to Write a Research Paper: Annotated Bibliography What is an Annotated Bibliography? This video is private UMary Writing Center Would you like some expert assistance with writing and editing your paper? Check out the resources available from the Writing Center . Write an Annotated Bibliography What is an annotated bibliography?

  5. How to Write an APA Format Bibliography

    An APA format bibliography is an alphabetical listing of all sources that might be used to write an academic paper, essay, article, or research paper—particularly work that is covering psychology or psychology-related topics. APA format is the official style of the American Psychological Association (APA).

  6. How to Write a Bibliography (MLA, APA Examples)

    An annotated bibliography should include a reference list of any sources you use in writing a research paper. Any printed sources from which you use a text citation, including books, websites, newspaper articles, journal articles, academic writing, online sources (such as PDFs), and magazines should be included in a reference list.

  7. Sample Bibliography

    Below you'll find a Bibliography adapted from a research paper written by Aishani Aatresh for her Technology, Environment, and Society course. Bibliography Barnard, Anne, and Grace Ashford. "Can New York Really Get to 100% Clean Energy by 2040?" New York Times, November 29, 2021, sec.

  8. How to Write a Bibliography in APA and MLA styles With Examples

    A bibliography is a listing of the books, magazines, and Internet sources that you use in designing, carrying out, and understanding your science fair project. Your bibliography should include a minimum of three written sources of information about your topic from books, encyclopedias, and periodicals.

  9. Creating an MLA Bibliography

    The difference between the two is that while a bibliography refers to any source you consulted to write your research paper, a Works Cited page only includes full citations of the sources you quoted or paraphrased within your paper.

  10. How to Cite Sources

    At college level, you must properly cite your sources in all essays, research papers, and other academic texts (except exams and in-class exercises). Add a citation whenever you quote, paraphrase, or summarize information or ideas from a source. You should also give full source details in a bibliography or reference list at the end of your text.

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    1. Borja and Gibson, "Internationalism with Evangelical Characteristics," 80-81. Bibliography: Borja, Melissa, and Jacob Gibson. "Internationalism with Evangelical Characteristics: The Case of Evangelical Responses to Southeast Asian Refugees."

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    The guidelines on how to add references in a research paper, including in-text citation, formatting of the reference list, or bibliography section are explained in this section. APA In-Text Citation. In-text citations let users know which ideas are attributed to whom. The APA citation style has two major elements for in-text citation: the ...

  13. Chicago Manual of Style 17th Edition

    In addition to consulting The Chicago Manual of Style (17th edition) for more information, students may also find it useful to consult Kate L. Turabian's Manual for Writers of Research Papers, Theses, and Dissertations (8th edition). This manual, which presents what is commonly known as the "Turabian" citation style, follows the two CMOS ...

  14. How to Write a Bibliography for a Research Paper: Guidelines

    Step 1. Develop an initial reference page. While accumulating data for research papers, establishing an initial bibliography can be advantageous. It simplifies the final stages of your work and aids in the organization of your ideas. When composing an initial draft, ensure to compile details: Author (s) and editor (s);

  15. How to Cite Research Paper

    Research paper: In-text citation: Use superscript numbers to cite sources in the text, e.g., "Previous research has shown that^1,2,3…". Reference list citation: Format: Author (s). Title of paper. In: Editor (s). Title of the conference proceedings. Place of publication: Publisher; Year of publication. Page range.

  16. The Annotated Bibliography

    The Process Creating an annotated bibliography calls for the application of a variety of intellectual skills: concise exposition, succinct analysis, and informed library research. First, locate and record citations to books, periodicals, and documents that may contain useful information and ideas on your topic.

  17. Citations, References and Bibliography in Research Papers [Beginner's

    A bibliography in research paper is a list of sources that appears at the end of a research paper or an article, and contains information that may or may not be directly mentioned in the research paper.

  18. What Is an Annotated Bibliography?

    Published on March 9, 2021 by Jack Caulfield . Revised on August 23, 2022. An annotated bibliography is a list of source references that includes a short descriptive text (an annotation) for each source. It may be assigned as part of the research process for a paper, or as an individual assignment to gather and read relevant sources on a topic.

  19. Research Proposal and Annotated Bibliography

    Research Proposal and Annotated Bibliography Most research essays involve two particular documents that help guide, manage, and report on the on-going research process. Those two documents are the research proposal and the annotated bibliography, detailed below. Research Proposal

  20. How to Write a Bibliography

    Full Playlist: https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list=PLLALQuK1NDrh9HgAQ22wep8X18Fvvcm8R--Watch more How to Write Essays and Research Papers videos: http://ww...

  21. Annotated Bibliography Samples

    Below you will find sample annotations from annotated bibliographies, each with a different research project. Remember that the annotations you include in your own bibliography should reflect your research project and/or the guidelines of your assignment.

  22. How to Write a Research Paper: Compiling the Bibliography

    Write a Bibliography. A bibliography is a list of the sources you used to get information for your report. It is included at the end of your report, on the last page (or last few pages). You will find it easier to prepare your final bibliography if you keep track of each book, encyclopedia, or article you use as you are reading and taking notes.

  23. Guide & Samples for Writing a Bibliography of a Research Paper

    A research paper without a bibliography equals poorly conducted research. As such, the importance of a bibliography in a research paper cannot be overemphasized. To produce well-constructed research, you must consult other authors and use their materials to support your argument. This is the only way to give these authors their credit; by ...

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