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Planning a writing lesson

Writing, unlike speaking, is not an ability we acquire naturally, even in our first language - it has to be taught. Unless L2 learners are explicitly taught how to write in the new language, their writing skills are likely to get left behind as their speaking progresses.

planning on writing

But teaching writing is not just about grammar, spelling, or the mechanics of the Roman alphabet. Learners also need to be aware of and use the conventions of the genre in the new language.

What is genre?

Generating ideas

Focusing ideas

Focus on a model text

Organising ideas

  • Peer evaluation

A genre can be anything from a menu to a wedding invitation, from a newspaper article to an estate agent's description of a house. Pieces of writing of the same genre share some features, in terms of layout, level of formality, and language. These features are more fixed in formal genre, for example letters of complaint and essays, than in more 'creative' writing, such as poems or descriptions. The more formal genre often feature in exams, and may also be relevant to learners' present or future 'real-world' needs, such as university study or business. However, genre vary considerably between cultures, and even adult learners familiar with a range of genre in their L1 need to learn to use the conventions of those genre in English.

Stages of a writing lesson

I don't necessarily include all these stages in every writing lesson, and the emphasis given to each stage may differ according to the genre of the writing and / or the time available. Learners work in pairs or groups as much as possible, to share ideas and knowledge, and because this provides a good opportunity for practising the speaking, listening and reading skills.

This is often the first stage of a process approach to writing. Even when producing a piece of writing of a highly conventional genre, such as a letter of complaint, using learners' own ideas can make the writing more memorable and meaningful.

  • Before writing a letter of complaint, learners think about a situation when they have complained about faulty goods or bad service (or have felt like complaining), and tell a partner.
  • As the first stage of preparing to write an essay, I give learners the essay title and pieces of scrap paper. They have 3 minutes to work alone, writing one idea on each piece of paper, before comparing in groups. Each group can then present their 3 best ideas to the class. It doesn't matter if the ideas aren't used in the final piece of writing, the important thing is to break through the barrier of ' I can't think of anything to write.'

This is another stage taken from a process approach, and it involves thinking about which of the many ideas generated are the most important or relevant, and perhaps taking a particular point of view.

  • As part of the essay-writing process, students in groups put the ideas generated in the previous stage onto a 'mind map'. The teacher then draws a mind-map on the board, using ideas from the different groups. At this stage he / she can also feed in some useful collocations - this gives the learners the tools to better express their own ideas.
  • I tell my students to write individually for about 10 minutes, without stopping and without worrying about grammar or punctuation. If they don't know a particular word, they write it in their L1. This often helps learners to further develop some of the ideas used during the 'Generating ideas' stage. Learners then compare together what they have written, and use a dictionary, the teacher or each other to find in English any words or phrases they wrote in their L1.

Once the students have generated their own ideas, and thought about which are the most important or relevant, I try to give them the tools to express those ideas in the most appropriate way. The examination of model texts is often prominent in product or genre approaches to writing, and will help raise learners' awareness of the conventions of typical texts of different genres in English.

  • I give learners in groups several examples of a genre, and they use a genre analysis form to identify the features and language they have in common. This raises their awareness of the features of the genre and gives them some language 'chunks' they can use in their own writing. Genre analysis form 54k
  • reason for writing
  • how I found out about the job
  • relevant experience, skills and abilities
  • closing paragraph asking for an interview
  • Learners are given an essay with the topic sentences taken out, and put them back in the right place. This raises their awareness of the organisation of the essay and the importance of topic sentences.

Once learners have seen how the ideas are organised in typical examples of the genre, they can go about organising their own ideas in a similar way.

  • Students in groups draft a plan of their work, including how many paragraphs and the main points of each paragraph. These can then be pinned up around the room for comment and comparison.
  • When preparing to write an essay, students group some of the ideas produced earlier into main and supporting statements.

In a pure process approach, the writer goes through several drafts before producing a final version. In practical terms, and as part of a general English course, this is not always possible. Nevertheless, it may be helpful to let students know beforehand if you are going to ask them to write a second draft. Those with access to a word processor can then use it, to facilitate the redrafting process. The writing itself can be done alone, at home or in class, or collaboratively in pairs or groups. Peer evaluation

Peer evaluation of writing helps learners to become aware of an audience other then the teacher. If students are to write a second draft, I ask other learners to comment on what they liked / didn't like about the piece of work, or what they found unclear, so that these comments can be incorporated into the second draft. The teacher can also respond at this stage by commenting on the content and the organisation of ideas, without yet giving a grade or correcting details of grammar and spelling.

When writing a final draft, students should be encouraged to check the details of grammar and spelling, which may have taken a back seat to ideas and organisation in the previous stages. Instead of correcting writing myself, I use codes to help students correct their own writing and learn from their mistakes. Error correction code 43k

By going through some or all of these stages, learners use their own ideas to produce a piece of writing that uses the conventions of a genre appropriately and in so doing, they are asked to think about the audience's expectations of a piece of writing of a particular genre, and the impact of their writing on the reader.

If you have any ideas that you feel have successfully helped your students to develop their writing why not add them as a comment below and share them.

Further reading

A process genre approach to teaching writing by Badger, Richards and White. ELT Journal Volume 54(2), pp. 153-160 Writing by T Hedge. Oxford University Press. Writing by C Tribble. Oxford University Press Process writing by R White and V Arndt. Longman

Really innovative

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It was very informative and…

It was very informative and helpful

Interesting article.

Useful information

This is a very nice and…

This is a very nice and informative article.

Thanks for this amazing article

Planning a Writing Lesson Plan

I believe this will make the lesson not only productive but also interesting. Thank you.

Thanks for a very interesting

Thanks for a very interesting and useful article.

Ideas first, then language

 Thanks for sharing the plan~

I found in my class that it is always 'Ideas firt, then language follows', similar to L1 writing.

Adding info

Dear Catherine,

I found your article very useful and I love the advice you give. When I ask my students to write an essay, I tend to correct their mistakes for them and after reading the article I realized that I should be doing it the way you suggested. I learned from my mistakes by finding them out and correcting them not having them corrected for me. 

Thank you for a wonderful article.

Re : Planning a writing lesson

Thanks for nice info.

I am grateful for you for this great article

Re: Planning a writing lesson submitted by Catherine Morley

I read your very interesting article on 'Planning a Writing Lesson'. I was glad to reconfirm all these stages that we have also been applying in my 2 Language Centres for the last 30 years and we are still developing! I'd like to contribute to the Error Correction Codes if I may by adding some symbols (as we call them) such as:

we wrong expression

P wrong punctuation

L1 mother tongue interference a inappropriate (i.e. etc. in an essay)

v wrong verb form (i.e. he have)

G wrong grammar (i.e. leafes instead of leaves)

R you repeat yourself (when the same point/idea is presented in another part of the essay)

st wrong style (i.e. informal words/abbreviations in formal writing)

ʌ add a word/a word is missing / leave a word out

We started using a list of symbols about 30 years ago following the international bibliography. Then we gradually added the above symbols for the following reasons: Symbol G (grammar error) defines the error and it becomes more specific for the learner; for some years we had used WW for wrong words/grammar errors but we found out during a teachers' meeting that the symbol WW was not adequate for all wrong words. Another symbol that is useful is L1 (mother tongue interference) as students tend to often express themselves in their mother tongue (expressions or words that, in our case, may make sense in Greek but are inaccurate in English). The symbol R (you repeat yourself) can help the learners see why a new paragraph (where they may still be presenting the same idea but with different vocabulary) does not get any credit and marksdowns their essay, especially when practising writing tasks part A for their Cambridge Examinations where the points are given in the topic and the students are required to develop all of them. The symbol ST (wrong style) has also proved very useful to alert them against using informal words/phrasal verbs when writing a formal essay/letter. The symbol A (inappropriate) was represented before by WW (wrong word) but we needed to emphasise that some words, such as etc or OK, in a writing task other than an informal letter or informal e-mail are unacceptable. It has worked very well with our students. The symbol ʌ (add a word/a word is missing) makes the learners think over about the expressions/sentences/clauses they have used in that particular line; sometimes the subject or the object of a verb are missing, which of course is GR (grammar error) but at the same time it makes their sentence or paragraph inaccurate or incomprehensible.

Thank you again for such an interesting article.

Eugenia Papaioannou, EFL teacher, Greece

Student ideas come first!

Thank you, I've just received one of the most useful advice regarding the stages of teaching Writing.

In the approach you're describing, Focusing on a Model Text comes only after the students have generated, ranked/prioritised and drafted their own ideas. I was doing it the other way around, introducing the sample texts/tasks (Business Emails) before I even attempted to elicit any pre-existing knowledge the students might have on the subject.

The result was either making the subject only marginally relevant to the students, or making them feel that they're not contributing much to the lesson. Once you flip these writing stages around, the frustration of not being able to come up with original ideas is replaced by the sense of achievement, when their ideas are confirmed in the model texts.

I have read the article of  "Planning a writing lesson" which was submitted by  Catherine Morley on the 27th of April in 2011.

The article was devoted to the most important theme. So it is very useful for every teacher. One teaches language certainly he must teach how to create writings in this language. As the author mentioned this skill has to be tought even in the native language. Catherine wrote her article absolutely great as she could give the best plan how to conduct a writing lesson. I am entirely agree with her viewpoints. I've learnt some good things from her article. She gave her lesson plan accurately. There are a number of examples which help us to understand her points correctly. In the future I also want to use the author's plan to teach my students.

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planning on writing

Microsoft 365 Life Hacks > Organization > How to write a project plan, step by step

How to write a project plan, step by step

No matter the scope, the thought of managing a project is always a little overwhelming. Before getting started, it can help to create a plan for your project, but even the planning process can be scary. By simplifying and streamlining the planning process, you can take the first crucial step of organizing your team’s needs with confidence. Learn how to create a project plan that keeps you on track and organized.

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Why create a project plan?

Projects consist of multiple moving parts over a set period of time. When managing a project , having a plan will ensure that you and your teammates know what is needed to complete the project in a timely manner. Without an organized plan, it can be hard to track the progress of the project. Not having a plan can also lead to unexpected surprises in timing, problems with workload management, and a sense of uncertainty regarding what needs to be done and how the parts will work together at completion.

Steps for writing a project plan

Even the process of creating a project plan requires some planning. Use these steps as a guide for writing up your plan:

Step one: Define your goals

The ultimate goal of a project may be to complete it altogether, but there are plenty of smaller achievements that lead up to the final product. It’s important to lay out your goals, tasks, and plans before formally diving into things. Start this step by writing down a list of goals and what you wish to achieve with this project. It may help to look through previous projects or to brainstorm with your team for ideas.

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Step two: Figure out the timing

Time management is one of the most important aspects of a project. Creating a week-by-week plan will help you and your teammates understand when things need to be done. Provide rough estimates for how long certain tasks will take, then map out the number of tasks will be completed each week. You can use this time to identify any tasks that are time-consuming or must be prioritized to make sure that there is enough time for them. It may also be helpful to include some buffer room in case things do not go according to plan.

Step three: Get to know everyone’s preferences

The final project plan will serve as an essential guide for your team members to follow throughout the duration of the project. Make sure that your team is aligned with how the plan is laid out so that everyone is on the same page. It’s also smart to ensure that each member of your team is playing to their strengths. Managing your project with OneNote and putting everything on a collaborative digital tool like Microsoft Project can make it easier to share the details with everyone involved.

Step four: Write up the first draft

Once you have the details sorted out, it’s time to write up the first draft of the overall plan. You can write out everything on a single document or use a project planning template to keep everything organized. Discuss the initial plan with your team and make adjustments as needed. Make sure that the overall plan is realistic and easy interpret so that all members of your team can understand it at a glance.

Step five: Finalize the plan and get started

After you’ve incorporated any feedback and edits, you can get started on the project. You may need to continue adjusting the plan throughout the process, depending on how things go. Get tips on how to work in a group setting to help manage conflicts and productivity within your team.

Planning a project takes a lot of effort, and creating an efficient plan before starting will help smoothen out the process. Browse our organization tips to find more project management advice.

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The Planning Fallacy in the Context of a Short Writing Task

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Date created: 2023-10-09 06:27 PM | Last Updated: 2023-10-16 03:47 AM

Identifier : DOI 10.17605/OSF.IO/WPHRU

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Description: This study examines the estimation or planning of a proximal and brief writing task to uncover further associations of the planning fallacy on simple, seemingly quick tasks. The study was done as a requirement for Psych 220T at California State University, Fresno.

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Apple launches Journal, a new app to reflect on everyday moments and life’s special events

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Capturing Life’s Moments

An iPhone 15 Pro shows the Journal app interface, prompting the user, “Select a Moment & Write.”

Personalized Suggestions and Reflection Prompts

An iPhone 15 Pro shows the Journal app interface, prompting the user, “Select a Moment & Write.”

Keeping Entries Personal and Private

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December 11, 2023

Journal, a new iPhone app available today, helps users reflect and practice gratitude through journaling, which has been shown to improve wellbeing. With Journal, users can capture and write about everyday moments and special events in their lives, and include photos, videos, audio recordings, locations, and more to create rich memories. On-device machine learning provides private, personalized suggestions to inspire journal entries, and customizable notifications help users develop their writing habits. With the new Journaling Suggestions API, third-party journaling apps can also suggest moments for users to write about. Journal and the Journaling Suggestions API are available with the release of iOS 17.2.

“We are excited to bring the benefits of journaling to more people,” said Bob Borchers, Apple’s vice president of Worldwide Product Marketing. “Journal makes it easy to preserve rich and powerful memories, and practice gratitude by intelligently curating information that is personal to the user, right from their iPhone. And we’re making it possible for other journaling apps to offer the same personalized suggestions while maintaining the highest level of privacy.”

With Journal, it’s easy to get started by logging a simple text entry, or adding rich details like photos, videos, locations, or audio recordings to add more context. It’s just as easy to add content like a news article, music, or a podcast from other apps by bringing it into the Journal app and writing about it. Users can browse past entries, bookmark them, or filter for details like photos, workouts, places, and more. Scheduled notifications can help make journaling a consistent practice.

Intelligently curated personalized suggestions are designed to help users remember and write about a moment — like new places they’ve visited, photos they’ve taken, songs they’ve played, workouts they’ve completed, and more. Suggestions based on user activity include writing prompts to empower meaningful insights, and daily reflection prompts help users focus on gratitude, kindness, purpose, and more. Users control the type of content that appears in Suggestions and can create a journal entry with the Suggestions they choose.

In addition, developers can use the new Journaling Suggestions API to add personalized journaling suggestions to their apps, prompting users with moments to write about in a privacy-preserving way, so more people can benefit from journaling and the personalized, secure experience only iPhone can deliver.

“The Journal app is an exciting development for us because it introduces the benefits of digital journaling to a wider audience and ushers in a new chapter for the practice,” said Paul Mayne, founder of the journaling app Day One. “We have integrated the Journaling Suggestions API into the Day One app to give our users an even richer experience that puts privacy at the forefront, and we can’t wait for them to try it.”

Journal is built with privacy at its core. When iPhone is locked with a passcode, entries in the Journal app are encrypted. Additionally, users can choose to enable secondary authentication, and lock the Journal app with their device passcode, Face ID, or Touch ID. All Journal entries are end-to-end encrypted when stored in iCloud, so that no one but the user can access them. Journaling suggestions are created on device, and users can choose which suggested moments are shared with the Journal app and added to their Journal entries.

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Financial Planning, MS

/ Master’s Degrees / Financial Planning, MS

Program at a Glance

Online, Hybrid

Total Units


No GMAT or GRE Required

Spring ’24 Final Application Deadline

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December 17

Register for an Upcoming Webinar

December 14, 2023

The Master of Science in Financial Planning is designed for students who aspire to become leading financial planners, investment advisers, or money managers. Completion of this program is possible entirely online or in-person at our downtown San Francisco location. This course of study also satisfies the educational requirements necessary for the premier Certified Financial Planner™ designation.

Learn more about this exciting program during our webinar hosted by Program Director Saundra Davis. She will provide insight on these innovative and flexible programs.

Join us for a webinar to learn more about this program.

Program Overview

Become a financial planner, investment adviser, or money manager who helps clients reach their life goals. GGU graduates are ethical problem-solvers that have all the educational requirements necessary for the premier Certified Financial Planner™ designation or CFP™ examination. Faculty are experienced practitioners in their fields who will also teach you relationship-building skills that will give your clients a better outcome. GGU also offers a 100% online option to accommodate students with busy lives.

This degree is designed for students who aspire to become financial planners, investment advisers, or money managers, or who may be interested in one of the many elements of this broad and rapidly-growing field. By pursuing a financial planning education at Golden Gate University, students will move into the 21st century equipped with the latest skills, with appropriate professional credentials, and with advanced academic degrees. This course of study also satisfies the educational requirements necessary for the premier Certified Financial Planner™ designation.

Skills to Improve the Lives of Your Clients

The work of the financial planner is best viewed through a “quality of life” lens: How can one assist one’s clients in achieving their life goals and realizing their dreams? There are important technical issues to be addressed: What tax structure is best suited for my client? What asset allocation provides the desired risk/return profile?

Many of the critical questions have to do with the kind of life the client envisions, and how the client’s emotional and psychological predispositions facilitate or obstruct the development of successful financial plans. It is the overarching objective of the Master of Science in Financial Planning to ensure that our graduates have both the technical skills and the relationship skills needed to create and deliver financial strategies that will support their clients’ progress towards their most important life goals.

Online courses allow students to pursue a strictly online financial planning degree. Students can apply for admission, sign up for classes, communicate with professors and other students, and access all course information online at any time. This allows you to study financial planning from the comfort of your home, rather than having to find a financial planning school nearby that fits in your schedule.

Admission Requirements

  • Applicants should hold a bachelor’s degree from a regionally accredited US institution or the equivalent from a recognized foreign (outside the US) institution, and provide official transcripts.
  • Master’s degree holders only need to submit transcripts from previous graduate programs. However, applicants are encouraged to submit all transcripts to maximize transfer credit.
  • Applicants whose native language is not English must meet the English Language Proficiency Admission Requirements.
  • Applicants with an undergraduate GPA below 2.50 should submit a statement of purpose and a resume. The statement of purpose should address the circumstances that may have led the applicants to poor academic performance, what had changed and why they think they’ll be successful now.

Proficiency Requirements

Math proficiency.

Intermediate Algebra (Math 20); See Graduate Mathematics Proficiency Requirement for more information.

Writing Proficiency

Students are expected to possess proficiency in writing to ensure they can be successful in their course of study. Students may meet this requirement by satisfying one of the screening criteria listed under  Graduate Writing Proficiency Requirement.

Waiver of Proficiency Requirements

The standard proficiency requirements above for the MS in financial planning will be waived for students who have completed  the GGU Financial Planning Graduate Certificate  within the last two years. In their place, the student is required to submit an official transcript of a completed undergraduate or graduate degree from a regionally accredited university of an English speaking country, and to have earned a minimum GPA of 3.0. The student’s transcript from the certificate program will also be considered in the admissions decision.

Core Courses – 21 units

Personal Financial Planning – 3 unit(s)

Personal Investment Management – 3 unit(s)

Retirement and Employee Benefits Planning – 3 unit(s)

Income Tax Planning – 3 unit(s)

Estate Planning – 3 unit(s)

Risk Management and Insurance Planning – 3 unit(s)

Cases in Financial Planning – 3 unit(s)

Practicum in Financial Planning – 3 unit(s)

Electives – 9 units

Take three 300- or 400-level graduate courses with FI prefixes (or other graduate course with program director’s approval). Courses appropriate for careers in financial planning include:

Financial Reporting and Analysis – 3 unit(s)

Financial Modeling – 3 unit(s)

Equity Analysis – 3 unit(s)

Derivative Markets – 3 unit(s)

Portfolio Management – 3 unit(s)

Technical Analysis of Securities – 3 unit(s)

Behavioral Finance – 3 unit(s)

Facilitating Financial Health – 3 unit(s)

Business Development in Financial Services – 3 unit(s)

Introduction to Financial Life Planning – 3 unit(s)

Coaching Skills for Financial Planners – 3 unit(s)

Real Estate – 3 unit(s)

Real Estate Finance and Investment – 3 unit(s)

Internship: Finance – 3 unit(s)

Selected Topics in Finance – 1-3 unit(s)

NOTE: Students who satisfy their electives by taking FI 424, FI 448, and FI 449, will also satisfy the course requirements for the Graduate Certificate in Financial Life Planning.

For the most up-to-date program information and course listings, visit GGU’s catalog.

Learning Outcomes

Graduates of the master of financial planning degree program will possess :

  • The skills and knowledge of financial planning that are represented in the full range of topics covered by the CFP™ examination.
  • Interpersonal skills necessary to maintain successful client relationships and to work effectively with colleagues, individually or in teams.
  • The quantitative, analytical, and technical skills needed to address complex financial situations.
  • The ability to apply their knowledge to real-world problems in financial planning.
  • Knowledge of the legal and regulatory environment in which financial planning occurs and familiarity with relevant licensing, reporting, and compliance requirements.
  • The ability to recognize the ethical dilemmas that may arise in financial planning practice and familiarity with appropriate responses to those dilemmas, as reflected in the CFP™ Board’s Code of Ethics and Professional Responsibility.

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Columbia and N.Y.U. Would Lose $327 Million in Tax Breaks Under Proposal

Under the plan, the universities, which do not pay property taxes, would have to make payments to the City University of New York.

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By Matthew Haag and Meredith Kolodner

This story was produced in a collaboration with The Hechinger Report, a nonprofit newsroom that covers education.

State lawmakers will unveil legislation on Tuesday that would eliminate enormous property tax breaks for Columbia University and New York University, which have expanded to become among New York City’s top 10 largest private property owners.

The bills would require the private universities to start paying their full annual property taxes and for that money to be redistributed to the City University of New York, the largest urban public university system in the country.

Columbia and N.Y.U. collectively saved $327 million on property taxes this year. The amount the schools save annually has soared in recent decades as the two have bought more properties, and the value of their properties has also increased.

Repealing the tax breaks would face substantial obstacles. The exemptions — which apply to universities, museums and other nonprofits — are nearly 200 years old and part of the state constitution. Overriding them would mean lawmakers would have to adopt the changes in consecutive legislative sessions. Then, voters would have to approve them on a statewide ballot.

“When the constitution of the state was written, there was no idea that such an exemption could apply to two of the top landlords in New York City,” said Assemblyman Zohran K. Mamdani, a Queens Democrat who is introducing the bill in the Assembly. “This bill seeks to address universities that have so blatantly gone beyond primarily operating as institutions of higher education and are instead acting as landlords and developers.”

The proposed constitutional amendment follows an investigation by The New York Times and the Hechinger Report in September that revealed that the city’s wealthiest universities were bigger and richer than ever before, amassing vast real estate portfolios that have drained the city budget.

The investigation also found that as Columbia has grown its physical footprint to become the city’s largest private landowner, it has enrolled fewer students from New York City.

A Columbia spokeswoman said university officials were reviewing the legislation. But she added that Columbia was a driver of the city’s economy through its research, faculty and students, and its capital projects, including $100 million in upgrades to local infrastructure since 2009.

A spokesman for N.Y.U. said that repealing the tax exemptions would be “extraordinarily disruptive” and that the university “would be forced to rethink much of the way we operate.”

“To choose two charitable, non-profit organizations out of the thousands in the state and compel them to be treated like for-profits certainly strikes us as misguided and unfair,” the spokesman, John Beckman, said in a statement. “We are deeply appreciative of those policies, which have been in place for two centuries, but we also take some modest pride in the many, many ways, small and large, that N.Y.U. contributes to the city’s well-being and its economy.”

All 50 states offer property tax exemptions for some private, nonprofit entities, which supporters argue are crucial so that these organizations can provide social, economic and cultural benefits to their communities. But in some cities, officials have pressured private universities to make voluntary payments , known as payments in lieu of taxes, or similar annual donations. Private universities often have billion-dollar endowments and charge annual tuition in the high five figures.

The legislation would only apply to Columbia and N.Y.U. and not other large private universities that own significant land, such as Cornell University in Ithaca. Lawmakers said that other universities would be excluded because their tax breaks are far lower than those of Columbia’s and N.Y.U.’s; the annual real estate tax exemption threshold would be $100 million.

“I don’t fault these institutions for pursuing their tax breaks and using the tax breaks to greatly expand their empires,” said State Senator John C. Liu, a Queens Democrat who is introducing the legislation in the Senate. “But this is a point where we have to look where all revenues are coming from and where all revenues are leaking. We have to stop those leaks.”

The city is facing a series of budget cuts to K-12 schools, libraries and police , among other programs, in part, Mayor Eric Adams has said, because of rising costs to care for an influx of homeless migrants.

CUNY, which is made up of 25 campuses throughout the city and which serves 225,000 students, has also been eyed for city cuts. Most of the university’s $4.3 billion budget is provided by the state, but earlier this year, the mayor proposed a 3 percent cut to the funding the city provides.

If the constitutional amendment were approved, the property tax payments would be directed every year to CUNY. That would make a significant difference in the quality of education students receive, said James C. Davis, the president of the Professional Staff Congress, which represents 30,000 CUNY faculty and staff.

“Would an additional infusion of operating funding affect retention and graduation rates?” Mr. Davis said. “Clearly the answer is yes. Even a relatively small amount of money would make a big difference.”

He noted that 80 percent of first-year CUNY students are graduates of New York City public schools, and a majority are students of color. Half come from families with incomes under $30,000 a year.

“If you’re talking about the city making a commitment to economic equity and social mobility,” Mr. Davis added, “there really is not a wiser investment than CUNY.”

This story was produced in collaboration with The Hechinger Report , a nonprofit news outlet that covers education. Hechinger is an independent unit at Teachers College, Columbia University.

Matthew Haag writes about the intersection of real estate and politics in the New York region. He has been a journalist for two decades. More about Matthew Haag

Politics in the New York Region

George Santos’s Seat: Republicans are battling to hold onto the New York House seat vacated by the disgraced congressman. They chose Ethiopian-born  Mazi Melesa Pilip , who served in the Israel Defense Forces, to run in the special election in 2024.

Redistricting: New York’s highest court ordered the state to redraw its congressional map , delivering a ruling that offers Democrats a new weapon to wrest control  of the House from Republicans in 2024.

Adams’s Foes Prepare to Pounce: In most mayoral election cycles in New York, Democratic incumbents are virtually untouchable. But amid Mayor Eric Adams’s woes , more Democrats are weighing potential candidacies .

Gun Law: A federal appeals court upheld significant portions of New York’s expansive gun law , ruling that the state can ban the carrying of guns in schools, parks and other places and deny firearms to people whom local officials deem dangerous.

A Potentially Explosive Contest: After months of deliberation and prodding from donors aligned with Israel, George Latimer, the Westchester County executive, said that he would mount a Democratic primary challenge against Representative Jamaal Bowman  of New York, one of the left’s most vocal critics of Israel.

More From Forbes

From casual to black tie jewels for new year’s eve.

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Whether you are planning to host or attend a relaxed gathering of close friends and family or dressing up for a lavish black tie event, there is a wide range of jewels that will allow you to shine on New Year’s Eve and beyond.

Here is a selection of casual to black-tie pieces from which to choose:

Selim Mouzannar’s old cut diamond and 18K rose gold ultra-long snake necklace can be worn in myriad ways, doubled up and worn as a lariat as shown above or wrapped around the neck multiple times as a choker. The head and tail have the subdued sparkle of antique jewelry with a pear-shaped diamond in the head and pear-shaped diamond emerald eyes. This is the ultimate go-anywhere necklace for NYE.

Kimberly McDonald’s 18K green gold Multi Finger Cuff with rose-cut black diamonds offers the look of a stack of rings without the fuss and is a perfect choice for more casual NYE outings. It’s also a style you can put in your 2024 daily jewels as it is one of those styles that is easy to slip on and head out the door.

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Jenna Blakes’ Elizabeth Necklace in 18K yellow gold and diamonds gives a nod to the fringe necklaces of the Victorian era with different levels of diamonds in blackened settings. It is delicate in its design but packs a bold singular look that both modern collectors and jewelry enthusiasts would want in their NYE jewelry rotation.

Eva Fehren’s Kent GEO III multiple spinal shield earrings in 18K blacked white gold combine subtle colors with Fehren’s signature style exclusive shapes in triple drop earrings with white diamond accents. They are the choice for those who want a touch of color and slightly edgier designs for the NYE parties.

Nikos Koulis’ white gold triple cord bracelet with oval rubies, white diamonds and black enamel can be dressed down or up depending on your NYE outfit.

Estate Diamond Jewelry’s Matosinhos Ring with a kunzite center stone features a halo of calibre cut rubies and antique cut diamonds on the shoulders. The mounting is handcrafted in 18K yellow gold and finished with fine milgrain. This vibrantly colored cocktail ring offers drama and a touch of old Hollywood glamour to your NYE and will elevate simple cocktail dresses or complement more intricate fashion.

Jessica McCormack’s Signature Asymmetrical Emerald & Diamond Oval Gypset Earrings in 18K gold with blackened white gold draws from the Georgian era for inspiration and cut-back settings. The earrings are modernized with the asymmetry of the pair. Emeralds and diamonds can work for a laid back or eventful NYE.

Dale Hernsdorf’s high-karat yellow gold bracelet features a triple band of handmade chains. The clasp is shaped like two crescent moons with bezel-set garnets and accented with white diamonds. The toggle bar’s end caps are bezel-set with garnet cabochons. This style easy to wear, versatile and can be worn alone or combined with bangles, cuffs and other flexible bracelets if you prefer piling it on.

Sorellina’s Nomad necklace of bezel set multi-colored tourmalines on a paper clip style 18K gold chain will make a subtle feminine statement on NYE and then can be worn day or night well into the future.

K8 Jewelry ’s 18K Gold Multi-Color Sapphires Studs with d sold as a pair or as a single stud. These vibrantly colored earring is Kate Hubley, the designer’s way of approaching the new year with a feeling of optimism and hope for 2024. Wear them on NYE and you might want to wear them every day after.

Wempe’s 18K gold Everloving Sunray brooch in the shape of a circle with white diamonds represents the continuity of love in its many forms. Seventeen brilliant-cut diamonds also represent a sunray or a wreath of flowers, according to Wempe. This jewel can be worn in numerous ways, which can be worn on the side of a simple cocktail dress, on a plunging back for making a dramatic exit, or anywhere else you want to pin it. For NYE it might work best as a twinkling air ornament.

Ondyn’s Diamond Bias Earrings constructed with bezel set diamonds offer maximum sparkle in a creative, fluid and glamorous take on classic hoops.

Pacharee’s Butterfly Choker is hand sculpted to present a dramatic cluster of butterflies adorned with strands of tiny pearls. It is inspired by 19th century paintings and has the distinct feeling of an antique necklace which evokes a romantic approach to bejeweling for NYE.

Beth  Bernstein

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