[SOLVED] Local Variable Referenced Before Assignment
Python treats variables referenced only inside a function as global variables. Any variable assigned to a function’s body is assumed to be a local variable unless explicitly declared as global.
Why Does This Error Occur?
Unboundlocalerror: local variable referenced before assignment occurs when a variable is used before its created. Python does not have the concept of variable declarations. Hence it searches for the variable whenever used. When not found, it throws the error.
Before we hop into the solutions, let’s have a look at what is the global and local variables.
Local Variable Declarations vs. Global Variable Declarations
Local Variable Referenced Before Assignment Error with Explanation
Try these examples yourself using our Online Compiler.
Let’s look at the following function:
The variable myVar has been assigned a value twice. Once before the declaration of myFunction and within myFunction itself.
Using Global Variables
Passing the variable as global allows the function to recognize the variable outside the function.
Create Functions that Take in Parameters
Instead of initializing myVar as a global or local variable, it can be passed to the function as a parameter. This removes the need to create a variable in memory.
UnboundLocalError: local variable ‘DISTRO_NAME’
This error may occur when trying to launch the Anaconda Navigator in Linux Systems.
Upon launching Anaconda Navigator, the opening screen freezes and doesn’t proceed to load.
Try and update your Anaconda Navigator with the following command.
If solution one doesn’t work, you have to edit a file located at
After finding and opening the Python file, make the following changes:
In the function on line 159, simply add the line:
DISTRO_NAME = None
Save the file and re-launch Anaconda Navigator.
DJANGO – Local Variable Referenced Before Assignment [Form]
The program takes information from a form filled out by a user. Accordingly, an email is sent using the information.
Upon running you get the following error:
We have created a class myForm that creates instances of Django forms. It extracts the user’s name, email, and message to be sent.
A function GetContact is created to use the information from the Django form and produce an email. It takes one request parameter. Prior to sending the email, the function verifies the validity of the form. Upon True , .get() function is passed to fetch the name, email, and message. Finally, the email sent via the send_mail function
Why does the error occur?
We are initializing form under the if request.method == “POST” condition statement. Using the GET request, our variable form doesn’t get defined.
Local variable Referenced before assignment but it is global
This is a common error that happens when we don’t provide a value to a variable and reference it. This can happen with local variables. Global variables can’t be assigned.
This error message is raised when a variable is referenced before it has been assigned a value within the local scope of a function, even though it is a global variable.
Here’s an example to help illustrate the problem:
In this example, x is a global variable that is defined outside of the function my_func(). However, when we try to print the value of x inside the function, we get a UnboundLocalError with the message “local variable ‘x’ referenced before assignment”.
This is because the += operator implicitly creates a local variable within the function’s scope, which shadows the global variable of the same name. Since we’re trying to access the value of x before it’s been assigned a value within the local scope, the interpreter raises an error.
To fix this, you can use the global keyword to explicitly refer to the global variable within the function’s scope:
However, in the above example, the global keyword tells Python that we want to modify the value of the global variable x, rather than creating a new local variable. This allows us to access and modify the global variable within the function’s scope, without causing any errors.
Local variable ‘version’ referenced before assignment ubuntu-drivers
This error occurs with Ubuntu version drivers. To solve this error, you can re-specify the version information and give a split as 2 –
Here, p_name means package name.
With the help of the threading module, you can avoid using global variables in multi-threading. Make sure you lock and release your threads correctly to avoid the race condition.
When a variable that is created locally is called before assigning, it results in Unbound Local Error in Python. The interpreter can’t track the variable.
Therefore, we have examined the local variable referenced before the assignment Exception in Python. The differences between a local and global variable declaration have been explained, and multiple solutions regarding the issue have been provided.
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Fix "local variable referenced before assignment" in Python
If you're a Python developer, you've probably come across a variety of errors, like the "local variable referenced before assignment" error. This error can be a bit puzzling, especially for beginners and when it involves local/global variables.
Today, we'll explain this error, understand why it occurs, and see how you can fix it.
The "local variable referenced before assignment" Error
The "local variable referenced before assignment" error in Python is a common error that occurs when a local variable is referenced before it has been assigned a value. This error is a type of UnboundLocalError , which is raised when a local variable is referenced before it has been assigned in the local scope.
Here's a simple example:
Running this code will throw the "local variable 'x' referenced before assignment" error. This is because the variable x is referenced in the print(x) statement before it is assigned a value in the local scope of the foo function.
Even more confusing is when it involves global variables. For example, the following code also produces the error:
But wait, why does this also produce the error? Isn't x assigned before it's used in the say_hello function? The problem here is that x is a global variable when assigned "Hello ". However, in the say_hello function, it's a different local variable, which has not yet been assigned.
We'll see later in this Byte how you can fix these cases as well.
Fixing the Error: Initialization
One way to fix this error is to initialize the variable before using it. This ensures that the variable exists in the local scope before it is referenced.
Let's correct the error from our first example:
In this revised code, we initialize x with a value of 1 before printing it. Now, when you run the function, it will print 1 without any errors.
Fixing the Error: Global Keyword
Another way to fix this error, depending on your specific scenario, is by using the global keyword. This is especially useful when you want to use a global variable inside a function.
In this snippet, we declare x as a global variable inside the function foo . This tells Python to look for x in the global scope, not the local one . Now, when you run the function, it will increment the global x by 1 and print 1 .
Similar Error: NameError
An error that's similar to the "local variable referenced before assignment" error is the NameError . This is raised when you try to use a variable or a function name that has not been defined yet.
Running this code will result in a NameError :
In this case, we're trying to print the value of y , but y has not been defined anywhere in the code. Hence, Python raises a NameError . This is similar in that we are trying to use an uninitialized/undefined variable, but the main difference is that we didn't try to initialize y anywhere else in our code.
Variable Scope in Python
Understanding the concept of variable scope can help avoid many common errors in Python, including the main error of interest in this Byte. But what exactly is variable scope?
In Python, variables have two types of scope - global and local. A variable declared inside a function is known as a local variable, while a variable declared outside a function is a global variable.
Consider this example:
In this code, x is a global variable, and y is a local variable. x can be accessed anywhere in the code, but y can only be accessed within my_function . Confusion surrounding this is one of the most common causes for the "variable referenced before assignment" error.
In this Byte, we've taken a look at the "local variable referenced before assignment" error and another similar error, NameError . We also delved into the concept of variable scope in Python, which is an important concept to understand to avoid these errors. If you're seeing one of these errors, check the scope of your variables and make sure they're being assigned before they're being used.
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How to Fix Local Variable Referenced Before Assignment Error in Python
Table of Contents
Fixing local variable referenced before assignment error.
In Python , when you try to reference a variable that hasn't yet been given a value (assigned), it will throw an error.
That error will look like this:
In this post, we'll see examples of what causes this and how to fix it.
Let's begin by looking at an example of this error:
If you run this code, you'll get
The issue is that in this line:
We are defining a local variable called value and then trying to use it before it has been assigned a value, instead of using the variable that we defined in the first line.
If we want to refer the variable that was defined in the first line, we can make use of the global keyword.
The global keyword is used to refer to a variable that is defined outside of a function.
Let's look at how using global can fix our issue here:
Global variables have global scope, so you can referenced them anywhere in your code, thus avoiding the error.
If you run this code, you'll get this output:
In this post, we learned at how to avoid the local variable referenced before assignment error in Python.
The error stems from trying to refer to a variable without an assigned value, so either make use of a global variable using the global keyword, or assign the variable a value before using it.
Thanks for reading!
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Local variable referenced before assignment in Python
Last updated: Feb 17, 2023 Reading time · 4 min
# Local variable referenced before assignment in Python
The Python "UnboundLocalError: Local variable referenced before assignment" occurs when we reference a local variable before assigning a value to it in a function.
To solve the error, mark the variable as global in the function definition, e.g. global my_var .
Here is an example of how the error occurs.
We assign a value to the name variable in the function.
# Mark the variable as global to solve the error
To solve the error, mark the variable as global in your function definition.
If a variable is assigned a value in a function's body, it is a local variable unless explicitly declared as global .
# Local variables shadow global ones with the same name
You could reference the global name variable from inside the function but if you assign a value to the variable in the function's body, the local variable shadows the global one.
Accessing the name variable in the function is perfectly fine.
On the other hand, variables declared in a function cannot be accessed from the global scope.
The name variable is declared in the function, so trying to access it from outside causes an error.
Make sure you don't try to access the variable before using the global keyword, otherwise, you'd get the SyntaxError: name 'X' is used prior to global declaration error.
# Returning a value from the function instead
An alternative solution to using the global keyword is to return a value from the function and use the value to reassign the global variable.
We simply return the value that we eventually use to assign to the name global variable.
# Passing the global variable as an argument to the function
You should also consider passing the global variable as an argument to the function.
We passed the name global variable as an argument to the function.
If we assign a value to a variable in a function, the variable is assumed to be local unless explicitly declared as global .
# Assigning a value to a local variable from an outer scope
If you have a nested function and are trying to assign a value to the local variables from the outer function, use the nonlocal keyword.
The nonlocal keyword allows us to work with the local variables of enclosing functions.
Had we not used the nonlocal statement, the call to the print() function would have returned an empty string.
Printing the message variable on the last line of the function shows an empty string because the inner() function has its own scope.
Changing the value of the variable in the inner scope is not possible unless we use the nonlocal keyword.
Instead, the message variable in the inner function simply shadows the variable with the same name from the outer scope.
As shown in this section of the documentation, when you assign a value to a variable inside a function, the variable:
- Becomes local to the scope.
- Shadows any variables from the outer scope that have the same name.
The last line in the example function assigns a value to the name variable, marking it as a local variable and shadowing the name variable from the outer scope.
At the time the print(name) line runs, the name variable is not yet initialized, which causes the error.
The most intuitive way to solve the error is to use the global keyword.
The global keyword is used to indicate to Python that we are actually modifying the value of the name variable from the outer scope.
- If a variable is only referenced inside a function, it is implicitly global.
- If a variable is assigned a value inside a function's body, it is assumed to be local, unless explicitly marked as global .
If you want to read more about why this error occurs, check out [this section] ( this section ) of the docs.
# Additional Resources
You can learn more about the related topics by checking out the following tutorials:
- SyntaxError: name 'X' is used prior to global declaration
Copyright © 2024 Borislav Hadzhiev
How to fix UnboundLocalError: local variable 'x' referenced before assignment in Python
by Nathan Sebhastian
Posted on May 26, 2023
Reading time: 2 minutes
One error you might encounter when running Python code is:
This error commonly occurs when you reference a variable inside a function without first assigning it a value.
You could also see this error when you forget to pass the variable as an argument to your function.
Let me show you an example that causes this error and how I fix it in practice.
How to reproduce this error
Suppose you have a variable called name declared in your Python code as follows:
Next, you created a function that uses the name variable as shown below:
When you execute the code above, you’ll get this error:
This error occurs because you both assign and reference a variable called name inside the function.
Python thinks you’re trying to assign the local variable name to name , which is not the case here because the original name variable we declared is a global variable.
How to fix this error
To resolve this error, you can change the variable’s name inside the function to something else. For example, name_with_title should work:
As an alternative, you can specify a name parameter in the greet() function to indicate that you require a variable to be passed to the function.
When calling the function, you need to pass a variable as follows:
This code allows Python to know that you intend to use the name variable which is passed as an argument to the function as part of the newly declared name variable.
Still, I would say that you need to use a different name when declaring a variable inside the function. Using the same name might confuse you in the future.
Here’s the best solution to the error:
Now it’s clear that we’re using the name variable given to the function as part of the value assigned to name_with_title . Way to go!
The UnboundLocalError: local variable 'x' referenced before assignment occurs when you reference a variable inside a function before declaring that variable.
To resolve this error, you need to use a different variable name when referencing the existing variable, or you can also specify a parameter for the function.
I hope this tutorial is useful. See you in other tutorials.
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4 ways to fix local variable referenced before assignment error in python, resolving the local variable referenced before assignment error in python.
Python is one of the world’s most popular programming languages due to its simplicity, readability, and versatility. Despite its many advantages, when coding in Python, one may encounter various errors, with the most common being the “local variable referenced before assignment” error.
Even the most experienced Python developers have encountered this error at some point in their programming career. In this article, we will look at four effective strategies for resolving the local variable referenced before assignment error in Python.
Strategy 1: Assigning a Value before Referencing
The first strategy is to assign a value to a variable before referencing it. The error occurs when the variable is referenced before it is assigned a value.
This problem can be avoided by initializing the variable before referencing it. For example, let us consider the snippet below:
print(x + y)
In the snippet above, the variables `x` and `y` are not assigned values before they are referenced in the `print` statement. Therefore, we will get a local variable “referenced before assignment” error.
To resolve this error, we must initialize the variables before referencing them. We can avoid this error by assigning a value to `x` and `y` before they are referenced, as shown below:
Strategy 2: Using the Global Keyword
In Python, variables declared inside a function are considered local variables. Thus, they are separate from other variables declared outside of the function.
If we want to use a variable outside of the function, we must use the global keyword. Using the global keyword tells Python that you want to use the variable that was defined globally, not locally.
In the code snippet above, the `global` keyword tells Python to use the variable `x` defined outside of the function rather than a local variable named `x`. Thus, Python will output 30.
Strategy 3: Adding Input Parameters for Functions
Another way to avoid the local variable referenced before assignment error is by adding input parameters to functions.
def add_numbers(x, y):
In the code snippet above, `x` and `y` are variables that are passed into the `add_numbers` function as arguments.
This approach allows us to avoid the local variable referenced before assignment error because the variables are being passed into the function as input parameters. Strategy 4: Initializing Variables before Loops or Conditionals
Finally, it’s also a good practice to initialize the variables before loops or conditionals.
If you are defining a variable within a loop, you must initialize it before the loop starts. This way, the variable already exists, and we can update the value inside the loop.
my_list = [1, 2, 3, 4, 5]
for number in my_list:
sum += number
In the code snippet above, the variable `sum` has been initialized with the value of 0 before the loop runs. Thus, we can update and use the variable inside the loop.
In conclusion, the “local variable referenced before assignment” error is a common issue in Python. However, with the strategies discussed in this article, you can avoid the error and write clean Python code.
Remember to initialize your variables, use the global keyword, add input parameters in functions, and initialize variables before loops or conditionals. By following these techniques, your Python code will be error-free and much easier to manage.
In essence, this article has provided four key strategies for resolving the “local variable referenced before assignment” error that is common in Python. These strategies include initializing variables before referencing, using the global keyword, adding input parameters to functions, and initializing variables before loops or conditionals.
These techniques help to ensure clean code that is free from errors. By implementing these strategies, developers can improve their code quality and avoid time-wasting errors that can occur in their work.
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Local variable referenced before assignment in Python
The “local variable referenced before assignment” error occurs in Python when you try to use a local variable before it has been assigned a value.
This error typically arises in situations where you declare a variable within a function but then try to access or modify it before actually assigning a value to it.
Here’s an example to illustrate this error:
In this example, you would encounter the “local variable ‘x’ referenced before assignment” error because you’re trying to print the value of x before it has been assigned a value. To fix this, you should assign a value to x before attempting to access it:
In the corrected version, the local variable x is assigned a value before it’s used, preventing the error.
Keep in mind that Python treats variables inside functions as local unless explicitly stated otherwise using the global keyword (for global variables) or the nonlocal keyword (for variables in nested functions).
If you encounter this error and you’re sure that the variable should have been assigned a value before its use, double-check your code for any logical errors or typos that might be causing the variable to not be assigned properly.
Using the global keyword
If you have a global variable named letter and you try to modify it inside a function without declaring it as global, you will get error.
This is because Python assumes that any variable that is assigned a value inside a function is a local variable, unless you explicitly tell it otherwise.
To fix this error, you can use the global keyword to indicate that you want to use the global variable:
Using nonlocal keyword
The nonlocal keyword is used to work with variables inside nested functions, where the variable should not belong to the inner function. It allows you to modify the value of a non-local variable in the outer scope.
For example, if you have a function outer that defines a variable x , and another function inner inside outer that tries to change the value of x , you need to use the nonlocal keyword to tell Python that you are referring to the x defined in outer , not a new local variable in inner .
Here is an example of how to use the nonlocal keyword:
If you don’t use the nonlocal keyword, Python will create a new local variable x in inner , and the value of x in outer will not be changed:
Python报错解决：local variable ‘xxx‘ referenced before assignment
local variable 'xxx' referenced before assignment
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local variable referenced before assignment
Post by bellad » Wed Feb 05, 2020 9:29 am
Traceback (most recent call last): File "<stdin>", line 1, in <module> File "chauf33.py", line 250, in <module> File "chauf33.py", line 130, in apl1 NameError: local variable referenced before assignment
ligne 130 > if ab != 3:
Code: Select all
Re: local variable referenced before assignment
Post by jimmo » Wed Feb 05, 2020 9:53 am
Post by jimmo » Wed Feb 05, 2020 9:54 am
Post by bellad » Wed Feb 05, 2020 10:07 am
Post by jimmo » Wed Feb 05, 2020 10:25 am
Post by fstengel » Wed Feb 05, 2020 2:35 pm
Post by bellad » Thu Feb 06, 2020 9:07 am
Post by jimmo » Thu Feb 06, 2020 9:36 am
Post by bellad » Thu Feb 06, 2020 9:53 am
Post by geverwills » Mon Mar 01, 2021 6:22 am
bellad wrote: ↑ Wed Feb 05, 2020 9:29 am NameError: local variable referenced before assignment
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UnboundLocalError: local variable referenced before [Solved]
#1 Post by Stapper » Wed Mar 12, 2014 5:36 am
Code: Select all
Re: UnboundLocalError: local variable referenced before assi
#2 Post by PyTom » Wed Mar 12, 2014 5:40 am
#3 Post by Stapper » Wed Mar 12, 2014 6:01 pm
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UnboundLocalError: local variable 'eval_manager' referenced before assignment #125
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Amaranth: local variable 'mpath' referenced before assignment #118516
System Information Operating system: Linux-6.5.0-17-generic-x86_64-with-glibc2.38 64 Bits, X11 UI Graphics card: Mesa Intel(R) UHD Graphics (ADL-S GT1) Intel 4.6 (Core Profile) Mesa 23.2.1-1ubuntu3.1
Blender Version Broken: version: 4.0.2, branch: blender-v4.0-release, commit date: 2023-12-05 07:41, hash: 9be62e85b727 Worked: (newest version of Blender that worked as expected)
Short description of error While playing around with object and its armature at some point the following error is shown in the console:
Traceback (most recent call last): File "/snap/blender/4300/4.0/scripts/modules/bpy_types.py", line 989, in draw_ls func(self, context) File "/snap/blender/4300/4.0/scripts/addons/amaranth/animation/motion_paths.py", line 93, in pose_motion_paths_ui if mpath: UnboundLocalError: local variable 'mpath' referenced before assignment
Hi, this report is about add-on which should go in add-ons repo. So I've created a new report there: blender/blender-addons#105190
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- Python での割り当て前に参照されるローカル変数
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このチュートリアルでは、 local variable referenced before assignment エラーが発生する理由とその解決方法について説明します。
local variable referenced before assignment は、関数の本体内で割り当て前にいくつかの変数が参照されるときに発生します。エラーは通常、コードがグローバル変数にアクセスしようとしたときに発生します。グローバル変数にはグローバルスコープがあり、プログラム内のどこからでもアクセスできるため、ユーザーは通常、関数内でグローバル変数を使用しようとします。
Python では、変数を使用する前に変数を宣言または初期化する必要はありません。デフォルトでは、変数は常にローカルと見なされます。したがって、プログラムが関数内のグローバル変数にグローバルとして指定せずにアクセスしようとすると、参照されている変数はローカル変数と見なされるため、コードは local variable referenced before assignment エラーを返します。
Python での local variable referenced before assignment エラーの解決策
Python の global キーワードを使用して、変数をグローバルとして宣言できます。変数がグローバルとして宣言されると、プログラムは関数内の変数にアクセスでき、エラーは発生しません。
以下のサンプルコードは、プログラムが local variable referenced before assignment エラーで終了するコードシナリオを示しています。
このエラーを解決するには、 global キーワードを使用して count 変数をグローバルとして宣言する必要があります。以下のサンプルコードは、上記のコードシナリオで global キーワードを使用してエラーを解決する方法を示しています。