• Skip to main content

IELTS Podcast

Pass IELTS with expert help.

IELTS Writing Task 2 Recent Questions

In this article, we outline over 250 recent IELTS Writing Task 2 topics and sample questions.

The IELTS Writing Task 2 is an essay writing task that assesses your ability to express and develop an argument in response to a given prompt. As an essential part of the IELTS exam, a high score in writing task 2 can help you achieve your desired overall score.

To score well in the IELTS Writing Task 2, you need to be familiar with all the possible topics that may come up.

Table of Contents

What is the basic structure for ielts writing task 2 in the ielts exam, ielts writing task 2 topics on education, ielts task 2 questions on globalisation, ielts task 2 questions on equality, ielts task 2 questions about the environment, ielts task 2 questions on technology, task 2 questions on travel and transport, task 2 questions on health, task 2 questions on law and order.

  • Task 2 questions on Language and Culture
  • Task 2 Questions on Government and Society

Task 2 Questions on Sports and Pastimes

Recent writing task 2 questions: january 2024, recent writing task 2 questions: october 2023, recent writing task 2 questions: july 2023, recent writing task 2 questions: april 2023, recent writing task 2 questions: january 2023, recent writing task 2 questions: october 2022, recent task 2 questions: july 2022.

  • January to March 2022 recent task 2 questions
  • October to December 2021 sample task 2 questions

Sample Task 2 Questions: September 2021

Sample task 2 questions: february / march 2021.

  • Sample Task 2 Questions: January 2021
  • Task 2 Sample Questions: October/November 2020

IELTS Writing Task 2 Topics: August 2020 

Task 2 questions: march 2020, task 2 essay questions: january 2020, recent exam task 2 questions: october 2019, task 2 sample questions: september 2019, task 2 questions: august 2019.

  • Task 2 questions: June 2019

Task 2 questions: January 2019

Writing task 2 questions: december 2018, task 2 questions: november 2018.

  • Writing task 2 questions: October 2018
  • Writing task 2 questions: September 2018

Writing task 2 questions: August 2018

Latest writing task 2 questions: july 2018 (education), latest writing task 2 questions: july 2018.

  • March – April 2019 task 2 questions

VIDEO: Recent 2022 questions and sample answers for IELTS Writing Task 2 

  • Frequently Asked Questions

The IELTS writing exam is split into two parts and task 2 is worth 66% of your score.

The IELTS writing task 2 is an essay writing task that assesses your ability to express and develop an argument in response to a given topic.

You are allocated 40 minutes to write it.

On the official British Council site there are documents that state your essay must contain at least 250 words, however, in the official criteria, there is no mention of 250 words.

The basic structure for IELTS writing task 2 in the IELTS exam is as follows:

  • Introduction : Be sure to state the question in your own words in your introduction so that you introduce the topic of your task 2. Task 2 statements are often a paraphrasing of the initial question.
  • Support your opinion : Once you have made your opinion clear, you have to provide facts to justify your choice
  • State the opposing point of you . You do not have to persuade the examiner about the opposing opinion, but it is important to state what it is. 
  • Summarise your opinion.

Below you will find a variety of task 2 essay topics that have been seen by students on their IELTS exams. By practising with these writing task 2 topics, you prepare yourself to write an essay about a wide range of topics.

Get your IELTS essay evaluated online for free using our new essay checker service. 

For a FREE ebook PDF of our top 10 sample essays, click here!

Common Essay Topics for IELTS Writing Task 2

Preparing for the IELTS Writing Task 2 requires familiarizing yourself with common essay topics that may appear on the IELTS exam.

Having knowledge of these topics can help you prepare well and increase your chances of scoring high.

Below are some of the most common essay topics for the IELTS Writing Task 2 exam.

  • Globalisation
  • Environment
  • Travel and transport
  • Law and order
  • Language and culture
  • Government and society
  • Sports and pastimes

In IELTS writing task 2, test takers may be presented with essay topics related to education.

Some writing task 2 education topics may focus on the benefits and drawbacks of traditional education or the role of technology in modern learning.

Here’s a sample task 2 question about education:

Some people think that a person improves intellectual skills better when doing group activities.  To what extent do you agree? Use specific details and examples to explain your view. 

Read more IELTS Writing Task 2 Topics on Education here

Writing task 2 often features essay topics related to globalisation, requiring test takers to express their views and opinions on the subject.

The essay question themes may include the far-reaching impacts of globalisation on economies, societies, and cultures around the world.

Here’s a sample task 2 question about globalisation:

Many people say that globalisation and the growing number of multinational companies have a negative effect on the environment. To what extent do you agree or disagree? Use specific reasons and examples to support your position.

Read more IELTS Task 2 questions on Globalisation here

In IELTS writing task 2, test takers are often presented with essay topics related to equality, asking them to explore issues such as gender equality, racial equality, and economic inequality.

Here’s a sample task 2 question about equality:

Nowadays both men and women spend a lot of money on beauty care. This was not so in the past. What may be the root cause of this behaviour? Discuss the reasons and possible results.

Read more IELTS task 2 questions on Equality here

Writing task 2 often features environment-related essay topics, requiring test takers to discuss issues such as pollution, conservation, and sustainable development.

Here’s a sample task 2 question about the environment:

Environmental issues such as climate change have always been an international problem because governments are not imposing harsh punishments against offenders. To what extent do you agree or disagree? Support your answer with specific reasons and examples.

Read more IELTS task 2 questions on the Environment here

In IELTS writing task 2, test takers are often given essay topics related to technology, requiring them to explore topics such as the benefits and drawbacks of technology, the role of technology in society, and the potential impact of emerging technologies.

Here’s a sample task 2 question about technology:

What technologies did you use to help you in your studies? Describe how it has helped you. Use specific reasons and details to support your answer.

Read more IELTS Task 2 questions on Technology here

In the IELTS writing exam, test takers may be required to discuss and write about travel and transport essay topics.

Here’s a sample task 2 question about travel and transport:

In many countries, people tend to move overseas or move to a different part of their country after their retirement. Discuss why they do so and what the outcome of this situation is. Provide specific reasons and examples to support your opinion

Read more Task 2 questions on Travel and Transport here.

Some people think that keeping pets is good for children while others think it is dangerous and unhealthy. Which opinion do you agree with? Discuss both options and give examples.

Read more Task 2 questions on Health here

Some people believe that once a person becomes a criminal, he will always be a criminal. Do you agree with this statement? Provide specific reasons and examples to support your opinion.

Read more  Task 2 questions on Law and Order here.

Task 2 Questions on Language and Culture

Compared to the past, more people are now trying to learn a foreign language to increase their chances of landing a better job in their native country or having better opportunities to work abroad. To what extent do you agree with this point of view? Give specific reasons and examples to support your opinion.

Read more Task 2 questions on language and culture here.

Task 2 Questions on Government and society

Should the government support artists, such as musicians, writers, and painters? Is it economically beneficial or is it just a waste of money? Why or why not?

Read more Task 2 questions on Government and society here.

International sporting events are costly and bring problems to the hosting country. To what extent do you agree or disagree? Give specific reasons and examples to support your position.

Read more Task 2 questions on Sports and Pastimes here

Sample IELTS Writing Task 2 Topics and Answers 

  • Band 6.5 essay about marriage (includes ex-ielts examiner commentary)
  • Band 9 essay about education (includes ex-ielts examiner commentary)

Join our Facebook group where students share their recent IELTS writing task 2 questions

Instructions to get your essay evaluated for free

  • Write an IELTS essay answering one of the questions below
  • Copy and paste the question into the new online IELTS essay checker .
  • Get your estimated band score (free)

Recent IELTS Writing Task 2 Questions from July 2018 till date

Below are past essay questions from previous years as seen by students in their exams.

These sample questions will help you prepare and better know what to expect in your task 2 exam.

Feel free to send us your task 2 questions if you have recently taken the IELTS exam.

  • In many countries, it is mandatory for school children to wear uniforms. Do the advantages of this policy outweigh the disadvantages? Give reasons for your answer and include any relevant examples from your own knowledge or experience.
  • Many museums charge for admission while others are free. Do you think the advantages of charging people for admission outweigh the disadvantages?
  • Ambition is a positive quality for people to have in society today. How important is it for people who want to succeed in life? Is it a positive or negative characteristic?
  • Research has shown that the transportation of products and people are the main source of pollution. Some people believe the government should be in charge of this, while others believe it is the fault of individuals. Discuss both views and give your opinion. Give reasons for your answer and include relevant examples from your knowledge or experience. 
  • Extreme sports such as skydiving and rock climbing are very dangerous and should be banned. To what extent do you agree or disagree with this view?
  • These days more people put their personal information, such as names, addresses and telephone numbers, online for everyday activities such as socialising on social networks or banking purposes. Do you think it is a positive or negative development?
  • The leaders or directors of organizations are often older people. But some people say that young people can also be a leader. Do you agree or disagree?
  • Some people believe that people living in the twenty-first century have a better standard of living as compared to previous centuries. To what extent do you agree or disagree with this statement? Give reasons for your answer and include relevant examples from your knowledge or experience.
  • A portion of the human population believes that criminal behaviour has its roots in genes. Others think that circumstances lead people to commit crimes. Discuss your take on both views and put forward your opinions. 
  • Some people think the government should provide free housing, while others believe it is not the government’s responsibility. Discuss both views and give your opinion
  • Some people believe the purpose of education is to prepare individuals to be beneficial to society. Others say the purpose of education is to achieve personal ambitions. Discuss both views and give your own opinion
  • With the growing population of cities, more and more people live in homes that have little or no outdoor area. Is this a positive or negative development? Give reasons for your answer and include any relevant examples from your knowledge or experience.
  • It has been suggested that all young adults should be required to undertake a period of unpaid work helping people in the community. Would the drawbacks of such a requirement be greater than the benefits to the community and the individual young adults?
  • Some think dangerous extreme sports such as skydiving and rock climbing should be banned. To what extent do you agree or disagree?
  • Nowadays, most countries improve their living standards through economic development. However, some social values are lost as a result. Do you think the advantages of the phenomenon outweigh the disadvantages?
  • Although countries with long average working hours are economically successful, this often has some negative social consequences. To what extent do you agree or disagree?
  • In many countries, the number of animals and plants is declining. Why do you think this is happening? How can this issue be solved? Give reasons for your answer and include any relevant examples from your knowledge or experience.
  • Some people think that activities during free time should be planned while others disagree. Discuss both sides and include examples and relevant data from your own experience.
  • The tendency of news reports in the media to focus more on problems and emergencies than on positive developments is harmful to individuals and society as a whole. To what extent do you agree or disagree? Give reasons for your answer and include any relevant examples from your knowledge or experience.
  • Some people think the government should support artists like painters, musicians, and poets, while others believe this wastes money. Discuss both views and give your own opinion.
  • Earlier technology developments brought more benefits and changed the lives of ordinary people more than recent developments ever will. To what extent do you agree or disagree?
  • These days more and more people are going to other countries for a significant period either to find a job or study. There are clearly many benefits to doing this, but people who live abroad can also face some difficulties.Discuss the advantages and disadvantages of living and working in a foreign country. Give reasons for your answer and include any relevant examples from your own knowledge or experience.
  • Nowadays online shopping is extremely popular. Discuss the impact of it on the environment and on people who lost their jobs because of it.
  • In some countries the government promotes public transport as the primary means of transportation, and discourages private vehicle ownership. Do you think the advantages of this policy outweigh the disadvantages?
  • Nowadays, most children prefer to spend several hours playing with electronic devices over doing more traditional leisure activities.What problem does this cause? What do you think are possible solutions?
  • It is believed that secondary school children should study international news as one of their school subjects. Others think that this is a waste of valuable school time. Discuss both views and give your opinions.
  • Some people think it’s better to choose friends who always have the same opinions as them. Other people believe it’s good to have friends who sometimes disagree with them. Discuss both these views and give your own opinion.
  • Fast food is a part of life in many places. Some people think this has bad effects on lifestyle and diets. Do you agree or disagree?
  • Some people encourage watching sports as a way of learning about teamwork and strategy, while others believe that one can learn these skills only through playing sports. Discuss both views and give your opinion.
  • New technologies have changed the way children spend their free time. Do you think the advantages of this trend outweigh the disadvantages?
  • Some people prefer to spend their lives doing the same things and avoiding change. Others, however, think that change is always a good thing. Discuss both these views and give your own opinion.
  • Although parents are responsible for raising a child, outside influence plays a key role in their development. To what extent do you agree or disagree
  • Movies and tv shows are a good way to study history despite their lack of historical accuracy at times. To what extent do you agree or disagree?
  • Nowadays, instead of locally sourced produce, many supermarkets sell a variety of foods imported from countries all across the world. Do the advantages of this development outweigh the disadvantages?
  • Rising university fees and scarce employment prospects for graduates have led some people to say that universities should not teach arts subjects, like philosophy and history, and only offer practical degree courses that maximise chances of employment. To what extent do you agree or disagree? Give a reason for your answer and include any relevant examples from your own knowledge or experience.
  • In some parts of the world, traditional festivals and celebrations have disappeared or are disappearing. Why is this happening? What measures could be taken to ensure they do not disappear?
  • Some people believe that using taxpayer funds to look for life on other planets is important. Others, however, think that it is a waste of public money because there are many more important issues requiring funding on our own planet. Discuss both views and give your opinion.
  • In recent years, there has been growing interest in the relationship between equality and personal achievement. Some people believe that individuals can achieve more in egalitarian societies. Others believe that high levels of personal achievement are possible only if individuals are free to succeed or fail according to their individual merits. Discuss both sides and give your own opinion.
  • Our personalities are predetermined as a result of our genes before we are born and there is nothing that can be done to change our character traits. To what extent do you agree?
  • Some people believe that teaching children at home is best for a child’s development while others think it is important for children to go to school. Discuss both the advantages of each method and give your own opinion
  • As the number of cars increases, more money has to be spent on road systems. Some people think the government should pay for this. Others, however, think that drivers should cover the costs. Discuss both views and give your opinion.
  • Some people suggest that a country should try to produce all the food for its population and import as little food as possible. To what extent do you agree or disagree?
  • Museums and art galleries should concentrate on local works rather than showing the cultures or artworks from other countries. To what extent do you agree or disagree?
  • Online currencies have become more common in recent years. Why is this? Is this a positive or negative development?
  • Many customs and traditional ways of behaviour are no longer relevant to the modern life and not worth keeping. Do you agree or disagree?
  • Some think secondary and high school students should be allowed to choose academic courses leading to university or practical courses leading to careers such as carpenters. To what extent do you agree or disagree?
  • Some people say that to prevent illness and disease, governments should focus more on reducing environmental pollution and housing problems. To what extent do you agree or disagree?
  • Nowadays, distance-learning programs have gained popularity, but some people argue that online courses can never be as good as those taken at a college or university in person. To what extent do you agree or disagree?
  • The increase in the production of consumer goods results in damage to the natural environment. What are the causes of this? What can be done to solve this problem?
  • Some people think international events such as the Olympic Games are important and can bring nations together. Others, however, think that they are a waste of money as the money could be spent elsewhere on more important issues. Discuss both these views and give your own opinion.
  • Some people think that dangerous sports should be banned. Others, however, believe that people should be free to choose sports activities. Discuss both these views and give your own opinion.
  • In today’s world, people spend a lot of money on appearance because they want to look younger. Why does this happen? Do you think this is a positive or negative development?
  • In many countries, people now wear western clothes such as suits and jeans rather than traditional clothing. Why is this the case? Is this a positive or negative development?
  • Many governments think that economic progress is their most important goal. Some people, however, think that other types of progress are equally important for a country. Discuss both these views and give your own opinion.
  • Some people think visual images, such as photographs and videos, can most accurately inform people about a news story. Others believe they are not reliable sources of information. Discuss both views and give your own opinion.
  • These days, older people who have retired often choose to spend money on themselves (for example on holidays) rather than save money for their children. Is this a positive or negative development?
  • Advanced technology has brought many beneficial changes to the world. However, some old people today struggle with the use of technologies such as mobile phones and the Internet. How can the elderly benefit from using advanced technologies? How can the elderly be encouraged to use consumer electronics more often?
  • Recent advances in medicine have resulted in an increase in life expectancy over the past four years. Do you think that the advantages outweigh the disadvantages?
  • The best way to make the road transport of goods safer is to ask drivers to take a driving test each year. To what extent do you agree or disagree ?
  • Although, it is generally illegal corporal punishment continues in many countries. Others argue that parents should have the right to punish their children in this way. Do you agree or disagree with this statement? Listen to the sample answer to this question here .
  • The increasing demand for oil and gas has made it necessary to look for these energy sources in remote and untouched natural places. Do you think the advantages of locating oil and gas in these areas outweigh the disadvantages of damaging these places? Listen to the sample answer to this question here .
  • Some people think the primary purpose of schools is to turn children into good citizens and workers, rather than to benefit them as individuals. To what extent do you agree or disagree with this opinion?
  • Some people think it is a better way to leave their home country to improve their work and living opportunities, while others think staying in their own country is a better choice. Discuss both views and give your own opinion . Listen to the sample answer to this question here .
  • In many cities, planners tend to arrange shops, schools, offices, and homes in specific areas and separate them from each other. Do you think the advantages of this policy outweigh the disadvantages?
  • It’s more important for school children to learn about their local history than world history. To what extent do you agree or disagree?
  • Nowadays many people prefer to buy famous brands of clothes, cars and other items. What are the reasons for this? Do you think it is a positive or negative development ?
  • In many workplaces, online communication is becoming more commonplace than face-to-face meetings. To what extent do you agree or disagree with this statement? Listen to the sample answer to this question here .

January to March 2022 Recent Task 2 Questions

  • Some people believe that violence in the media, such as in television programs and films, directly results in violent behaviour. To what extent do you agree or disagree?
  • In the future, all cars, buses and trucks will be driverless. The only people travelling inside these vehicles will be passengers. Do you think that the advantages of driverless vehicles outweigh the disadvantages?
  • In many countries, children are becoming overweight and unhealthy. Some people think that the government has the responsibility to solve this problem. To what extent do you agree or disagree?
  • In some countries, there has been an increase in the number of advertisements that try to persuade children to buy snacks, toys, and other goods. Some people claim this is unfair as parents feel under pressure to buy these kinds of things for their children. To what extent do you agree or disagree?
  • Some believe that younger family members should be legally responsible for supporting older family members when they become physically, mentally and financially unable to look after themselves. To what extent do you agree or disagree?
  • In the 21st century, contact between many different parts of the world has developed rapidly through air travel and telecommunications. Do the advantages of this outweigh the disadvantages?
  • Weddings are getting bigger and more expensive. What is the reason for this? Is it a positive or negative development?
  • Educating young people is naturally important. However, some think governments ought to invest more in education for adults in need. To what extent do you agree or disagree?
  • In some places, old age is valued, while in other cultures youth is considered more important. Discuss both views and give your opinion.
  • A rise in the standard of living in a country often only seems to benefit cities rather than rural areas. What problems can this cause? How might these problems be reduced?
  • Some people think that personal happiness is directly related to economic success. Others argue that happiness depends on different factors. Discuss both views and give your opinion.

October to December 2021 Sample Task 2 Questions

  • Some people think that the best way to succeed in life is to get a university education, while others disagree and say that it is no longer true nowadays. Discuss both views and give your own opinions.
  • In many countries, plastic shopping bags are the main source of rubbish. They cause water and land pollution, and so they should be banned. To what extent do you agree with this statement?
  • Information technology is changing many aspects of our lives and now dominates our home, leisure and work activities. To what extent do the benefits of information technology outweigh the disadvantages?
  • Some people think that schools are no longer necessary because people can acquire information on the Internet. To what extent do you agree or disagree?
  • Some people believe that university students should pay all the costs of studies because university education only benefits students themselves, not society as a whole. To what extent do you agree or disagree?
  • Some think increasing business and cultural contact between nations is positive. Others think it leads to the disappearance of the national identity. Discuss both views and state your own opinion.
  • Some people think that schools should select students according to their academic abilities, while others believe that it is better to have students with different abilities studying together. Discuss both views and state your own opinion.
  • Many people like to eat unhealthy food even though they know it’s bad for them. Why? What are the most effective ways to improve people’s eating habits?
  • Some people think there are not many things individuals can do to resolve environmental problems, while others believe that in order to tackle environmental problems individuals also need to take action. Discuss both views and give your own opinion.
  • There is too much noise in many public places in cities. What are the causes of this problem? What can be done to solve the problem?
  • Crime rates will fall as advances in technology make it easier to detect and prevent crimes. To what extent do you agree or disagree?
  • In many situations, people who break the law should be warned instead of punished. To what extent do you agree or disagree?
  • Some people think employers should not care about the way their employees dress, but the quality of work. To what extent do you agree or disagree?
  • Some people think children should have the freedom to make mistakes, while other people believe that adults should prevent children from making mistakes. Discuss both sides and give your opinion
  • Although more and more people read news on the Internet, newspapers will remain the most important source of news for the majority of people. To what extent do you agree or disagree?
  • Some students take one year off between finishing high school and going to university, in order to travel or to work. Do you think the advantages outweigh the disadvantages?
  • Today, many people do not know their neighbours in large cities. What problems does this cause? What can be done about this?
  • An increasing number of developing countries are expanding their tourist industry. Why do you think it is the case? Do you think it is a positive or negative development?
  • Nowadays, more and more people from different cities are spending more time away from their families. What are the possible reasons and the effects on the people themselves and their families?
  • Some people say that nowadays children have an easy life, and some people think that the life of children was easier in the past. Discuss both points of view and also provide relevant examples from your own knowledge or experience.
  • Some people say that all popular TV entertainment programmes should aim to educate viewers about important social issues. To what extent do you agree or disagree with this statement?
  • Some people believe the purpose of education should be to help the individual to become useful to society, while others believe it should help individuals to achieve their ambitions. Discuss both sides and give your opinion.
  • Many people believe that a person’s culture is defined by their country of origin, while others believe that it has only minor influence. Discuss both these views and give your opinion.
  • More and more people are finding it increasingly important to wear fashionable clothes. Is this attitude to wearing clothes a positive development or negative?
  • The movement of people from villages to cities for work can cause serious problems in both places. What are the serious problems associated with this? What measures can be taken to solve these problems?
  • In the world of the internet, people write product reviews of products and services. Do you think this is a positive or negative development?
  • Some people prefer to buy local products while others prefer international products. To what extent do you agree or disagree?
  • Some believe that more action should be taken to prevent crime, while others feel that crime is being tackled effectively now. Discuss both sides and give your own opinion.
  • Some people say it is more important to plant trees in the open spaces in towns and cities than to build more housing. To what extant do you agree or disagree?
  • Some scientists think that computers will soon become more intelligent than humans.To what extent do you agree or disagree with this statement?
  • Some people think that dangerous extreme sports such as rock climbing and sky-diving should be banned. To what extent do you agree or disagree with this view?
  • Young people are often influenced by their peers. Do the advantages of peer pressure outweigh the disadvantages? 
  • Some people believe that nowadays too much money is being spent on weddings and birthdays. Why do you think it is happening? What can be done to improve the situation?
  • In many countries, the legal driving age is 18 years old. Some people believe it is the right age to learn how to drive a car, whereas others say that the minimum age should be 25. Discuss both views and give your opinion.
  • Some people think that instead of preventing climate change , we need to find a way to live with it. To what extent do you agree or disagree?

Sample Task 2 Questions: January 2021  

  • Some people feel that the effects of advertising are positive for individuals and businesses, while others think they are negative. Discuss both sides and give your own opinion.
  • Some people say that TV advertisements are helpful for viewers, while others disagree. What is your opinion?
  • Some people think the spread of multinational companies and globalization produce positive outcomes for everyone. Do you agree or disagree with this statement?
  • In some countries, there are fewer young people who listen to or play classical music these days. Why is this? Should young people be encouraged to play or perform classical music?
  • Directors of large organizations earn much higher salaries than ordinary employees do. Some people think it is necessary, but others are of the opinion that it is unfair. Discuss both views and give your own opinions.
  • Prison is the common way in most countries try to solve the problem of crime. However, a more effective solution is to provide people with a better education. Do you agree or disagree?
  • Some think that climate change reforms will negatively affect business. Others feel they are an opportunity for businesses. Discuss both sides and give your own opinion.
  • Some people argue that holding sporting events is beneficial to a country’s development. However, other people hold the opposite opinion. Discuss both views and give your own opinion.
  • The first man to walk on the moon claimed it was a step forward for mankind. However, it has made little difference in most people’s lives. To what extent do you agree or disagree?
  • Some people think that good teamwork makes a company successful, others think that good leadership is the reason behind the success of a company. Discuss both sides and give your opinion.

Take a look at some of our IELTS vocabulary to help you write about the above topics.

Task 2 Sample Questions: October/November 2020  

  • Nowadays more and more people want to get things done instantly. Why is it? Do you think it is a positive or negative development?
  • Some people think that it is a waste of time for high school students to study literature, such as novels and poems. To what extent do you agree or disagree?
  • In some countries the elderly are highly valued and respected, while in others youth is more highly valued. Discuss both sides and give your own opinion.
  • The personal information of many individuals is held by large internet companies and organisations. Do you think the advantages of this outweigh the disadvantages?
  • Some people believe that handwriting is no longer useful in the modern world and should not be taught in schools. To what extent do you agree or disagree?
  • Some believe that advances in technology are increasing the gap between rich and poor while others think the opposite is happening. Discuss both sides and give your own opinion.
  • Some people believe that smart phones are destroying social interaction today. To what extent do you agree or disagree?
  • Some people believe that governments should ban dangerous sports. Others claim that they should have freedom to choose their favourite activities. Discuss both views and present your opinion.
  • Nowadays employment options are changing and employees cannot rely on having the same job and working conditions throughout their life. What are some possible causes? Suggest some ways to plan for the future under these circumstances.
  • Many companies sponsor sports as a way of advertising themselves. Some people think this is good for the world of sport, while others think it is negative. Discuss both views and give your own opinion.
  • Governments in many countries have recently introduced special taxes on foods and beverages with high levels of sugar. Some think these taxes are a good idea while others disagree. Discuss both views and give your opinion.
  • Many people think technological devices such as smartphones, tablets and mobile phones bring more disadvantages than advantages. To what extent do you agree or disagree?
  • It is better for children if the whole family including aunts, uncles and grandparents are involved in a child’s upbringing, rather than just their parents. To what extent do you agree or disagree?
  • Most people prefer shopping in supermarkets nowadays. How does this affect the local shops? What are the positive and negative impacts of this development?
  • In many countries, fast food is becoming cheaper and more widely available. Do the disadvantages of this outweigh the advantages?
  • The government should lower the budget on the arts in order to allocate more money to education.To what extent do you agree?
  • Many people argue that eating junk food has led to an unhealthy lifestyle. This problem has become more common among young people these days. Do you agree or disagree that junk food is the cause of the issue?
  • Some people think that in order to produce a happy society, it is necessary to ensure that there is only a small difference between the earnings of the richest and poorest. To what extent do you agree or disagree?
  • The manufacturing and use of cars damage the environment but their popularity is increasing. Why is this happening? How could this be controlled?
  • Some people think that young people should go to university to further their education while others think they should be encouraged to work as car mechanics or builders etc.to serve society. Discuss both views and give your own opinion.
  • Some people believe that to give opportunities to the new generation companies should encourage high-level employees who are older than 55 to retire. Do you agree or disagree?
  • Nowadays celebrities earn more money than politicians. What are the reasons for this? Is it a positive or negative development?
  • Many people believe that countries should produce food for the whole population and import as little food as possible. To what extent do you agree or disagree?
  • Some people think that it is necessary to travel abroad to learn about other countries, but others think that it is not necessary to travel abroad because all the information can be seen on TV and the internet. Discuss both views and give your own opinion.
  • Why are some people who leave school early more successful compared with those who complete their studies. Provide reasons why they are more successful and what are the requirements for success?
  • Countries with long average working hours are economically more successful than those countries which do not work long hours. To what extent do you agree or disagree?
  •  Many students around the world don’t choose science subjects at university. Give the reasons for this and describe the impact on the community?
  • It is better for young people to get advice from old people than young ones. Do you agree or disagree?
  • Some people think that music plays an important role in society. Others think it is simply a form of entertainment. Discuss both sides and give your opinion.
  • Some people think that job satisfaction is more important than job security. Others think that people cannot expect to enjoy a job and that having a permanent job is more important. Discuss both views and give your opinion.
  • Some people say that technologies such as mobile phones are disrupting social interaction. Do you agree or disagree?
  • Some people think history has little or nothing to offer, while others say the study of the past helps us understand the present. Write on both views and give your opinion, citing examples from your experience
  • Some people think that zoos are cruel and all the zoos should be closed. However, others think that zoos are useful to protect rare animals. Discuss both views and give your own opinion.
  • Some people think that the best way to stay fit is to join a gym/health club while others think doing everyday activities such as walking and climbing stairs is sufficient. Discuss both views and give your opinion.
  • Nowadays online shopping is extremely popular. Discuss the impact of it on the environment and on people who lost their jobs because of it
  • Nowadays celebrities earn more money than politicians. What are the reasons for this? Is it a positive or negative development
  • Many people think that every individual is responsible for their happiness, but some people believe there are other external factors that influence us. Discuss both views and give your opinion.
  • It is too expensive to look after and repair old buildings. This money should be spent on building modern buildings instead. To what extent do you agree or disagree with this opinion?
  • Scientific research should be the responsibility of governments rather than commercial organizations. Do you agree or disagree with this statement?
  • Some people believe that women should be treated as equal to men when applying for a job with police or the military. Others think women are less suitable for this kind of job. Discuss both views and give your opinion.
  • Some people prefer to work in the same type of job throughout their lifetime while others like to change the type of job they do. Discuss both views and give your opinion.
  • Some people think that it is fine for professional sportsmen and sportswomen to misbehave on or off the field, as long as they are playing well. Do you agree or disagree with this statement?
  • People are becoming too dependent on the Internet and phone. Is it a positive or negative development?
  • Some people suggest that it is better for children to be brought up by the whole family including uncles, aunts and grandparents, rather than just the parents. Do you agree or disagree with this statement? Give your opinion and examples.
  • Some people think that the government should increase tax on unhealthy food to encourage people to start eating healthy. Do you agree or disagree?
  • Nowadays, people are spending more time away from their homes because they spend longer in their workplace. Discuss the advantages and disadvantages.
  • Nowadays a few people take their family with them abroad whenever they go on a business trip. What are the advantages and disadvantages for them and for their family
  • Many parents complain about violence promoted to their children through video games, TV programs and other media. Why is it happening? What can be the solution for it?
  • Nowadays most people are not as fit and active, as they were in the past. What are the main causes of this situation? Suggest some possible solutions.
  • Nowadays, international tourism is the biggest industry in the world. Unfortunately, it creates tension rather than understanding between people from different cultures. To what extent do you agree or disagree with this opinion?
  • Fossil fuels (e.g. coal, oil and gas) are the main source of energy for most countries. However, alternative sources of energy (e.g. wind and solar) have been encouraged for use by some countries. To what extent is this a positive or negative development?
  • Nowadays media should include more good news in their publications. Do you agree or disagree with this statement? Give reasons for your answer and include any relevant examples from your own knowledge or experience.
  • Fossil fuels are the main source of energy around the world. However, people are being encouraged to use alternative energy sources such as wind energy, solar energy and so on. Do you think this is a positive or negative development? Why?
  • Some people believe that elderly employees are more useful to a company, while others believe that young employees are better. Discuss both views and give your own opinion.
  • The number of older people is increasing. Some people think that this will cause problems in their countries, while others believe this group is important to society. Discuss both views and give your own opinion.
  • Some think that teenagers should follow older people’s rules. Others think that it is natural for them to challenge what older people say. Discuss both views and give your opinion.
  • Television Sporting shows such as the Olympics motivate the youth who do not like to exercise much. Do you agree or disagree? Include relevant examples in your answer and provide your own opinion.
  • Nowadays many people want to buy famous brands of clothes, cars and other items. What are the reasons for this? Do you think it is a positive or negative development?
  • More people live alone today than they did in the past. Do you think this is a positive or negative development? Give your opinion and relevant examples to support your view.
  • Some people believe that price is the only consideration when buying something. Do you agree or disagree with this statement? Give your opinion and include relevant examples.
  • Some people believe that educational success depends on good teachers, while others believe that students’ attitudes are important. Discuss both views and give your opinion.
  • People in the current generation are not fit and active. This will cause health problems in the future. What could be the reasons for the inactivity and suggest solutions for this issue?
  • Parents, usually mothers, stay at home to look after their families. People believe that for this they should receive a salary from the government. Do you agree or disagree and why?
  • Some people think that they can go to the gym to remain fit, while others think that there are other better ways to do this. Discuss both views along with your opinion.
  • Some people say companies should require all employees to wear uniforms at work. Others think it is unnecessary. Discuss both views and give your own opinion.
  • Because of modern technology , some people believe that it is no longer necessary for people to learn handwriting skills, but others believe that handwriting is still an important skill. Discuss both views and give your opinion based on your experience.
  • Nowadays many people work from home. Some think it is beneficial, while others think it may distract the family routine. What is your opinion?
  •  It is necessary for parents to attend a parenting training course to bring their children up. Do you agree or disagree?
  • Nowadays people work too hard. What is the reason for this? What should employers do to prevent employees from overworking?
  • Nowadays people get married and have children after the age of 30. Is it a positive or negative development?
  • Today, some young people say that their mobile phones are the most important thing they own. Do you think that the popularity of mobile phones is a good or bad thing?
  • Nowadays, people believe that governments should invest tax-payers money in healthcare, while others believe that money should be used in other areas. Discuss both points of view and give your opinion.
  • Adults do less exercise nowadays. Some think that people can be encouraged to live healthy lives through sporting events such as the Olympics or the World Cup. Others think that there are better ways to encourage adults to exercise. Discuss both views and state your opinion.
  • Modern cultures around the world have become similar when compared to the past. What are the reasons? Is it a positive or negative development?
  • People are using a lot of online language translation apps. Are there more advantages than disadvantages to such services?
  • Demand for food is increasing worldwide. What is the cause of this? What measures can the international community take to meet this demand?
  • Many companies sponsor sports as a way of advertising themselves. Some people think that this is a good thing, while others think that it has disadvantages. Discuss both views and give your own opinion.
  • Some people believe that to be successful at a sport you need natural ability and others think that hard work and practice can make you successful. Discuss both views and give your opinion.
  • Nowadays, adults do little exercise. Some people believe that the best way to address this issue is by covering great sports events such as the Olympics on television. Others think that it is more beneficial to take other measures. What is your opinion?
  • These days some people spend a lot of money on tickets to go to sporting or cultural events. Do you think this is a positive or negative development?
  • Some people believe that technology has made man more social and others think that it has made him less social. Discuss both views and give your opinion.
  • Experts say older people were happier and healthier in the past because they did more exercise and spent more time with family and friends, whereas many now suffer from loneliness and health problems. What are the causes of this and what are some solutions?
  • Some people believe that to be successful at a sport you need a natural ability and others think that hard work and practice can make you successful. Discuss both views and give your opinion.
  • Some people believe that there will be a reduction in air travel in the future. Do you think that this trend is a positive or negative development?
  • Some people believe that technology has made man more sociable and others think that it has made us less sociable. Discuss both views and give your opinion.
  • At the present time, the population of some countries includes a relatively large number of young adults, compared with the number of older people. Do you think that the advantages of this outweigh the disadvantages?
  • Some people believe that it is important to give gifts to friends and family to show that we care about them. Others think that there are better ways to show that we care. Discuss both views and give your opinion.
  • Today much of the food people eat gets transported from farms that are thousands of miles away. Some people believe it would be better for the environment and the economy if people only consumed food produced by local farmers. Would the advantages of this outweigh the disadvantages?
  • With internet improvements, people can share views or opinions on certain goods or services that they have purchased. Is this a good or a bad thing? Discuss both views and give your opinion.
  • The qualities and skills that a person requires to become successful in today’s world cannot be learned at a university or any other academic institution. To what extent do you agree or disagree?
  • Shopping has become a new favourite pastime for the younger generation. Why is this the case? Should we encourage them to develop other hobbies too?
  • Courses and general online study have recently become very popular. However, some people still prefer to attend classes in person. Discuss both views and give your own opinion.
  • Some people think that prison sentences should not be used to deal with criminals. Education and skills training should be used instead. To what extent do you agree or disagree?
  • It is often said that it is not necessary to have a tertiary education to become a successful businessman. To what extent to you agree or disagree with this statement? Give your opinion and relevant examples.
  • Today it is common practice for many business meetings and business training to take place online. Do the advantages of this new development outweigh the disadvantages?
  • Nowadays, the internet and television have given ordinary people a chance to become famous. Is this a positive or negative development?
  • Some people from poor and rural backgrounds find it difficult to get a university education. Universities should make it easier for such groups to enrol. To what extent do you agree or disagree?
  • Some people think that it is the responsibility of governments to take care of the environment, while others believe that it is the responsibility of the citizens. Discuss both views and give your opinion.
  • Many people believe that family has a greater influence on a child’s life and development than other factors, such as friends, TV, music and so on. Do you agree or disagree with this statement?
  • Science can now offer people a life expectancy of close to one hundred years or even more. Some people view it in a positive light, but others believe it creates some problems. Discuss both views and give your own opinion.
  • These days, many people prefer ready-to-eat food outside of their homes rather than homemade food. Do you think this has more advantages or disadvantages?
  • Certain personal qualities cannot be achieved through university studies. Do you agree or disagree with this statement? Give your opinion and relevant examples.
  • In some countries, the quality of life in larger cities is declining. Why do you think this is happening? What measures can be taken to stop it?

Task 2 Questions: June 2019

  • Shopping is now one of the most popular forms of leisure activity in many countries for young adults. What do you think is the reason for this? Is this a positive or negative development?
  • In many countries, people are living in a “throwaway society” where things are used for a short time and thrown away. What are the causes of this and what problems does it lead to?
  • In some countries, people follow the latest fashion and hairstyles. In your opinion, what is influencing this? Do you think this is a positive or negative development?
  • In some countries, children under 16 years old are not allowed to leave school by law and get full-time work. Is this a good or bad thing? Discuss your opinion.
  • Nowadays, people have adopted an unhealthy lifestyle. Why do think this is? How could this problem be solved?
  • Some young people are leaving the countryside to live in cities and towns, leaving only old people in the countryside. Why do think this is? Do you think this is a positive or negative development?
  • In many countries, people have more health problems because they choose to live an unhealthy lifestyle. What do you think are the reasons for this and how can it be solved? Give relevant examples from your experience.
  • Countries with a long average working time are more economically successful than those countries which do not have a long working time. To what extent do you agree or disagree?
  • Nowadays, people of all ages from certain parts of the world spend the most time at home rather than going outdoors. Discuss the reasons, is this a negative or positive development?
  • With the development of technology and science, some people believe that there is no great value of artists such as musicians and painters. What are the things artists can do but scientists cannot? Should art be encouraged more?
  • While recruiting a new employee, the employer should pay more attention to their personal qualities, rather than qualifications and experience. To what extent do you agree or disagree? Give your opinion and include relevant examples.
  • Money should be spent on creating new public buildings such as museums or town halls rather than renovating the existing ones. To what extent do you agree or disagree?
  • All the people in a company should be treated equally and provided with the same number of holidays in a year or people doing different jobs enjoy a different amount of holiday time. To what extent do you agree or disagree?
  • Some people say that a person’s success is a result of the way he has been brought up by his parents. Do you agree or disagree?
  • Public celebrations (such as national days, festivals etc) are held in most countries. These are often quite expensive and some people say that governments should spend money on more useful things. Do you agree or disagree?
  • Some people say that children given pocket money every week will have lesser money problems when they become adults. Do you agree or disagree?
  • The global demand for oil and gas is increasing. Some people believe that we should therefore encourage the exploitation of remote areas. Do the advantages of this outweigh the disadvantages?
  • Today, many big cities in the world are increasing in size. What are the problems associated with it? What are the solutions to these problems?
  • Some young people are leaving the countryside to live in cities or towns, it leaves only old people in the countryside. What are the problems with this issue? What can be done to solve this problem?
  • Many people believe that learning a foreign language is a very difficult task. What are the most difficult things about learning a foreign language? What is the best way to overcome them? Explain and include your personal experience or knowledge of these problems.
  • Some people think high-end technology can prevent and cut down the rate of committing a crime. Do you agree or disagree?
  • Some people feel that courses can make anyone a teacher, while others feel an excellent teacher cannot be made by pursuing a course. Discuss both views and give your opinion.
  • Some people think that a high salary is important when choosing a company to work for, while others think that a good working atmosphere is more important. Discuss both views and give your opinion.
  • Some people encourage young children to leave their parents’ house as soon as they become adults while others say children should stay at their parents’ house as long as possible. Discuss both views and give your opinion.
  • Many countries thought that children have to do homework in their free time while other say children should do more outdoor activities. To what extent do you agree or disagree?
  • Some people say that art subjects such as music, drama and creative writing are an essential part of education, and every school should include them in its syllabus. Do you agree or disagree with this statement? Give your opinion and examples from your own experience.
  • Nowadays in many countries, women have full-time jobs. Therefore, it is logical to share household tasks evenly between men and women. To what extent do you agree or disagree with this statement?
  • Some people think that public health within a country can be improved by the government making laws regarding nutritious food. Others, however, think that health is a matter of personal choice and responsibility. Discuss both views and give your opinion.
  • Some people believe that the construction of new public buildings such as museums, town halls and sporting facilities is more important than the renovation of the existing ones, while others disagree. Discuss both views and give your own opinion.
  • Nowadays the crime rate is increasing, especially among teenagers. What are the reasons behind it? How can we reverse this trend? What punishment methods should be used, in your opinion?
  • Nowadays online education has become popular as more institutes and companies are offering courses online. However, many people prefer traditional, classroom training or study. Discuss the advantages and disadvantages of both methods.
  • Some people believe that the government should take care of old people and provide financial support after they retire. Others say individuals should save during their working years to fund their own retirement. What is your opinion? Give reasons for your answer and include examples from your own experience.
  • In some cultures, old people are valued more, while in other cultures youth is considered more valuable. Discuss both views and give your opinion.
  • Nowadays people waste a lot of food that was bought from shops and restaurants. Why do you think people waste food? What can be done to reduce the amount of food they throw away?
  • In today’s times, the internet is making it easy to study online from home. Some prefer online courses to study and they think it is better. Others prefer classroom education. Discuss both views and share your opinion.
  • Successful companies use advertising to make more sales. What can make an advertisement very effective? Do you think this is a bad thing or a good thing for society?
  • Science will soon make people live up to 100 or even 200 years. Some believe this is a good thing while others disagree. Discuss both views and give your own opinion.
  • Some people believe that after hundred years life will be easier for most of people, while others are unsure. What is your opinion?
  • Some people think it is important to spend a lot of money on a wedding celebration, while others disagree. Discuss both views and give your opinion.
  • Some people think that giving gifts and presents to friends and family is important to show them that we care. Others think that there are more important ways. Discuss both and give your opinion.
  • The media is increasing interest in famous people who have ordinary backgrounds. Why do you think people are interested in the lives of famous people? Do you think this is a good thing?
  • Some people prefer activities and lifestyles in hot climates while others prefer activities and lifestyles in cold climates. Discuss both views and give your opinion.
  • Online education and training is becoming increasingly popular in the business world. Do the advantages of this development outweigh the disadvantages?
  • More and more parents are allowing their children to play on computers and tablets as they think that children should learn technology skills. Do the advantages of this development outweigh the disadvantages?
  • People are living in a ‘throwaway society’, using things for a short time and then throwing them away. What are the causes of this? What problems does it lead to?
  • Nowadays children mostly spend time playing computer games rather than sports. What are the reasons for this? Is it a positive or negative development?
  • Scientists agree that many people eat too much junk food and it is damaging their health. Some people think that this problem can be solved by educating people, while others believe that education will not work. Discuss both views and give your own opinion.
  • Many people believe that TV news and media, in general, have a detrimental effect on our life. Do you agree or disagree with this statement? Give your own opinion, including relevant examples.
  • Many famous athletes advertise different products. What are the advantages and disadvantages of it?
  • Nowadays people try to balance their work with other things in life, but only some could actually achieve it so far. What are the reasons for that? How can we solve this problem?
  • Some people say that online study is the most effective and convenient way to learn. Others believe that online study will never be as effective as learning at school, or in person. Discuss both views and give your own opinion.
  • Children and teenagers are committing more and more crimes in many countries. Why is this happening? How can we stop or at least reduce youth crime?
  • Some people prefer cold weather conditions, while others don’t. Discuss both views and give your own opinion.
  • Some people think subjects taught in school are a waste of time, while others disagree and believe that this type of education is useful for students. Discuss both views and give your own opinion.
  • Some people think that the only way to relax is to rest or sleep, while others say people need to do exercise or sports to relax. Discuss both viewpoints and give your own opinion.
  • Some parents and teachers think that children’s behaviour should be strictly controlled. While some think that children should be free to behave. Discuss both views and give your opinion.
  • In many countries, day by day rubbish (garbage) is increasing. Why is it happening? What can be done?
  • Some people see shopping as a leisure activity mostly for young adults, while others disagree. Do you think this has a positive or negative effect on economic development? Give your opinion and include relevant examples.
  • Shopping has become a favourite pastime among young people. What do you think it is like that? Do you think they must be encouraged to do other things rather than shopping?
  • Some people think that the main factors influencing a child’s development these days are things such as television, friends, and music. Others believe that the family still remains more important. Discuss both views and give your opinion.
  • Food travels thousands of miles from producers to consumers. Some people think that it would be better for the environment and economy if people only ate the local food produced by farmers. To what extent do you agree or disagree?
  • Some people argue that the fittest, strongest individuals and teams can achieve the greatest success in sports. But other people think that success is as much related to mental attitude. Discuss both views and give your opinion.
  • Some people become famous when they were at a young age. Do you think this is positive or negative?
  • Some people believe it is important to give gifts and presents to friends and family to show that we care about them. Others think that there are better ways to show affection to them. Discuss both views and give your own opinion.
  • Many people believe that spending a lot of money on weddings is fine, while others completely disagree. Discuss both views and give your own opinion and examples .
  • Many people believe the government should spend money on faster public transport. Others think that money should be spent on different aspects of public transportation, such as cost reduction and environmental conservation. Discuss both views and give your own opinion.
  • Some people believe that manufacturers should be responsible for reducing the large amounts of packaging they use. Others say consumers should avoid buying heavily packaged items. Discuss both views and state your opinion. Give reasons for your answer and include examples from your experience.
  • Some people think that family has the most important influence on children’s development, while others believe that factors such as TV, friends, music and books have a more significant impact. Discuss both views and give your opinion.

Task 2 questions (October 2018)

  • Today, most people get married and give birth in their thirties rather than when they are younger. Is this a positive or negative development?
  • Shops should give preference in selling local food rather than imported food. Do you agree or disagree?
  • A growing population is a big problem in developing countries. Should the government provide new homes in the cities or the countryside?
  • Some people think that the media (newspapers) have the right to publish details of people’s private lives, while others think it should be controlled. Discuss both views.
  • Some people think that activities during the free time should be planned while others disagree. Discuss both sides and include examples and relevant data from your own experience.
  • In some countries, an increasing number of people are suffering from health problems as a result of eating too much fast food. It is therefore necessary for governments to impose a higher tax on this kind of food? To what extent do you agree or disagree with this opinion? You should use your own ideas, knowledge and experience and support your arguments with examples and relevant evidence.
  • Today more people are overweight than ever before. What in your opinion are the primary causes of this? What measures can be taken to overcome this epidemic?
  • In most parts of the world, people are living longer. What are the possible causes of this situation? Is this a negative or positive development?
  • Today, the internet and TV have created that chance for ordinary people to become famous. Is it a positive or negative development?
  • Nowadays food has become easier to prepare. Has this change improved the way people live? Give reasons for your answer using your own ideas and experience.
  • Nowadays many people believe that children should be taught history in schools, however, others argue that children should learn subjects that are more helpful for modern everyday life. Discuss both views and give your own opinion.
  • Some parents believe that a child should not waste time by reading entertainment books instead, they should spend time reading educational books only. What is your opinion about this?
  • Some people think that young children need to attend nursery before primary school. While others believe young children can spend all day at home. Discuss both views and give your opinion.
  • Some people believe school children should be given multiple short vacations while others believe they should get one long vacation. Give advantages of both and your point of view.
  • Some people think that the advantages of advertising sports products through famous sports players outweigh the disadvantages. To what extent do you agree or disagree?
  • In our society, there is far more attention on men’s sport than women’s sport. What are the reasons for this? Do you think that this is positive or negative development?
  • It has been said that reading for pleasure is better in developing imagination and language skills than watching TV. To what extent do you agree or disagree?
  • Advertisements are influencing us in a negative way. To what extent do you agree or disagree?
  • School teachers are more responsible for the social and intellectual development of students than parents. To what extent do you agree or disagree?
  • Some people spend a lot of money on their wedding ceremonies. However, others feel like it is unnecessary to spend a lot. Discuss both view points and give your own opinion.
  • Since travelling abroad became relatively inexpensive, more countries opened their doors for foreign tourists. Is it a positive or negative trend? Give your opinion and include relevant examples.
  • Many countries consider eighteen-year-olds to be adults, while other countries don’t. What do you think about it? Give your opinion and some relevant examples based on your own experience.

Writing task 2 questions (September 2018)

  • Some people think that the only way to judge someone’s success in business is by the amount of money they make. Is this a true indicator of the success of a business and in what other ways could success in a business be measured?
  • The restoration of old buildings in major cities around the world costs enormous amounts of money. This money would be better spent on providing new housing and road development. To what extent do you agree or disagree with this opinion?
  • Employers should give their workers at least one month’s holiday a year as it makes them to do better at their job. To what extent do you agree or disagree?
  • Some people believe the Olympic Games don’t belong to the 21st century anymore. To what extent do you agree or disagree?
  • Some parents believe that reading books for entertainment is a waste of time for children and they think that their children should only read serious educational books. What is your opinion?
  • Some people think that advertising on TV is useless and others disagree. Discuss both sides and give your opinion.
  • Some people think money is the best gift to give it to youngsters, while others disagree. Discuss both views and give your opinion.
  • For school children, their teachers have more influence on their intelligence and social development than their parents. To what extent do you agree or disagree?
  • In the modern world, it is possible to shop, work and communicate with people via the internet and live without any face-to-face contact with others. Is it a positive or negative development in your opinion? To what extent do you support this development?
  • Many university students live with their families, while others live away from home because their universities are in different places. What are the advantages and disadvantages of both situations?
  • In the modern world, it is no longer necessary to use animals for food, clothing or medicine. To what extent do you agree or disagree? Give reasons for your answer and include examples from your own experience.
  • Some businesses observe that new employees who just graduated from a college or university seem to lack the interpersonal skills needed for communication with their colleagues. What could be the reason for this? What solutions can help address this problem?
  • Some people believe that we should start giving formal education to students at a much earlier age, while others think we should wait until the age of 7. To what extent do you agree or disagree with this statement? Discuss and give reasons for your answer.
  • Nowadays in many countries, young people leave rural areas to study or work in cities. What are the reasons for this? Do the benefits of this outweigh the disadvantages?
  • Some parents believe that reading entertainment books is a waste of time. In their opinion, children should only read serious, educational books. Do you agree or disagree? Give reasons for your answer and include relevant examples from your own experience.
  • Nowadays there is a growing trend of private car ownership. Do the advantages outweigh the disadvantages or environmental problems associated with this?
  • Some people believe that companies should pay for the damage they cause to the environment, while others say that the government should be responsible for such expenses. Do you agree or disagree? Give reasons for your answer and include examples from your experience.
  • Nowadays there are many medical surveys of treatments to reduce health problems. Who should conduct them, governments, individuals or private companies, in your opinion? Give reasons for your answer and include relevant examples from your experience.
  • The international community must act immediately to ensure that all countries reduce their consumption of fossil fuels such as gas, oil and coal. To what extent do you agree or disagree with this statement? Give your own opinion.
  • Many people believe that it is a good idea to have a dress code at workplaces. Do you agree or disagree with this statement? Give your opinion and examples from your own experience.
  • Some think that private companies should pay for pollution clean up, while others say it should be a government’s responsibility. Discuss, and state your own opinion.
  • Many people think that more having more money will make them happier. How important is money to happiness?
  • Many people believe that the use of new technology improves the lives of employees. Others think it is a disadvantage for them. Discuss both views and give your own opinion.
  • Some people say that sport is very important for a nation’s development, while others believe that sport is no more than a leisure time activity. Discuss both views and give your own opinion.
  • Some people think that children should start school sooner while others believe they should not start it before the age of seven. Discuss both views and give your own opinion.
  • Some people argue that competitive sports are good for bringing together different people and cultures. Others argue that these sports can cause problems and increase conflicts between nations. Discuss both points of view and give your own opinion.
  • In some countries, it is illegal for employers to reject job applications on the basis of age criteria. Is it a positive or negative development? Give reasons for your answer and include examples from your own experience.
  • Many young people regularly change their jobs over the years. What are the reasons for this? Do the advantages outweigh the disadvantages?
  • Some people think that new technologies benefit the life of workers whereas some deny the statement. Discuss both sides and give your opinion.
  • Scientists agree that many people are eating too much junk food and it is damaging to their health. Some people think that these problems can be solved by educating people to eat less junk food. Other people believe that education will not work. Discuss both opinions and give your own opinion.
  • Some people think that companies and private individuals should pay to clean up the pollution that they produce, not the government. To what extent do you agree or disagree?
  • As more and more students enter universities, academic qualifications are becoming devalued. To get ahead in many professions, more than one degree is now required and in future, it is likely that people will take a number of degree courses before even starting work. This is an undesirable situation. To what extent do you agree or disagree?
  • Many people are involved in sports when they are young but stop once they are adults. Why do many adults stop doing physical exercise? What can be done about this problem?
  • Some people think that it is a good idea for all employees to wear a uniform at work. To what extent do you agree or disagree?
  • Some people think that new technology always improves the lives of workers. Other people believe that it results in disadvantages for workers. Discuss both opinions and give your own opinion.
  • Some people think that international competitive sports such as football bring conflict between people of different age groups and nationalities. Others think the sport is helping reach understanding between people and nations. Discuss both views and give your opinion.
  • Some people think that only staff who worked in the company for a long time should be promoted to higher positions. What is your opinion on this? Give reasons and relevant examples for your answer.
  • Some people think it’s a good idea to wear a uniform at work. Do you agree or disagree? Give reasons for your answer with relevant examples from knowledge or experience.
  • Some people think it is more important to spend time in developing a successful career while others think it is more important to spend time with friends and family. Discuss both sides and give your opinion.
  • There is less social contact between young and old. What are the reasons? What measures can be taken?
  • Do you agree with the following statement: home schooling protects students from a number of challenges faced by non-home-schooled children?
  • Does distant learning make it easier for students to balance their everyday lives?
  • Learning in one’s native tongue yields better school scores than learning in a medium language. Do you agree or disagree? Argue your point of view.
  • Should there be a variety of learning methodologies implemented within the school learning curriculum?
  • Some believe that modern technology has made people less socially active, while others disagree. Discuss both views and give your own opinion.
  • The best way to reduce crime among young people is to teach parents good parenting skills. To what extent do you agree or disagree with this statement? Give your own opinion and examples.
  • Some psychologists think that the best way to overcome the stress of everyday life is to spend a portion of the day doing absolutely nothing. To what extent do you agree or disagree?
  • There is a trend of increasing amounts of consumer goods, which leads to environmental problems. What are the reasons for this trend? Give your own opinion and solutions.
  • The difference in age between parents and their children has increased compared to the past. Do you think advantages of this trend outweigh the disadvantages?
  •  Scientists have been warning for many years already that in order to protect the environment people should use less energy. However, most people do not change their ways of living. What is causing this behaviour? How can people be encouraged to change?
  • Some people think that children should go to kindergarten before attending primary school, while others believe that is better for children to stay all day with their families. Discuss both views and give your own opinion.
  • Some people believe that trade and cultural relationships between the countries is a positive development, while others disagree. Discuss both the views and include your own opinion.
  • Recently there are more gas stations being built as opposed to diesel ones in rural areas. What are the advantages and disadvantages of this trend?
  • Many parents (mostly women) decide to stay home and take care of the family members instead of going out for work. Some people suggest that they should be paid by the government for doing that. Do you agree or disagree? Give reasons for your answer and include examples from your own experience.
  • Different cultures are mixing today and the world is becoming a global village. Is it a positive or a negative development? Give your own opinion and examples.
  • Nowadays people’s life is changing rapidly and, as a result, family relationships are affected. Do the advantages of this outweigh the disadvantages? Give your opinion and examples from your own experience.
  • Measures have been put in place to improve road safety by reducing the speed limits. Some people believe there are better alternatives. Discuss both views and give your own opinion.
  • Some people think that the range of technology available to people is increasing the gap between the rich and the poor. Others think it has the opposite effect. Discuss both views and give your opinion.
  • Some of the methods used in advertising are unethical and unacceptable in today’s society. To what extent do you agree or disagree with this statement?
  • People nowadays are not as fit and active as they were in the past. What are the reasons for this? What measures can be taken for this?

Click here for IELTS task 2 topics and answers.

For above band 7 you will need IELTS vocabulary, this page shares some useful strategies and sources to improve your lexical resource.

To improve your opinion-forming skills, check out the BBC , and get a rough overview of the current affairs in each topic. For example, at the moment, regarding the environment the main topic is climate change -could you write 250 words about global warming? Likewise, for the topic of technology, what do you know about artificial intelligence ? You don’t have to be an expert but you do need to have an opinion, and that can only come from getting informed about the topics.

In summary, it is advisable to be well-versed in current affairs, have a global view of events, and have a bit of knowledge about each topic.

IELTS writing tips The writing part of the IELTS can prove to be a little overwhelming; especially, if you don’t know how to approach it. Below is a list  of writing tips to help you feel less overwhelmed.

IELTS writing samples If you aren’t quite sure how to approach your writing section of the IELTS and want some ideas from those who have succeeded click here.

IELTS essay topics with answers IELTS essays are a great opportunity for you to show off your English abilities in written form. We have put together a great archive of IELTS essay topics with the answers!

Essay writing topics Practice is truly the mother of preparation, so why not make sure you are ready to tackle the IELTS essay by going through our list of essay topics you might encounter during the exam.

Try our new online IELTS Essay Checker for instant essay correction

Preparing for the IELTS exam? We have a helpful tool for you! Check out our online IELTS Essay Checker . This tool uses smart technology to look at your essays. It can tell you where you made mistakes and how to fix them.

This way, you can learn faster. Plus, it’s quick! Instead of waiting for a teacher to check your essay, this tool gives you feedback right away. Another great thing is that it’s cheaper than many other study methods. Many students spend a lot of money on IELTS classes and books.

Our online IELTS Essay Checker is a good way to save some money. So, as you practice with the IELTS Task 2 questions on this page, remember to use the AI Essay Checker. It will help you get better at writing and save you both time and money. 

Try it out now for free here

Frequently Asked Questions (FAQ)

How to write ielts writing task 2.

  • Read the question and understand what the examiner is asking
  • Take a few minutes to think about what you’re going to write
  • Write your introduction
  • Developing the essay ideas, your approach, and your explanations
  • Conclude your essay with a summary that completes the circle
  • Read the essay and make sure you didn’t make any mistakes

Read this post for more

How to generate ideas for writing task 2?

  • Write a possible answer to the question
  • Mind gone blank? Put the topic of the question into Google or Youtube
  • Summarise different opinions on the topics
  • Attempt more questions and you will find you now have more ideas

Read this post for more tips

For more help with your IELTS tutorials, take a look at our tutorials here:

  • IELTS Task 2
  • IELTS general task 1
  • IELTS academic task 1
  • Sample answers for IELTS Globalisation Essays
  • Score higher in IELTS Writing Task 1 and Task 2
  • Problem Solution Essays in IELTS Writing Task 2
  • Sample Answers: discuss the advantages and disadvantages
  • Extremely Useful Sentences for Task 2
  • IELTS Essay Paragraph Structure

Sample task 2 IELTS essays and 240 task questions ebook

IELTS Score

What is IELTS Score?

IELTS score between 1 and 9 for each part of the test – Listening, Reading, Writing and Speaking. You can score whole (e.g., 5.0, 6.0, 7.0) or half (e.g., 5.5, 6.5, 7.5) bands in each part. Universities often demand an IELTS score of 6 or 7. They may also demand a minimum IELTS score in each of the 4 sections.

IELTS scoring system and band scale

The IELTS scoring system is very unique composed of 9 bands, measured in consistent manner and is internationally acclaimed and understood. The IELTS score ranges from 1 to 9 for each part of the test. The individual result from these four parts will produce an overall band score ... more →

How long does it take to do the IELTS test?

IELTS has four parts – Listening (30 minutes), Reading (60 minutes), Writing (60 minutes) and Speaking (11–14 minutes). The total test time is 2 hours and 45 minutes. The Listening, Reading and Writing tests are done in one sitting.

Is IELTS valid for 3 years now?

The IELTS Test Report Form (TRF) is valid for two years. At present, IELTS score is valid for a three year period for Australian General Skilled Migration (GSM) applications.

Is there any pass or fail in the IELTS exam?

There is no pass or no fail in the IELTS exam. Generally, when you take any test or exam then there can be the possibility of getting passed or failed. But here in this case, you will not get failed but you may be disqualified to continue your higher education in choice of college or university.

Home → IELTS Writing Task 2

Ielts writing task 2 – homework of school children.

Some people believe that school children should not be given homework by their teachers, whereas others argue that homework plays an important role in the education of children. Discuss both of these views and give your own opinion.

( 267 Words , 13 Sentences, 4 Paragraphs, Band 9)

People’s opinions differ as to whether or not school children should be given homework. While there are some strong arguments against the setting of homework, I still believe that it is a necessary aspect of education.

There are several reasons why people might argue that homework is an unnecessary burden on children. Firstly, there is evidence to support the idea that homework does nothing to improve educational outcomes. Countries such as Finland, where school children are not given homework, regularly top international educational league tables and outperform nations where setting homework is the norm. Secondly, many parents would agree that the school day is already long enough, and leaves their children too tired to do further study when they return home. Finally, it is recognized that play time is just as beneficial as study time from the perspective of brain development.

In spite of the above arguments, I support the view that homework has an important role to play in the schooling of children. The main benefit of homework is that it encourages independent learning and problem solving, as children are challenged to work through tasks alone and at their own pace. In doing so, students must apply the knowledge that they have learnt in the classroom. For example, by doing mathematics exercises at home, students consolidate their understanding of the concepts taught by their teacher at school. In my view, it is important for children to develop an independent study habit because this prepares them to work alone as adults.

In conclusion, homework certainly has its drawbacks, but I believe that the benefits outweigh them in the long term.

( NB: Follow the above band 9 writing structure for getting higher band score in the IELTS Exam.)

Related IELTS Resources

Take a practice test to find out what is your current weakness in terms of IELTS scale and allow more time to improve your weak spots. The following IELTS resources will help you to develop your skills faster:

  • IELTS Listening Test
  • IELTS Reading Test
  • IELTS Writing Task 1
  • IELTS Writing Task 2
  • IELTS Speaking Part 1, 2 & 3
  • IELTS Listening Exercises
  • IELTS Reading Exercises
  • IELTS Cue Card Exercises
  • How to Start IELTS Preparation
  • Tips – On the Day before IELTS Exam

IELTS Writing Task 2 – Permissive parenting

Ielts writing task 2 – people can study online, recommended for you.

IELTS Writing Task 2 – Help everyone in the world that needs help

IELTS Writing Task 2 – Help everyone in the world that needs help

IELTS Writing Task 2 – Relationship between equality and personal achievement

IELTS Writing Task 2 – Relationship between equality and personal achievement

IELTS Writing Task 2 – Gender and University

IELTS Writing Task 2 – Gender and University

Comments (0), leave a reply cancel reply.

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *

Save my name, email, and website in this browser for the next time I comment.

The Role of Homework Engagement, Homework-Related Therapist Behaviors, and Their Association with Depressive Symptoms in Telephone-Based CBT for Depression

  • Original Article
  • Open access
  • Published: 22 July 2020
  • Volume 45 , pages 224–235, ( 2021 )

Cite this article

You have full access to this open access article

  • Elisa Haller 1 &
  • Birgit Watzke 1  

11k Accesses

14 Citations

1 Altmetric

Explore all metrics

Telephone-based cognitive behavioral therapy (tel-CBT) ascribes importance to between-session learning with the support of the therapist. The study describes patient homework engagement (HE) and homework-related therapist behaviors (TBH) over the course of treatment and explores their relation to depressive symptoms during tel-CBT for patients with depression.

Audiotaped sessions (N = 197) from complete therapies of 22 patients (77% female, age: M  = 54.1, SD  = 18.8) were rated by five trained raters using two self-constructed rating scales measuring the extent of HE and TBH (scored: 0–4).

Average scores across sessions were moderate to high in both HE ( M  = 2.71, SD  = 0.74) and TBH ( M  = 2.1, SD  = 0.73). Multilevel mixed models showed a slight decrease in HE and no significant decrease in TBH over the course of treatment. Higher TBH was related to higher HE and higher HE was related to lower symptom severity.

Conclusions

Results suggest that HE is a relevant therapeutic process element related to reduced depressive symptoms in tel-CBT and that TBH is positively associated with HE. Future research is needed to determine the causal direction of the association between HE and depressive symptoms and to investigate whether TBH moderates the relationship between HE and depressive symptoms.

Trial Registration

ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02667366. Registered on 3 December 2015.

Similar content being viewed by others

The processes of cognitive behavioral therapy: a review of meta-analyses.

Nikolaos Kazantzis, Hoang Kim Luong, … Stefan G. Hofmann

homework related task 2

How to Optimise Cognitive Behaviour Therapy (CBT) for People with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD): A Delphi Study

Debbie Spain & Francesca Happé

homework related task 2

Effects of Length of Mindfulness Practice on Mindfulness, Depression, Anxiety, and Stress: a Randomized Controlled Experiment

Sarah Strohmaier, Fergal W. Jones & James E. Cane

Avoid common mistakes on your manuscript.

Introduction

Therapeutic homework in terms of inter-session activity presents a central component of psychotherapy and is particularly inherent to cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT; Beck et al. 1979 ). The core principle of this treatment is to equip patients with tools to change thoughts, behaviors, emotions, and their interplay. Homework may be defined as activities carried out between sessions in order to practice skills outside of therapy and to generalize to the natural environment (Kazantzis and L’Abate 2007 ; Lambert et al. 2007 ). Rather than exclusively discussing problems in an isolated setting, patients are encouraged to address the problem in their everyday life with the intention to produce and maintain a therapeutic effect (Lambert et al. 2007 ). The theorized mechanisms of the effect of homework build upon the skills-building approach of CBT (Beck et al. 1979 ; Detweiler and Whisman, 1999 ), as therapeutic exercises provide an opportunity for the patient to gather information and practice newly gained skills. Ultimately, practicing skills outside therapy helps becoming aware of the problem and consolidating new beliefs and behaviors (Beck et al. 1979 ). Homework thus serves as a means of transferring strategies outside the therapy context and enables the patient to practice new skills in real-life situations in order to maintain therapeutic gain (Kazantzis and Ronan 2006 ).

Homework is a commonly studied process variable in CBT and has empirically been investigated primarily in association with treatment outcome. Previous research has demonstrated that a high level of homework compliance is related to improvements in depressive symptoms (e.g., Kazantzis et al. 2010 ). Meta-analyses have established correlational evidence for the homework compliance and outcome relationship (e.g., Mausbach et al. 2010 ) as well as experimental evidence for the superiority of treatments that incorporate homework over treatments without homework (Kazantzis et al. 2010 , 2016 ).

It has previously been noted that an “evidence-based” assessment of homework compliance (Dozois 2010 , p. 158) requires the consideration of qualitative aspects of homework completion throughout the course of the treatment (Dozois 2010 ; Kazantzis et al. 2010 , 2017 ). This has been neglected in previous studies on the homework-outcome relationship, which rely solely on adherence or compliance measures that focus on the proportion of completed homework or global single-item measures of whether the patient attempted the homework or not (e.g., Bryant et al. 1999 ; Aguilera et al. 2018 ). In a recent systematic review of homework adherence assessments in major depressive disorder (MDD), Kazantzis et al. ( 2017 ) found that only 2 out of 25 studies reported the measures that addressed the quality of homework completion. Furthermore, the single-item Assignment Compliance Rating Scale (ACRS; Primakoff et al. 1986 ) does not capture the depth of HE and the Homework Rating Scale (HRS; Kazantzis et al. 2004 ) is a client self-report measure, which might over- or underestimate homework compliance compared to objective measures. Studies increasingly put effort on focusing on qualitative aspects of homework completion. For this reason, the term and concept of homework engagement (HE) has been deemed relevant: it refers to the extent to which a patient has completed homework in an elaborate and clinically meaningful manner (Dozois 2010 ; Conklin and Strunk 2015 ). Furthermore, less empirical attention has been paid to underlying mechanisms going beyond patient factors, including therapist behaviors influencing HE and their relation to depressive symptoms.

Homework-Related Therapist Behaviors

Theoretical considerations and clinical recommendations of therapist behaviors related to homework (TBH) mainly build on four strategies suggested by Beck et al. ( 1979 ): (1) Homework should be described clearly and should be specific; (2) homework should be assigned with a cogent rationale; (3) patients’ reactions and should be elicited and in order to troubleshoot difficulties; (4) progress should be summarized when reviewing homework. Expert clinicians have also pointed out the value of formulating simple and feasible homework tasks and emphasized the patient involvement when developing homework assignments that are agreeable to the patient (Kazantzis et al. 2003 ; Tompkins 2002 ). Moreover, factors such as the match between the assignment and the client, as well as the wording of the homework task should be considered (Detweiler and Whisman 1999 ).

The suggested domains have also received some empirical attention. To our knowledge, four studies have focused on TBH in face-to-face treatment of MDD, which provide inconsistent findings. First, Startup and Edmonds ( 1994 ) investigated whether patient ratings of therapist behaviors promoting homework compliance were associated with therapist-rated homework compliance in a sample of 25 patients. The results did not demonstrate a significant relation between any facet of TBH (providing rationale, clear description, anticipation of problems, involving the patient) and homework compliance, which was largely attributed to ceiling effects of the patients’ ratings of TBH. Second, Bryant et al. ( 1999 ) assessed observer-rated homework compliance and TBH (reviewing previous assignment, providing rationale, clearly assigning and tailoring, seeking reactions and troubleshooting problems) in 26 depressed patients receiving cognitive therapy (CT). The study confirmed that patients that are more compliant experienced greater symptom improvement, and demonstrated a non-significant trend that suggests a relation between the overall score of the therapist homework behavior scale and homework compliance. Item-based analyses, however, demonstrated that therapist reviewing (TBH-R), but not therapist assigning behavior (TBH-A), was related to homework compliance. Third, in a sample of adolescents with depression, Jungbluth and Shirk ( 2013 ) demonstrated that providing a strong rationale and allocating more time in the beginning of treatment predicted greater homework compliance in the subsequent session, especially for initially resistant individuals. Fourth, the most recent study, conducted by Conklin et al. ( 2018 ), evaluated three classes of TBH in a sample of 66 patients with MDD undergoing CT. The authors reported that TBH-A, but not TBH-R were predictive of HE in the early sessions of CT, which stands in contrast to the findings of Bryant et al. ( 1999 ).

In consideration of the therapist’s prominent role in making use of therapeutic homework and the available inconclusive findings, the contribution of TBH to HE and their relation to depressive symptoms needs further exploration.

Homework Engagement in Telephone-Based CBT

The introduction of low-intensity CBT led to a way of delivering evidence-based treatments that is characterized by limited therapist input, technology-support, and increased use of self-help. These features are conflated in telephone-based CBT (tel-CBT). Tel-CBT puts emphasis on patients’ independent engagement with the therapeutic contents outside of therapy sessions by making systematic use of homework activities. The therapist plays an active role in structuring the treatment, providing input, and facilitating the comprehension and the use of homework. To the best of the authors’ knowledge, a limited number of studies with regard to homework in guided self-help and technology-supported treatment exists. One study investigating overall and component-specific homework compliance in an internet-based treatment with minimal therapist guidance found that overall homework compliance predicted 15% of the reductions in depressive symptoms (Kraepelien et al. 2019 ). Another study investigated TBH-R and homework completion in a telephone-delivered CBT (Aguilera et al. 2018 ). The authors found that the number of sessions in which a patient completed homework was related to a decrease in depressive symptoms at the end of treatment. This relationship disappeared when taking into account TBH-R, which, however, was positively associated with symptom reduction. These findings suggest that aspects of TBH are important factors for improved symptom outcome, but that TBH does not moderate the effect of homework compliance on improved symptom outcome (Aguilera et al. 2018 ).

Given the emphasis on patients’ contribution and self-reliance in the present treatment format, the assessment of HE might be a relevant process variable related to treatment outcome and an important therapy process that therapists can build upon. We would like to extend the current literature by using HE—a construct that is conceptually different from homework compliance and adherence—and by evaluating all sessions of the treatment (on average 9 sessions). This allows gaining a deeper understanding of the course of HE and TBH as well as the potential association between these variables and depressive symptoms.

Aim of the Current Study

The overall aim of the study is to provide insight into the occurrence and the course of HE and TBH in tel-CBT for depression. Additionally, first evidence on the relationship between HE, TBH, and depressive symptoms should be provided. Three objectives are pursued: (1) The assessment of the amount of homework, the proportion of different homework types, and the types of difficulties faced by patients when engaging with homework; (2) the description of initial status and course of HE and TBH in tel-CBT; (3) first examination of the relation between HE, TBH, and depressive symptoms over the course of the treatment.

The current study draws on data from a randomized controlled trial (RCT; Haller et al. 2019 ) investigating the effectiveness of tel-CBT compared to treatment as usual. Information on detailed study procedures and methods of the overarching RCT can be found in the study protocol (Watzke et al. 2017 ). The trial was approved by the local Ethics Committee. Inclusion criteria for the study were a PHQ-9 score of > 5 and ≤ 15, a diagnosis of mild or moderate depression according to ICD-10 (F32.0, F32.1, F33.0, F33.1), and the provision of a written informed consent. Patients were excluded, if they showed suicidality (item 9 > 0 on PHQ-9) or severe or chronic depression (F32.2, F34.1), if their physical or mental condition did not allow completion of questionnaires, if they were not proficient in the German language, or if they were in psychotherapeutic or psychological treatment at the time of intake or 3 months prior. For the main trial, 152 patients were screened for eligibility, of which 54 were included and randomized to either intervention or control group.

Data of each therapy session from patients randomized in the intervention group, i.e., those who received and completed the tel-CBT ( N  = 24), were used. We included data from all patients of which more than 80% of the therapy sessions were available and audio-recorded. The sample for the current study was necessarily reduced to N  = 22 because from two patients the majority of therapy sessions was missing due to technical failure to record. The two excluded patients did not differ from the intervention group in clinical status and sociodemographic variables with the exception that their age is in the lower range.

For the included 22 patients, three therapists who were employed at the University’s outpatient clinic were involved in providing tel-CBT. All therapists were female and 34 years old on average ( SD  = 5.9). The therapists were clinical psychologists with previous experience in treating patients with depression, and were in advanced training of CBT (current duration of training: M  = 4.3 years, SD  = 1.5). They received specific training in tel-CBT prior to the study and regular supervision by a senior clinician and researcher (BW) during the treatment provision.

Tel-CBT starts with a personal face-to-face session with the therapist and comprises 8–12 subsequent telephone sessions, which last between 30 and 40 min. The treatment program is called “Creating a balance” and is conceptualized as a guided self-help CBT delivered over the telephone. The content is based on core CBT elements—psychoeducation, behavioral activation, cognitive restructuring, and relapse prevention—within a total of eight chapters. The intervention entails a treatment manual for therapists and a workbook for patients to read and practice skills in between sessions. Each chapter is structured in a psychoeducational part with reading materials and case vignettes and a practical part with step-by-step instructions for exercises (i.e., homework). Copies of additional worksheets to complete homework are provided at the end of each chapter. Therapists were instructed to adhere closely to the treatment manual. This included agreeing upon a homework assignment in each therapy session, and reviewing the previously assigned homework at the beginning of the subsequent therapy session. The types of homework in the treatment manual were classified as: (1) Psychoeducational homework, including reading materials and case vignettes; (2) behavioral homework, including scheduling and undertaking pleasant activities; (3) cognitive homework, including replacing dysfunctional thoughts; (4) self-monitoring homework, referring to observing and monitoring thoughts and emotions; and (5) relapse prevention homework, including recognizing warning signs and establishing an emergency plan.

Measures and Assessment

Global Homework Engagement Scale (GHES). We developed an instrument measuring global HE independent of the type of homework assigned. The previously established homework engagement scale (HES) for CT by Conklin and Strunk ( 2015 ) served as a basis for the instrument. GHES consists of seven items regarding quantitative and qualitative aspects of homework completion. Each item is described in detail and is assessed on a 5-point Likert scale, varying from 0 ( not at all ) to 4 ( considerably ). Each of the five item manifestations contains a verbal anchoring tailored to the respective item in order to determine specific criteria connected to the rater’s decision, helping to ensure a uniform understanding of each item’s characteristics. The seven items cover the following aspects of HE: (1) Extent to which patients engaged with homework tasks; (2) whether and to which extent patients carried out homework as agreed upon; (3) whether and to which extent patients applied learnt strategies in difficult times; (4) the intensity of HE; (5) whether and to which extent patients faced difficulties when carrying out homework; (6) whether and to which extent patients could benefit from completed homework tasks; (7) estimated time that patients spent on HE. Additionally, and similarly to HES by Conklin and Strunk ( 2015 ), the scale contains two items which serve as a homework log. In the first log-item, homework that was reportedly completed from the previous session were written down by the raters. For the second log-item, research assistants recorded homework assignments for the next session before the rating procedure started. This procedure ensured that raters were informed about which previously assigned homework the discussion in a session is referring to. For the global GHES score, an average score of items 1 to 7 is calculated with higher scores indicating more HE.

Scale for Therapeutic Homework Assignment and Review (StHAR). An instrument to assess TBH was constructed for the purpose of this study. The instrument consists of eight items covering the process of assigning the upcoming homework (TBH-A) and the process of reviewing previously assigned homework (TBH-R). All items are assessed on a 5-point Likert scale, varying from 0 ( not at all ) to 4 ( considerably ). Each item is described in detail and contains a verbal anchoring for each item manifestation. The five items covering TBH-A build the subscale StH-A and comprise: (1) providing a rationale for the homework; (2) tailoring the homework to the individual situation; (3) addressing potential challenges of completing the homework; (4) specifying the homework; (5) ensuring comprehension of the homework. The subscale StH-R includes three items relating to TBH-R: (1) extent of discussing previous homework; (2) drawing conclusions of the homework; and (3) using homework to strengthen self-efficacy expectation of patient. The global StHAR score is calculated with an average score of all items, with StH-A items used from the previous session and StH-R items used from the subsequent session. Higher scores indicate a larger extent of TBH. Items from both scales are displayed in Table  1 . The German versions of the scales can be retrieved upon request from the corresponding author.

Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ - 9) . Depressive symptoms were assessed at the beginning of each session using the German version of the PHQ-9 (Löwe et al. 2002 ). Nine items regarding primary and secondary depression symptoms are assessed on a 4-point Likert scale and build a sum score between 0 and 27. Therapists went through each item of the PHQ-9 right at the beginning of each session as part of the symptom monitoring. Patients had a copy of the PHQ-9 in front of them, answering whether the symptom was available 0 ( none of the days ) to 3 ( almost every day ). Although originally developed as a self-report measure, telephone administration of the PHQ-9 seems to be a reliable and valid procedure to assess depression (Pinto-Meza et al. 2005 ).

Ratings of Tel-CBT Sessions

Audio recordings were available for all therapy sessions of the included 22 treatments. All available recordings of per protocol therapy sessions were included in the dataset. We did not include the initial face-to-face appointment, as this was not relevant for the assessed process variables. From 210 tel-CBT sessions that had taken place within this sample, we were able to rate 194 sessions (92.4%). We had to exclude sessions that deviated from the treatment manual ( n  = 4) or where audio recordings were not available or unusable due to technical failure to record the session, or due to poor quality of the recording ( n  = 12), respectively. Deviation of the treatment manual is defined as a session that did not target the planned content. This was the case, when therapists had to react to a crisis situation of the patient. The mean duration of one telephone session was 43 min ( SD  = 9.6).

Raters and Rater Training

HE and TBH were rated by five independent raters (one Doctoral candidate and four Master-level students in clinical psychology). All raters were blind to treatment outcome of the patients. During a period of 4 weeks, raters received 54 hours of training in the employed treatment manual and the use of the rating instruments. Training consisted of discussing the content of the treatment manual, particularly homework types in the tel-CBT. Furthermore, defining adequate and competent therapist behaviors regarding assignment and review of homework were discussed. Following the training phase, three successive trial ratings were completed by the raters. Each trial rating was discussed and in case of disagreement, the wording of the items were refined until consensus was reached. Prior to the rating phase, three therapy sessions from two excluded cases were randomly selected and rated by all five raters in order to examine initial inter-rater reliability (IRR). Calculation of intra-class correlation coefficients (ICC) in a two-way random model ICC (2,2) (Shrout and Fleiss, 1979 ) revealed an average ICC (2,2) of .91 and a median ICC (2,2) of .93 across all raters and all items of GHES, and an average ICC (2,2) of .81 and a median ICC (2,2) of .88 across all raters and all items of StHAR. This result indicated that IRR was high, and that formal ratings could start subsequently.

Rating Procedure

All items were rated on a 5-point Likert scale in order to determine the estimated extent of patient`s HE as well as the extent of TBH. Raters were encouraged to take notes while listening to the audio file and rate all items at the end of the session. Of the 197 eligible audio recordings, each rater was randomly assigned between 32 and 38 sessions for the main rating. Session allocation was stratified by therapist, patient, and treatment phase (phase I: sessions 1–4; phase II: sessions 5–9). A subsample of therapy sessions was double-coded in order to establish IRR. 40% of the total amount of sessions were drawn to carry out double-ratings resulting in a total of 57 to 62 sessions rated per rater. Each rater was paired with every other rater an approximately equal number of times. For the double-rated sessions, the average score of the rater pair for each item was used in the final analyses.

Statistical Analysis

As GHES and StHAR are newly developed rating instruments, analyses of the psychometric properties were conducted before turning to the research questions under investigation. We calculated Pearson`s r for corrected item-total-correlations and coefficient omega (ω) to measure internal consistency of both scales. IRR was assessed by calculating ICC in a two-way random model (ICC 2,2 ) (Shrout and Fleiss 1979 ) testing for absolute agreement between two raters and within one rater, respectively.

In order to meet research objective one, the types of homework assigned as well as types of difficulties faced when completing homework are reported. Moreover, descriptive statistics (means and standard deviations) of the individual items and the total scores of the scales GHES and StHAR (including subscales StH-A and StH-R) are presented. For research objective two, multilevel mixed models (MLM) were applied to examine between- and within-patient variability of HE and TBH over the course of treatment in a nested data set. In two-level models HE and TBH assessed at each of the nine telephone sessions (level 1) are modelled within each of the 22 individuals (level 2). The inter-individual variability in terms of initial status and growth of HE and TBH are modelled at level 2. For research objective three, MLM was analysed with depressive symptoms measured with PHQ-9 defined as criterion on level 1. Depressive symptoms were assessed in each session. HE of the same session, and TBH (consisting of TBH-A of the previous session and TBH-R of the current session), were gradually introduced as time-varying predictors of the session-specific symptom severity. In total, five stepwise built multilevel models were calculated. First, the null or unconditional model was created, including the intercept and the random term (null-model). Second, the null-model was expanded by adding a random slope for time (model 1). Third, one time-varying predictor (HE) was introduced into the random intercept random slope model (model 2). Lastly, random intercept and random slope models with two time-varying predictors (HE and TBH; model 3) and an interaction term between HE and TB (model 4) were created. A separate model that included HE as criterion and TBH as predictor was analysed.

All models were estimated using restricted maximum likelihood (RML). In order to compare the appropriateness of the specified models, AIC, BIC and log-likelihood values were used. Analyses were performed using R software (version 6.3.0; R Core Team 2014 ), the lme4 package (Bates et al. 2015 ) and the psych package (Revelle, 2019 ).

Descriptive Statistics of Sample

Baseline sociodemographic and clinical characteristics of the N  = 22 included patients are displayed in Table  2 . The majority of the sample was female and on average 56 years old ( SD  = 18.1). Symptom severity ranged from mild to moderately severe levels of depression (6 ≤ PHQ-9 ≤ 20) at the beginning of treatment resulting in a moderately depressed status on average.

Psychometric Properties of GHES and StHAR

With regard to psychometric properties of the scales, corrected item-total correlations ranged from .46 to .78 for GHES and from .39 to .61 for StHAR. Internal consistency of GHES was excellent across treatment (ω = .87), with values ranging from .79 to .91 across sessions. Internal consistency for StHAR was good across treatment (ω = .80) with values ranging from .63 to .87 across sessions. Internal consistency for StH-A was .73 and .68 for StH-R. We calculated ICC using a two-way random effects model (ICC 2,2 ) (Shrout and Fleiss, 1979 ) to estimate IRR. For GHES, ICCs (2,2) across all rater dyads ranged from .41 to .81, resulting in a moderate average ICC (2,2) of .68 as well as a moderate median ICC (2,2) of .70. For StHAR, ICCs (2,2) across rater dyads ranged between .45 and .83 resulting in a moderate average ICC of .64 and a moderate median IRR of .64. Due to the good psychometric properties of StHAR, the global StHAR score was used instead of the subscales StH-A and StH-R in further analyses.

Descriptive Statistics of Homework, HE, and TBH

Across all telephone sessions and patients, 411 homework activities were assigned in total, resulting in approximately two defined homework tasks per session and per patient on average. The majority of the homework was classified as psychoeducational ( n  = 142; 35%) and behavioral ( n  = 138; 31%), followed by cognitive ( n  = 76; 18%), self-monitoring ( n  = 36; 9%), and relapse prevention ( n  = 29; 7%) homework. In total, 380 (92.5%) of the homework activities were completed. Across all patients and therapy sessions HE was on average M  = 2.71 ( SD  = 0.74), which translates into moderate to high HE when using the item anchors. Difficulties in completing homework assignments were reported in 75% of the sessions, with the extent of difficulties showing an average of M  = 1.53 ( SD  = 1.10). Using the item anchors, this value translates to small to moderate difficulties. Most commonly assessed types of difficulties encountered by patients were negative events that impeded homework completion (34.1%), depressive symptoms (29.7%), and lack of strategies and options to complete homework (13.7%). Lack of time (8.2%), homework being too difficult (8.2%), and other homework-related aspects (6.0%) were further reported difficulties in completing the task. HE and TBH showed a small significant association across sessions, with a mean correlation of r  = .28 ( p  < .05). Descriptive information on HE and TBH per session are presented in Table  3 .

Course of HE and TBH and Their Association

With regard to variation in HE among patients and across treatment, we first ran an unconditional or null model with HE as criterion. The average HE across patients and treatment is 2.70 ( SE  = 0.09). Calculations of ICC using the within- and between-patient variance shows that 25% of the variance in initial status of HE are attributed to differences among patients. Entering time as predictor (model 1), the unconditional growth model demonstrates that patients start on average with high HE ( M  = 3.00, SE  = 0.13) and show a small reduction in HE during the course of treatment (− 0.05, p  = .011). With regard to TBH, 14.8% of variance can be attributed to differences between patients. The initial status of TBH is 2.32 ( SE  = 0.13) and shows a similarly small, but statistically non-significant reduction during the course of the treatment (− 0.04, p  = .307). The models regarding course of HE and TBH are displayed in Table  4 .

In order to explore the association between HE and TBH, stepwise multilevel models were built with HE as criterion in a separate model. TBH consisting of TBH-A from the previous session and TBH-R from the following session was entered as a time-varying predictor of HE in the subsequent session. TBH was significantly and positively related to HE over the course of treatment (0.24, SE  = 0.07, p  = .032). Results are displayed in Table  5 .

Association Between HE, TBH, and Depressive Symptoms

For the association between HE, TBH, and depressive symptoms, we first ran an unconditional or null model, which demonstrated a within-patient variability in depressive symptoms of 38% (data not shown), indicating a nested structure of the data. After modelling the time slope (model 1), time-varying predictor 1 was entered at level 1 (model 2). Time-varying predictor 1 was HE of the current session, since ratings refer to the interval between two sessions. Higher scores on HE were associated with lower depressive symptoms over the course of treatment (− 0.83, SD  = 0.35, p  = .015). Comparison of model 1 and model 2 returned better fit indices for model 2 (log-likelihood for model 1 = - 451.37 and for model 2 = − 448.05, p  = .009; AIC for model 1 = 910.74 and for model 2 = 906.10; BIC for model 1 = 923.3 and for model 2 = 921.8;) for the random intercept random slope model with HE as predictor (smaller values indicate better fit). Next, the second time-varying predictor—TBH from the previous session—was introduced into the model at level 1. TBH was not significantly related to depressive symptoms (0.23, SD  = 0.30, p  = .437). Compared to model 2, model 3 did not show improved model fit (log-likelihood for model 2 = − 444.69 and for model 3 = − 444.24, p  = .346; AIC for model 2 = 903.4, and for model 3 = 904.5; BIC for model 2 = 925.4 and for model 3 = 929.6), indicating the model with HE as predictor fits the data better. The last model (model 4) included an interaction between the two time-varying predictors, however the model did not converge. Results of the random intercept model (model 1), the random intercept and random slope model with one predictor (model 2), and the random intercept random slope model with two predictors (model 3) are presented in Table  6 .

The present study describes types and amount of homework assigned and depicts rather high levels of HE in tel-CBT. Results of our study further show that HE decreases slightly throughout the course of therapy and that TBH is related to HE over the course of therapy. Ultimately, results reveal that higher scores on HE are associated with lower levels of depressive symptoms, but that TBH and depressive symptoms are not associated.

The study demonstrates that homework assignments and engagement with homework play a central role in tel-CBT – as could be expected from the guided self-help approach. This is indicated by the overall amount of assigned homework across therapy and patients, the proportion of homework completed by patients, and the patients’ rather high HE throughout the course of the treatment. As expected, we found that homework was overall assigned in most of the therapy sessions. The fact that on average two homework assignments were prepared in each session confirms that contents were employed and implemented as scheduled by tel-CBT. This treatment format lays special emphasis on this kind of intersession activity.

When modelling the status and course of HE and TBH, both variables showed more within-patient variability compared to between-patient variability over the course of the treatment, as indicated by the ICC calculations of variance components and the slopes of the variables in the models. Inter-individual differences explained rather small proportions of the variance (25% in HE, 15% in TBH), which might indicate that both variables are dynamic rather than stable patient characteristics. The overall high HE across patients might be explained by sociodemographic and clinical patient characteristics. The average age of our sample was rather high and the vast majority of patients reported having had previous depressive episodes and psychotherapy experience. It is likely that patients with a history of depression and of undergoing treatment are trying particularly hard to make the most out of therapy. Moreover, older patients might show a sense of self-responsibility when it comes to carrying out therapeutic homework. Contrary to the belief that adult patients may have reservations regarding homework due to their age, there is evidence that adult patients have positive attitudes towards homework, with the vast majority of patients not perceiving themselves too old for homework (Fehm and Mrose 2008 ). HE declined slightly over the course of treatment and visual inspection of the individual courses of HE showed that drops in HE happened in some patients in single sessions. These variations are expected to be due to specific external factors that have an influence on the patient's HE at a given session. For example, further explorative analyses might scrutinize which external factors regarding homework (such as difficulties completing the homework task; lack of resources or time in a given week) and session content might be responsible for situations with a drop in HE. In view of previous suggestions that homework compliance might not be linear across treatment of social anxiety disorder (Leung and Heimberg 1996 ), future studies might employ statistical models that are suitable to detect various patterns of HE. For example, latent growth analysis, which requires much larger samples than the one used in our study, would allow to detect differences in latent factors between groups of patients, and to relate different HE patterns to treatment outcome (Collins and Sayer 2001 ).

Our study provides empirical support for the association between HE and depressive symptoms throughout the course of tel-CBT in mildly to moderately depressed patients. Using MLM with repeated measures of predictors and outcome, we found a medium-sized association between HE shown between sessions and depressive symptoms in the subsequent session. In other words, when HE increases by one unit in an interval of two sessions, patient's symptomatology decreases an average of 0.8 units on the PHQ-9 in the subsequent session. Overall, this result goes in line with meta-analytic evidence of the relation between homework compliance and treatment outcome showing a weighted mean effect size on therapy outcome of r  = .22 for homework compliance and r  = .36 for the employment of homework in therapy (Kazantzis et al. 2000 ). Moreover, the result corresponds to one previous study focusing on a similar conceptualization of HE, which found an immediate effect of HE on symptom outcome in the subsequent session (Conklin and Strunk 2015 ). In our study, TBH was not associated with depressive symptoms in the subsequent session. However, our results indicate that TBH was significantly related to HE over the course of treatment, which corresponds to results of a previous study that found TBH to significantly predict subsequent HE (Conklin et al. 2018 ). Explanations for these findings could be that some clinically beneficial TBH might have been less present in the overall therapists’ behaviors and therefore exerted an effect on HE but not on depressive symptoms. Even though the homework procedure in our study tended to be therapist-initiated, the patients took an active part in tel-CBT, as the majority of the session time was spent on reviewing patients’ experiences with the previous homework and discussing future homework It needs to be stressed that therapists were not trained in specific assignment and review procedures. This means that some aspects of assigning homework that received clinical and empirical support in previous work, were not implemented in our study. For example, it is recommended to write down homework tasks and instructions (Cox et al. 1988 ) in order to assure higher homework compliance. Moreover, a recent study provides preliminary support for the importance of designing homework tasks that are congruent with what the patient perceived helpful in the session (Jensen et al. 2020 ). Since therapists were instructed to adhere to the homework assignments as scheduled, they were not entirely free to consider whether the homework type scheduled for a specific session was appropriate for the patients’ current problem or situation. It is likely that therapists—despite strictly assigning the activity types as scheduled in the treatment manual—adequately adapted the different homework types to the patient's individual situation and promoted patient's willingness and ability to engage with homework outside the therapy session. Our results further suggest that the specific type of homework might not be the only relevant factor for higher HE, as long as therapists assign and review homework in an elaborate, comprehensible, and convincing manner. Lastly, it is important to consider that the association between TBH and HE might run in the opposite direction in that patients’ higher HE and reporting thereof might have influenced the therapists’ reactions to the patients’ reports.

The present results need to be interpreted in due consideration of several limitations: First, the predictor variables were assessed using two self-constructed rating scales, which have not been validated prior to the study. We did not use standardized or validated instruments to assess HE and TBH, because no process rating instrument targeting the particular conceptualization of these variables exists. We aimed at expanding on the previously reported Homework Engagement Scale (HES) by Conklin and Strunk ( 2015 ) by adding indicators such as intensity of HE or difficulties faced when engaging with homework. Despite good psychometric properties for both scales with regard to internal consistency and moderate to good properties regarding IRR, the validity of GHES might be constrained: Even though GHES is an objective observer-based rating instrument with a precise rating manual, the items do not always allow a direct observation of facets relevant to HE. The appraisal of each item relies on the patient expressing his or her thoughts and experiences with the homework process. However, these narratives might not cover all areas of interest in the rating instrument. For example, the rating on the difficulty-item is indirectly inferred from the narratives of the patient about how engaging with homework went. If the patient did in fact face difficulties affecting HE, but not explicitly mention these when talking about how homework activity went, the measurement of difficulties faced in this situation might not be representative of HE. The rating therefore relates to the raters’ appraisal of whether a patient had faced challenges that might have affected HE, rather than the patients’ subjective feelings or the true influence of experienced difficulties on HE. Objective and observer-based assessments of HE might be supplemented by patients’ reports of difficulties faced as well as by patient ratings on the profoundness with which patients engaged in homework activities as well as the perceived benefits of homework in future research. Second, the StHAR did not specifically target competence or quality of assigning and reviewing homework. Future studies might develop and employ rating instruments that clearly differentiate the extent of TBH shown by the therapist from the competency of these therapeutic actions. Moreover, patient ratings of whether therapists assigned and reviewed the homework in a skilful manner in the patients’ views might add to a better understanding of clinically meaningful TBH.

Third, our methodology and our analytic strategy do not allow for any causal inferences regarding HE and depressive symptoms, despite multiple assessments of HE in session intervals and the depressive symptoms assessed at the beginning of each session. Reverse causation cannot be excluded, since patients might have reported about homework more elaborately and positively in the sessions due to an improved mood. Moreover, depressive symptoms were assessed retrospectively for the time period since the last therapy session. Fourth, the study sample was rather small. Therefore, additional exploratory statistical models for our third research question (e.g., including interaction terms) could not be converged in our models. Lastly, selection bias might have occurred as the majority of the patients self-referred to the overarching clinical trial, potentially leading to the inclusion of generally motivated patients who showed rather small variability in HE and therefore also did not require the therapist to intervene in a way that promotes HE or improves depressive symptoms.

Even though our results should be regarded as preliminary evidence, the findings add to the body of literature due to several strengths. A more comprehensive concept of the extent of homework compliance was used in the present study, going beyond commonly used quantitative measures of homework completion or single-item compliance measures. Several differences between HE and previous operationalizations of homework compliance exist. HE incorporates facets of the quality and the intensity of patient's engagement with the homework tasks, the estimated benefit for the patient of undertaking homework, the estimated transference of acquired skills to the patients’ daily lives, as well as the difficulties experienced by the patient when completing homework. Another strength of the study is the conceptualization of TBH, which incorporates multiple facets regarding preparing and reviewing homework, informed by clinical recommendations. These aspects were derived from listening to and rating complete therapy sessions with high reliability, as indicated by the IRR analyses. Moreover, observer-based ratings of both HE and TBH might provide more objective estimations of HE and discussion of tasks in the therapy session compared to client or therapist reports (Mausbach et al. 2010 ). Lastly, our study provides insight into the course of HE and TBH throughout the entire treatment, which helps generating hypotheses regarding the nature of HE and its relation to TBH and depressive symptoms.

The study provides evidence that homework is implemented by therapists and patients in tel-CBT. Engagement with homework and therapists’ actions to assign and discuss homework varies across treatment in this sample. However, on average a slight decrease of HE throughout the treatment was observed and patients, who show high HE, experience lower depressive symptoms on average. Future studies with designs allowing to determine the direction of causality and with  reliable and more economic ways of retrieving information regarding HE in the patients’ natural environments (e.g., using ecological momentary assessment) are warranted. This approach would allow for recording patients’ HE close to occurrence and provide information regarding reasons for low HE as well as facilitators for completing homework without recall bias. TBH was not related to depressive symptoms but showed an association with HE. Future studies might examine whether TBH moderates the HE-symptom improvement relationship and whether specific homework types require specific therapist skills to assign and review in a meaningful way.

Data Availability

The datasets generated and/or analysed during the current study are available from the corresponding author on reasonable request.

Aguilera, A., Ramos, Z., Sistiva, D., Wang, Y., & Alegria, M. (2018). Homework completion via telephone and in-person cognitive behavioral therapy among Latinos. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 42 (3), 340–347. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10608-017-9884-3 .

Article   PubMed   PubMed Central   Google Scholar  

Bates, D., Maechler, M., Bolker, B., & Walker, S. (2015). Fitting linear mixed-effects models using lme4. Journal of Statistical Software, 67 (1), 1–48. https://doi.org/10.18637/jss.v067.i01 .

Article   Google Scholar  

Beck, A. T., Rush, A. J., Shaw, B. F., & Emery, G. (1979). Cognitive therapy of depression . New York: Guilford Press.

Google Scholar  

Bryant, M. J., Simons, A. D., & Thase, M. E. (1999). Therapist skill and patient variables in homework compliance: Controlling an uncontrolled variable in cognitive therapy outcome research. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 23 (4), 19.

Collins, L. M., & Sayer, A. G. (Eds.). (2001). New methods for the analysis of change. American Psychological Association. https://doi.org/10.1037/10409-000

Conklin, L. R., & Strunk, D. R. (2015). A session-to-session examination of homework engagement in cognitive therapy for depression: Do patients experience immediate benefits? Behavior Research and Therapy, 72, 56–62. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.brat.2015.06.011 .

Conklin, L. R., Strunk, D. R., & Cooper, A. A. (2018). Therapist behaviors as predictors of immediate homework engagement in cognitive therapy for depression. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 42 (1), 16–23. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10608-017-9873-6 .

Article   PubMed   Google Scholar  

Cox, D. J., Tisdelle, D. A., & Culbert, J. P. (1988). Increasing adherence to behavioral homework assignments. Journal of Behavioral Medicine, 11 (5), 519–522. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00844844 .

Article   CAS   PubMed   Google Scholar  

Detweiler, J. B., & Whisman, M. A. (1999). The role of homework assignments in cognitive therapy for depression: Potential methods for enhancing adherence. Clinical Psychology: Science and Practice, 6, 267–282.

Dozois, D. J. A. (2010). Understanding and enhancing the effects of homework in cognitive-behavioral therapy. Clinical Psychology: Science and Practice, 17 (2), 157–161. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1468-2850.2010.01205.x .

Fehm, L., & Mrose, J. (2008). Patients’ perspective on homework assignments in cognitive-behavioral therapy. Clinical Psychology and Psychotherapy, 15 (5), 320–328. https://doi.org/10.1002/cpp.592 .

Haller, E., Lezius, S., Wegscheider, K., Rosemann, T., & Watzke, B. (2019). Effectiveness of Telephone-delivered Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Mild to Moderate Depression in Primary Care - Results of the Randomized-Controlled TIDe-Study. Manuscript submitted for publication.

Jensen, A., Fee, C., Miles, A. L., Beckner, V. L., Owen, D., & Persons, J. B. (2020). Congruence of patient takeaways and homework assignment content predicts homework compliance in psychotherapy. Behavior Therapy, 51 (3), 424–433. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.beth.2019.07.005 .

Jungbluth, N. J., & Shirk, S. R. (2013). Promoting Homework Adherence in Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for Adolescent Depression. Journal of Clinical Child & Adolescent Psychology, 42 (4), 545–553. https://doi.org/10.1080/15374416.2012.743105 .

Kazantzis, N., Brownfield, N. R., Mosely, L., Usatoff, A. S., & Flighty, A. J. (2017). Homework in cognitive behavioral therapy: A systematic review of adherence assessment in anxiety and depression (2011–2016). Psychiatric Clinics of North America, 40 (4), 625–639. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.psc.2017.08.001 .

Kazantzis, N., Deane, F. P., & Ronan, K. R. (2000). Homework assignments in cognitive and behavioral therapy: A meta-analysis. Clinical Psychology: Science and Practice, 7 (2), 189–202. https://doi.org/10.1093/clipsy.7.2.189 .

Kazantzis, N., Deane, F. P., & Ronan, K. R. (2004). Assessing compliance with homework assignments: Review and recommendations for clinical practice. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 60 (6), 627–641. https://doi.org/10.1002/jclp.10239 .

Kazantzis, N., & L’Abate, L. (2007). Handbook of homework assignments in psychotherapy: Research, practice, and prevention . New York: Springer.

Book   Google Scholar  

Kazantzis, N., Pachana, N. A., & Secker, D. L. (2003). Cognitive behavioral therapy for older adults: Practical guidelines for the use of homework assignments. Cognitive and Behavioral Practice, 10 (4), 324–332. https://doi.org/10.1016/S1077-7229(03)80050-0 .

Kazantzis, N., & Ronan, K. R. (2006). Can between-session (homework) activities be considered a common factor in psychotherapy? Journal of Psychotherapy Integration, 16 (2), 115–127. https://doi.org/10.1037/1053-0479.16.2.115 .

Kazantzis, N., Whittington, C., & Dattilio, F. (2010). Meta-analysis of homework effects in cognitive and behavioral therapy: A replication and extension: homework assignments and therapy outcome. Clinical Psychology: Science and Practice, 17 (2), 144–156. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1468-2850.2010.01204.x .

Kazantzis, N., Whittington, C., Zelencich, L., Kyrios, M., Norton, P. J., & Hofmann, S. G. (2016). Quantity and quality of homework compliance: A meta-analysis of relations with outcome in cognitive behavior therapy. Behavior Therapy, 47 (5), 755–772. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.beth.2016.05.002 .

Kraepelien, M., Blom, K., Lindefors, N., Johansson, R., & Kaldo, V. (2019). The effects of component-specific treatment compliance in individually tailored internet-based treatment. Clinical Psychology and Psychotherapy, 26 (3), 298–308. https://doi.org/10.1002/cpp.2351 .

Lambert, M. J., Harmon, S. C., & Slade, K. (2007). Directions for research on homework. In A. Adhu (Ed.), Handbook of homework assignments in psychotherapy: Research, practice, and prevention . New York: Springer.

Leung, A. W., & Heimberg, R. G. (1996). Homework compliance, perceptions of control, and outcome of cognitive-behavioral treatment of social phobia. Behavior Research and Therapy, 34 (5–6), 423–432. https://doi.org/10.1016/0005-7967(96)00014-9 .

Article   CAS   Google Scholar  

Löwe, B., Spitzer, R. L., Zipfel, S., & Herzog, W. (2002). Gesundheitsfragebogen für Patienten (PHQ - D): Manual und Testunterlagen. Pfizer.

Mausbach, B. T., Moore, R., Roesch, S., Cardenas, V., & Patterson, T. L. (2010). An updated meta-analysis: The relationship between homework compliance and therapy outcomes. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 34 (5), 429–438. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10608-010-9297-z .

Pinto-Meza, A., Serrano-Blanco, A., Peñarrubia, M. T., Blanco, E., & Haro, J. M. (2005). Assessing depression in primary care with the PHQ-9: Can it be carried out over the telephone? Journal of General Internal Medicine, 20 (8), 738–742. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1525-1497.2005.0144.x .

Primakoff, L., Epstein, N., & Covi, L. (1986). Homework compliance: An uncontrolled variable in cognitive therapy outcome research. Behavior Therapy, 17 (4), 433–446. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0005-7894(86)80073-9 .

Revelle, W. (2019).  psych: Procedures for Psychological, Psychometric, and Personality Research . Northwestern University, Evanston, Illinois. R package version 1.9.12,  https://CRAN.R-project.org/package=psych .

Shrout, P. E., & Fleiss, J. L. (1979). Intraclass correlations: Uses in assessing rater reliability. Psychological Bulletin, 86 (2), 420–428.

Startup, M., & Edmonds, J. (1994). Compliance with homework assignments in cognitive-behavioral psychotherapy for depression: relation to outcome and methods of enhancement. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 18 (6), 567–579. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF02355669 .

R Core Team (2014) R: A language and environment for statistical computing. R Foundation for Statistical Computing, Zurich, Switzerland. URL http://www.R-projet.org/

Tompkins, M. A. (2002). Guidelines for enhancing homework compliance. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 58 (5), 565–576. https://doi.org/10.1002/jclp.10033 .

Watzke, B., Haller, E., Steinmann, M., Heddaeus, D., Härter, M., König, H.-H., et al. (2017). Effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of telephone-based cognitive-behavioral therapy in primary care: Study protocol of TIDe – telephone intervention for depression. BMC Psychiatry, 17, 1. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12888-017-1429-5 .

Download references

Acknowledgments

Open access funding provided by University of Zurich.

No funding was obtained for this study.

Author information

Authors and affiliations.

Department of Clinical Psychology and Psychotherapy Research, Department of Psychology, University of Zurich, Binzmühlestrasse 14/16, Zurich, Switzerland

Elisa Haller & Birgit Watzke

You can also search for this author in PubMed   Google Scholar

Contributions

EH planned and conceptualized the study, collected, analyzed and interpreted data, and drafted and revised the manuscript. BW supervised the study, was involved in study conceptualization and interpretation of data, and revised the manuscript. All authors read and approved the final manuscript.

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Elisa Haller .

Ethics declarations

Conflict of interest.

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Consent to Publish

Patients provided written informed consent that pseudonymised data will be used for research purposes and the reporting of study findings.

Ethics Approval

This study was performed in line with the principles of the Declaration of Helsinki and was approved by the local Ethics Committee of the Canton of Zurich (Ref. Nr. 2015-0417).

Consent to Participate

All patients included in the study gave written informed consent to participate.

Animal Rights

No animal studies were carried out by the authors for this article.

Additional information

Publisher's note.

Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.

Rights and permissions

Open Access This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons licence, and indicate if changes were made. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article's Creative Commons licence, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the article's Creative Commons licence and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder. To view a copy of this licence, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/ .

Reprints and permissions

About this article

Haller, E., Watzke, B. The Role of Homework Engagement, Homework-Related Therapist Behaviors, and Their Association with Depressive Symptoms in Telephone-Based CBT for Depression. Cogn Ther Res 45 , 224–235 (2021). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10608-020-10136-x

Download citation

Published : 22 July 2020

Issue Date : April 2021

DOI : https://doi.org/10.1007/s10608-020-10136-x

Share this article

Anyone you share the following link with will be able to read this content:

Sorry, a shareable link is not currently available for this article.

Provided by the Springer Nature SharedIt content-sharing initiative

  • Telephone-based CBT
  • Therapeutic homework
  • Homework engagement
  • Guided selfhelp CBT
  • Patient activity
  • Therapist behaviors
  • Find a journal
  • Publish with us
  • Track your research

IELTS Writing Topics February & March 2024

The collection of writing topics that were reported by IELTS student in 2024 . These questions could be repeated from previous months. Keep in mind that the provided questions are not predictions.

Pick one of the topics and improve your writing skills every day. If you can't come up with ideas for a topic just click the "Show answers" button and you will see the different ideas.

  • Unlimited Essay Checks: Practice and perfect your skills.
  • Detailed Error Analysis: Spot every mistake.
  • In-Built Grammar Checker: Say no to grammatical errors.
  • Personalized Suggestions: Know how to boost your score.
  • Progress Tracking: View your checked essay history.
  • Still thinking? We have a 14-day money-back guarantee. Take a leap of faith!

IELTS Mentor "IELTS Preparation & Sample Answer"

  • Skip to content
  • Jump to main navigation and login

Nav view search

  • IELTS Sample

IELTS Essay Topics with sample answer.

Ielts academic and gt essay/ writing task 2 sample.

IELTS Writing Task 2 ( also known as IELTS Essay Writing ) is the second task of your IELTS Writing test. Here, you will be presented with an essay topic and you will be scored based on your ability to respond to the topic.

You need to write at least 250 words and justify your opinion with arguments, discussion, examples, problem outlining, proposing possible solutions and supporting your position. You will have approximately 40 minutes to finish your Essay Writing. IELTS Writing Task 2 carries more weights than Writing Task 1.

Are you planning to take your IELTS Exam soon? Take an online course and achieve your dream score on your IELTS test.

Page 1 of 74

IELTS Materials

  • IELTS Bar Graph
  • IELTS Line Graph
  • IELTS Table Chart
  • IELTS Flow Chart
  • IELTS Pie Chart
  • IELTS Letter Writing
  • IELTS Essay
  • Academic Reading

Useful Links

  • IELTS Secrets
  • Band Score Calculator
  • Exam Specific Tips
  • Useful Websites
  • IELTS Preparation Tips
  • Academic Reading Tips
  • Academic Writing Tips
  • GT Writing Tips
  • Listening Tips
  • Speaking Tips
  • IELTS Grammar Review
  • IELTS Vocabulary
  • IELTS Cue Cards
  • IELTS Life Skills
  • Letter Types

IELTS Mentor - Follow Twitter

  • Privacy Policy
  • Cookie Policy
  • Copyright Notice
  • HTML Sitemap
  • View all teaching vacancies
  • View all locations
  • Barking & Dagenham
  • View all subjects
  • Business studies & Economics
  • Sociology & Psychology
  • View all job types
  • Primary school
  • Secondary school
  • View our variety of SEND roles

Online Portal

If you are registered to work with us already, you can log in here

Register to work with us

homework related task 2

Your Career• 3 Min read

6th September 2020

Creative Homework Ideas

How can you create homework assignments that build on the day’s lessons and encourage creative, student-led learning? It’s a challenge for most teachers, especially as motivating pupils to complete homework can add a whole extra layer to your lesson plans. But it’s essential to bridge the gap between teacher and student learning –  the skills gained through independent study reinforces knowledge from your class, as well as a host of other benefits:

  • Extended learning time – outside of the constraints of the school day, students are free to learn at their own pace and in their own environment.
  • Independent learning – vital skills for exam preparation and higher education
  • Teaches students to be resourceful and to overcome challenges independently.
  • Gives students the freedom to be creative in their learning, gain valuable problem-solving skills and confidence in their own abilities.

Tips For Setting Creative Homework

  • Plan independent learning both in and out of the classroom – you can monitor students effectiveness and address issues that may arise in the classroom before they become problematic for pupils at home.
  • Don’t leave homework assignment to the end of the lesson, rushing through the task might leave some students confused which inevitably leads to a lower homework completion rate. Write plenty of time for explaining homework assignments into your lesson planning – read our Beginner’s Guide To Lesson Planning here
  • Homework should to not too easy nor not too hard, offering pupils a challenge that reinforced the topics learnt during the day
  • Give room for creative expression – allowing students to add their own diagrams, decorations or chose their own project topics from a selection. 
  • Try using peer or self-assessment to mark homework – a double whammy of reducing your workload and allowing pupils to take control of their own learning.
  • Include timings and explicit steps for completing more complicated assignments, especially for pupils that you anticipate might struggle. Comprehension of the task is the biggest hurdle in getting pupils to work on an independent basis.
  • Self-driven projects, posters, creative tasks and research are more exciting than standard comprehension tasks and might encourage pupils that find sitting and writing dull or hard to complete the homework set – give students the freedom to learn and be creative in their home study.
  • Provide specific instructions and internet safety reminders for research-led assignments. It’s very easy for children to find research overwhelming with a vast amount of information available online. Provide suggested websites and links in your homework to keep things on track!
  • Don’t introduce a new topic for homework – keep it to topics that you’ve already covered in class
  • Taking note of the subjects that excite and engage your class and set homework accordingly – try keeping dryer topics and  for the classroom so that you can monitor engagement
  • Mark work promptly – essential to keep students motivated to complete work in their own time!
  • Offering students the opportunity to select the homework that they would like to do from a selection guarantees a higher rate of completion. We’ve seen some teachers create grids or sheets of homework assignments for the pupils to select, or offer baskets of activities for younger children to take home and complete with an adult.

Creative Homework Ideas For All Ages

Coming up with innovative ways for students to reinforce their knowledge at home can be difficult – many of these ideas would be suitable for lots of subjects with a little tweaking!

Book a CCS Consultation

Our East Anglia team are on hand to support your school or MAT with bespoke recruitment solutions, arrange a consultation with the team today.

Recommended for you

15+ ideas for celebrating chinese new year in the classroom.

Cultural holidays are a great opportunity to engage your class in learning...

  • Your Career

Safer Internet Day 2024

What is Safer Internet Day? Safer Internet Day is a globally celebrated...

How much is the average ECT salary in the UK?

Are you looking to start your journey in education, or are you...

You're now visiting Engage Education, United Kingdom

Take a look at some of the fantastic opportunities we’re currently recruiting for in the UK.

Privacy Overview

The Magoosh logo is the word Magoosh spelled with each letter o replaced with a check mark in a circle.

IELTS Speaking Part 2 Topics and Questions

a woman with a paper in hand practicing public speaking -magoosh

The IELTS Speaking topics for IELTS Speaking Part 2 can seem intimidating at first. After all, it’s the one part of the interview where you need to give a long solo speech.

Fortunately, Magoosh is here to help! Right below, we have a PDF that includes IELTS Speaking Part 2 topics you can practice with, and a great video tutorial from Eliot. And right after that, you can read on for plenty of additional help with IELTS Speaking topics Part 2.

Download the Magoosh IELTS Speaking Topics PDF

(NOTE: This post and its featured PDF are great supplements for anyone who’s following an IELTS study schedule with Magoosh . As a matter of fact, we specifically mention this article as a resource in our one-week IELTS study plan.)

Table of Contents

Ielts speaking part 2 topic card: main features, sample ielts speaking part 2 questions and answers, ielts speaking topics for part 2.

  • The Takeaway

In IELTS Speaking Part 2, you will receive a “topic card” that contains a detailed, multi-part question. Take a look at this official IELTS Speaking topics sample prompt , script , and recording of a Task 2 question to get a sense of what to expect. You will have one minute to prepare a short speech in response to the topic card. Then you should speak for 1-2 minutes.

Preparing for Part 2 can really pay off. As noted above, Magoosh offers a great list of Part 1 and Part 2 IELTS Speaking topics to use as you practice. Obviously, it is impossible to predict the exact questions you will receive on exam day. However, the structure of Part 2 questions is very consistent. Each Part 2 card has three basic features that you should know well:

Feature 1: Topic Introduction

Feature 2: 3 Detailed Points

Feature 3: Discussion

The right side of the card below shows the typical appearance of a Part 2 question. The notes on the left (not included on an actual IELTS topic card) highlight the three main features of this question type.

Go back to the top of our IELTS Speaking Part 2 tutorial.

Below is a sample IELTS Speaking Part 2 question and response. And for more example IELTS Speaking Part 2 questions, with answers, consider a subscription (or a 1 week free trial) to Magoosh IELTS .

Speaking Part 2 Topic Card

Notes and preparation.

You have one minute to plan your response before you speak. That may not seem like a long time to think of a response to all of these questions, but fortunately, planning a Part 2 response is simpler than it may look at first.

You will be provided with a pencil and some paper to plan your response. I advise students to read Feature 1 and Feature 2 first BUT to avoid writing notes about these questions. The best approach is simply to use these points on the card as reminders about what you need to say. At the beginning of your short speech, go through each point one by one with a brief response.

You should use most of your one-minute preparation time to plan your response for Feature 3. This point requires more detail and depth than the other talking points on the card. As you prepare, your goal should be to come up with at least two main points for Feature 3.

Hopefully, you can also think of some details and examples to support these points during your one-minute prep time. Keep in mind that you won’t have time to write detailed notes with complete sentences. Just write down a few words as reminders of what you plan to say.

Below is a sample of some notes related to the topic card above. For clarity in this blog post, I added more language on these notes than you would have time to include on the real exam.

Sample Notes:

The Situation/Who I gave advice to

  • Future in danger: almost kicked off basketball team, risk of not getting into college
  • Had ability: knew answers in class, but not doing homework

What advice was

  • take more time on homework
  • watch less TV, play fewer video games

Did friend take advice?

  • got to stay on team
  • got into college
  • kept good study habits in college

Sample Response

Here is a sample response to the topic card shown above.

“When I was in secondary school, my best friend was doing very poorly in her classes, and she definitely needed some advice. She was about to be kicked off the basketball team for her low grades, and I was worried she might not get into college.

She wasn’t struggling from lack of ability. Actually, she was smart and always knew the answers in class. The problem was that she hated homework and often wouldn’t do it; instead, she would instead watch TV all evening. I told her she needed to take her studies more seriously and spend more time on her homework.

I suggested she could get that extra time by watching less TV. I’m happy to say she took my advice, and it really helped her. She was able to keep her grades up and continue playing basketball on the school team. She also got into uni, and she kept her good study habits in her college classes. I feel proud that my advice helped her.”

This simple response answers each of the questions listed in all three features of the topic card directly. Without much planning or thought, you can go down the list and supply the necessary information to cover these points. Once you start expressing these points out loud in complete sentences, it’s not as hard to fill 1 to 2 minutes as you might think!

Now, let’s look at a number of other possible topic cards (these come from our IELTS Speaking Topics PDF). You can use the tips from this tutorial as you practice these topics.

1. Free Time

You should address:

  • What the activity is and what it involves.
  • When you first started doing the activity.
  • Whether you do the activity alone or with other people.

And explain why you enjoy the activity.

  • When you took the class.
  • Where you took the class.
  • The subject of the class.

And explain why the class was so useful.

  • What the method of travel is
  • How often you travel by this method.
  • Whether this travel method is cheap or expensive.

And explain why this method of travel is your favorite.

  • What the job is.
  • The job requirements.
  • The activities that are done on the job.

And explain why this job is your dream job.

  • What the tradition is.
  • How it’s celebrated.
  • When it’s celebrated.

And explain why the tradition is important to your family.

6. Hometown

  • Do you prefer to spend time at places in your hometown, or explore new places elsewhere?
  • How often you go there.
  • What you do there.

And explain why you enjoy going to this place.

  • Who this person is.
  • How you met your best friend.
  • How often you see this friend.

And explain why this person is your best friend.

  • Which season it is.
  • What the weather is like during the season.
  • What you like to do during the season.

And explain why this season is your favorite.

  • What the food is.
  • What it tastes like.
  • How often you eat it.

And explain why you enjoy this food.

10. Music, Movies, Books, Television

  • The name of the song.
  • Who sings it.
  • What the song is about.

And explain why the song is meaningful to you.

11. Recreation, Exercise, Sports

  • What the sport is.
  • Whether you play the sport, watch the sport, or both.
  • How long you’ve been interested in the sport.

And explain why you think the sport is interesting.

12. Holidays

  • What the holiday is.
  • Who you celebrate the holiday with.
  • How you celebrate the holiday.

And explain why you celebrate this holiday with other people.

13. Technology, Internet, etc….

  • What the device is.
  • What it can do.
  • Whether you use the device for fun, for work, or both.

And explain why you purchased the device.

14. On a typical day…

  • What you do.
  • Why you do it.
  • How important it is.

And explain why you do this thing at the beginning of the day.

15. Household

  • What the piece of furniture is.
  • How long you’ve had the furniture.
  • Where it is in the house.

And explain why that piece of furniture is important.

16. News and Current Events

  • What happened.
  • When the story happened.
  • Where the story happened.

And explain why you found this news story surprising.

17. Shopping

  • Where this place is.
  • What you can buy there.

And explain why you often shop at this place.

18. Decisions

  • What the decision was about.
  • What you decided to do.
  • Why you made the decision.

And explain why you feel you made a good decision.

  • What kind of art it is.
  • What the art looks like.
  • Where you saw the art.

And explain why you think this piece of art is good.

  • Who gave you the gift.
  • What the gift was.
  • When you received the gift.

And explain why the gift was given to you.

21. Kindness

  • What you did.
  • Why you did it.
  • How the person or people responded to your kind act.

And explain the reasons that the act was kind.

22. Language Learning

  • What language you were learning.
  • What the difficulty was.
  • Whether or not you overcame the difficulty.

And explain why you found learning the language so difficult at the time.

IELTS Speaking Part 2: The Takeaway

Ultimately, timing is key to IELTS Speaking Part 2. The most common challenge my students face with these IELTS Speaking topics is either not speaking enough, or speaking too much and running out of time. Do practice responses and time them. This will help you figure out how to write notes that really do fill at least one minute of time, but less than two. Above all, take advantage of the flexibility of the timing. You have one or two minutes to speak, and that’s a really nice range that allows for a variety of answers.

And remember, the topic IELTS Speaking Part 2 is also the basis for Part 3 of IELTS Speaking . But Part 3 is formatted a bit more like Speaking Part 1 , because you give conversational responses rather than giving a “long turn” speech. You can also read about the “big picture” of these three parts by looking at our complete guide to common IELTS Speaking topics . And for general advice on how to navigate the entire IELTS Speaking section, check out our top 10 IELTS Speaking tips !

David Recine

David is a Test Prep Expert for Magoosh TOEFL and IELTS. Additionally, he’s helped students with TOEIC, PET, FCE, BULATS, Eiken, SAT, ACT, GRE, and GMAT. David has a BS from the University of Wisconsin-Eau Claire and an MA from the University of Wisconsin-River Falls. His work at Magoosh has been cited in many scholarly articles , his Master’s Thesis is featured on the Reading with Pictures website, and he’s presented at the WITESOL (link to PDF) and NAFSA conferences. David has taught K-12 ESL in South Korea as well as undergraduate English and MBA-level business English at American universities. He has also trained English teachers in America, Italy, and Peru. Come join David and the Magoosh team on Youtube , Facebook , and Instagram , or connect with him via LinkedIn !

View all posts

More from Magoosh

homework related task 2

Leave a Reply Cancel reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *

Email

  • Pre-A1 Starters
  • A2 Key for Schools
  • B1 Preliminary
  • B2 First Certificate
  • C1 Advanced

homework related task 2

Engaging and exciting homework tasks – Part Two

In her previous post, Joanna Szoke emphasized the importance of planning the homework we set students, of making sure they understand what they have to do, as well as making homework more personally relevant and interesting.

homework related task 2

In this second post, Joanna shares some ways to incorporate 21st century skills into homework.

There are many such skills, all crucial, but the 4 most well-known are: creative thinking, critical thinking, communication, and collaboration – the 4 C’s.

Let’s see how this can work in practice with some simple examples! I’ll show you 3 quite traditional tasks and what we can do with them to incorporate some of the 4C’s:

homework related task 2

Connect the new terms with their definitions – A staple in almost every course book but not so exciting. What we can do to make it collaborative is to build in a crossword game! Just keep the terms, ask your students to prepare definitions for them, and type them into a free template offered by crosswordlabs.com . They take part in the defining process and they can then fill in the crossword in pairs, which improves their communication skills as well.

2. Communicate

Write a 150-word letter of complaint to the restaurant manager – This is a typical exam task. To make it a little different, you could include some research or some real experiences. Ask your students to look up a unique restaurant online (they might even go and try the food there), try to imagine what they could complain about, and then put it on padlet.com with the image of the restaurant. You can also appoint restaurant managers whose responsibility is to respond to these complaints under the original Padlet post. A similar but more life-like twist could be to make your students write Google Maps reviews – they might even post it in the end!

3. Do research, advance preparation

You just finished a unit, will start a new topic next, and have nothing really to give as homework – Imagine that you finished everything and have no idea what to do with your students. They can either have some time off or… You could ask them to do some research on the topic that’s coming up next and record their findings via videoask.com , flipgrid.com or vocaroo.com (this one’s audio only). You could also ask them to look for something specific – a surprising fact, a controversial idea, a scandal, or something inspiring. They can watch each other’s short videos before the lesson with some guided task, and come to class prepared.

So to sum up the main takeaways: To make homework tasks more engaging, try making them more personalised, authentic, and challenging by integrating several 21st century skills and involving the real world around your students . Don’t hesitate to share your ideas here or on social media!

Joanna is a very active educator, trainer and blogger.

Check out her blog (highly recommended): http://www.shortandsimpleenglish.com  

Follow Joanna on: http://linkedin.com/in/joanna-szoke https://twitter.com/jo_shortnsimple

Related Posts:

  • Engaging and exciting homework tasks - Part One
  • Making learning accessible to everyone - #smoothstarts
  • B2 First Essay Writing Checklist
  • ELTons Award Finalist for Innovation in English language…
  • Acrostic poems
  • Working on the Past Simple at A1 Movers

facebook-share

About Post Author

' src=

Anne Robinson

Leave a reply cancel reply.

Save my name, email, and website in this browser for the next time I comment.

This site uses Akismet to reduce spam. Learn how your comment data is processed .

Press Releases

Congressman dunn appointed to the house task force on artificial intelligence, feb 21 2024.

WASHINGTON, D.C. – Speaker of the House Mike Johnson recently appointed Congressman Neal Dunn, M.D. (Florida-02) to the newly created House Task Force on Artificial Intelligence (AI). The goal of the Task Force is to explore how Congress can ensure America continues to lead the world in AI innovation while working to safeguard the nation against emerging threats.

“It’s a great honor to be appointed to the House Task Force on Artificial Intelligence. Ensuring America maintains its competitive edge is of the utmost importance, especially considering the instability in key areas overseas,” said Congressman Dunn. “I’m grateful that Speaker Johnson recognized my interest in bolstering innovation and improving our nation’s cybersecurity to protect our nation. There’s a wide array of experience between my newly appointed colleagues and myself. I’m looking forward to working with this team to address the rise of artificial intelligence.”

The Task Force will partner with committees of jurisdiction to produce a comprehensive report that will include guiding principles, forward-looking recommendations, and bipartisan policy proposals.

Speaker Johnson and Leader Hakeem Jeffries appointed twenty-four members to the Task Force which will be jointly led by Chair Jay Obernolte (CA-23) and Co-Chair Ted Lieu (CA-36).

The twenty-three Congressional members that will join Congressman Dunn on the AI Task Force are as follows:

Rep. Jay Obernolte, CA

Rep. Darrell Issa, CA

Rep. French Hill, AR

Rep. Michael Cloud, TX

Rep. Ben Cline, VA

Rep. Kat Cammack, FL

Rep. Scott Franklin, FL

Rep. Michelle Steel, CA

Rep. Eric Burlison, MO

Rep. Laurel Lee, FL

Rep. Rick McCormick, GA

Rep. Ted Lieu, CA

Rep. Anna Eshoo, CA

Rep. Yvette Clarke, N.Y.

Rep. Bill Foster, IL

Rep. Suzanne Bonamici, OR

Rep. Ami Bera, CA

Rep. Don Beyer, VA

Rep. Alexandria Ocasio-Cortez, N.Y.

Rep. Haley Stevens, MI

Rep. Sara Jacobs, CA

Rep. Valerie Foushee, N.C.

Rep. Brittany Pettersen, CO

Related Posts

  • Dunn Artificial Intelligence Amendment Included in Defense Authorization Bill
  • Dunn Introduces Bill to Help Veterans Pursue Science and Tech Careers
  • Science Committee OKs Dunn Bill to Help Veterans with Tech Careers
  • Congressman Dunn Appointed to Republican China Task Force

Permalink: https://dunn.house.gov/2024/2/congressman-dunn-appointed-to-the-house-task-force-on-artificial-intelligence

IMAGES

  1. Homework 2

    homework related task 2

  2. Homework Assignment # 2

    homework related task 2

  3. Day02 Homework

    homework related task 2

  4. Homework 2

    homework related task 2

  5. Homework Assignment Checklist by Organized Chaos

    homework related task 2

  6. KS2 homework strategies

    homework related task 2

VIDEO

  1. classwork vs homework vs the test (part-19)

  2. Meezy math homework

  3. Chapter 1 Video Homework Solutions Page

  4. Helping with homework #fypシ゚viral #homework

  5. kids homework is a big task to parents 😱# share ur experience with ur kids😀#youtubeshorts

  6. Homework #7 level 3

COMMENTS

  1. IELTS Writing Task 2: 'homework' essay

    June 21, 2017 IELTS Writing Task 2: 'homework' essay Here's my full essay for the question below. Some people believe that school children should not be given homework by their teachers, whereas others argue that homework plays an important role in the education of children. Discuss both of these views and give your own opinion.

  2. IELTS Writing Task 2 Sample

    So, basically, doing daily homework will not keep him in a good shape. To sum up, I think that an intermediate position can be taken. For example, a student will have to do his daily homework if he is going to specialize in this field in the future. (NB: Follow the above writing structure for getting higher IELTS band score in the examination.

  3. 50 Latest Homework IELTS Topics

    Give reasons for your answer and include any relevant examples from your own knowledge or experience. You should write at least 250 words. In many countries, children spend long hours on homework. Some people think less homework can reduce student's stress and give them a chance to develop other skills.

  4. IELTS Writing Task 2: 'homework' essay plan

    Some people believe that school children should not be given homework by their teachers, whereas others argue that homework plays an important role in the education of children. Discuss both of these views and give your own opinion. Here's a 13-sentence essay plan for the question above: Introduction 1. Introduce the topic (e.g. People have different views about…) 2. Give a general answer ...

  5. IELTS Writing Topics and Answers for Writing Task 2 (all 11 topics)

    IELTS writing task 2 topics (academic) often require simple ideas that are easy to communicate, rather than complex ideas with difficult grammar. Get the IELTS essay topics with answers pdf here. Extract text from PDFs, scanned docs, and images effortlessly. Create digital copies for easy access here. Tutorial contents

  6. IELTS Essay # 1070

    Sample Answer 2: Some believe that homework is an essential part of education for school children as it helps them learn, whereas others opine that it has very little value for students and should not be a part of education. This essay will attempt to explore both viewpoints. I think that homework has an important role in children's education.

  7. More than 250+ IELTS Writing Task 2 Questions

    In this article, we outline over 250 recent IELTS Writing Task 2 topics and sample questions. The IELTS Writing Task 2 is an essay writing task that assesses your ability to express and develop an argument in response to a given prompt.

  8. IELTS Writing Task 2 Sample

    IELTS Writing Task 2 - Homework of school children Some people believe that school children should not be given homework by their teachers, whereas others argue that homework plays an important role in the education of children. Discuss both of these views and give your own opinion. ( 267 Words, 13 Sentences, 4 Paragraphs, Band 9)

  9. PDF Problems and Solutions essays

    Procedure: introduce the focus of the lesson: Academic Writing Task 2 - Problems and Solutions essays. elicit environmental problems in general or show the class some pictures related to overfishing and elicit the topic. give students a copy of Worksheet 1 and draw attention to the essay question. elicit keywords from the question to identify ...

  10. The Role of Homework Engagement, Homework-Related Therapist ...

    Lack of time (8.2%), homework being too difficult (8.2%), and other homework-related aspects (6.0%) were further reported difficulties in completing the task. HE and TBH showed a small significant association across sessions, with a mean correlation of r = .28 ( p < .05).

  11. IELTS Writing Task 2: 'homework' mistakes

    1. There are people who argue the benefits of (ridding students of homework) 1. Since home work is (beneficial) for students, teachers need to ensure that they are not burdening students with excessive tasks. 1. Children in school prefer the active process of learning to the tedious work of homework.

  12. Latest IELTS Writing Topics February & March 2024 with answers

    IELTS Writing Topics February & March 2024. Get a band score and detailed report instantly. Check your IELTS essays right now! The collection of writing topics that were reported by IELTS student in 2024. These questions could be repeated from previous months. Keep in mind that the provided questions are not predictions.

  13. IELTS Essay Topics with sample answer.

    IELTS Writing Task 2 ( also known as IELTS Essay Writing) is the second task of your IELTS Writing test. Here, you will be presented with an essay topic and you will be scored based on your ability to respond to the topic.

  14. Creative Homework Ideas

    Create a board game. Complete a quiz - you could also ask students to write the quiz in groups and then swap and complete for homework. Write a lesson plan for teaching the topic to a younger class. Teach the teacher - create a poster, Complete a series of exercises. Complete a family tree, real or imaginary.

  15. Task 2a

    Task 2a - All the parts for task 2 - LHM1 — LHM1 TASK 2: READING ASSESSMENT A. Identify two - Studocu Explain how your two chosen strategies could help the students improve their reading comprehension. Describe the support methods you will use to monitor Matteo's progress. LHM1 — LHM1 TASK 2: READING ASSESSMENT

  16. IELTS Speaking Part 2 Topics and Questions

    In IELTS Speaking Part 2, you will receive a "topic card" that contains a detailed, multi-part question. Take a look at this official IELTS Speaking topics sample prompt, script, and recording of a Task 2 question to get a sense of what to expect. You will have one minute to prepare a short speech in response to the topic card.

  17. Tem1 task 2

    Final D078 Legal and Ethical Considerations Task 2 Homework; D078 TASK 2 - task 2 passed; ... D078 - Google Docs; Related documents. D078 Task 2 - 5 - Task 2; D078 task 2 - passed; D078 Task 2 - Passed first try; D078 Task 2 Pass - Task 2; D078 TASK 2 - Passed; D078 Task 1 - task 1 of d078; Preview text. TEM1 TASK 2: LEGAL AND ETHICAL ...

  18. PDF Homework- Task Analysis 6 :00pm so I begin my

    Step 6 Prioritize my homework by ranking to do 1, 2, etc. Step 7 Estimate time to spend on each task. Step 8 Lay out materials on the table to begin task 1. Step 9 Set my alarm for the time I allotted for task 1. Step 10 Begin task 1. Step 11 Alarm rings. Step 12 Go to planner to look for task 2 Step 13 Set my alarm for the time I allotted for ...

  19. Task 2

    When students are able to relate a new topic or text to something they already know, they're able to understand the new text more easily. Activating prior knowledge will help the students understand their new text by thinking about that prior knowledge meant in other settings and/or text and relating it to what they are about to read.

  20. Engaging and exciting homework tasks

    The 4 Cs There are many such skills, all crucial, but the 4 most well-known are: creative thinking, critical thinking, communication, and collaboration - the 4 C's. Let's see how this can work in practice with some simple examples! I'll show you 3 quite traditional tasks and what we can do with them to incorporate some of the 4C's:

  21. D095 Task 2

    A. Task 2 Video 1 1. Case # 593 Investigating Needs of Plants and Predicting Growth 2nd Grade a. Elements of Learning - Within the classroom, you can see a large carpet in the front of the classroom with desks grouped together behind the carpet. This infers that the teacher emphasizes group discussions in class.

  22. D190 Task 2.pdf

    HS MISC Task 2.docx Western Governors University HIM D190 DATA ANALYSIS IN THE EHR: Task 2 Western Governors University September 18, 2020 A1. EXPLANATION OF TREND RELATED TO THE HIM DEPARTMENT The trend related to the HIM Department would be that there is a constant amount of readmits for Cardiology within 30 days of discharge. A2.

  23. Congressman Dunn Appointed to the House Task Force on Artificial

    The Task Force will partner with committees of jurisdiction to produce a comprehensive report that will include guiding principles, forward-looking recommendations, and bipartisan policy proposals. Speaker Johnson and Leader Hakeem Jeffries appointed twenty-four members to the Task Force which will be jointly led by Chair Jay Obernolte (CA-23 ...

  24. NUR 225 Week 2 Completed)

    Homework Assignment: Week 2 Safety Task (0 points) Clustering related information Comparing and contrasting Review the audio presentation by Mackary & Daniel: Medical error-the third leading cause of death in the US listed under the Week 2 assigned readings in the course. This audio talks about the reporting of medical errors.