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How to Craft the Financial Section of Business Plan (Hint: It’s All About the Numbers)

Writing a small business plan takes time and effort … especially when you have to dive into the numbers for the financial section. But, working on the financial section of business plan could lead to a big payoff for your business.

Read on to learn what is the financial section of a business plan, why it matters, and how to write one for your company.  

What is the financial section of business plan?

Generally, the financial section is one of the last sections in a business plan. It describes a business’s historical financial state (if applicable) and future financial projections. Businesses include supporting documents such as budgets and financial statements, as well as funding requests in this section of the plan.  

The financial part of the business plan introduces numbers. It comes after the executive summary, company description , market analysis, organization structure, product information, and marketing and sales strategies.

Businesses that are trying to get financing from lenders or investors use the financial section to make their case. This section also acts as a financial roadmap so you can budget for your business’s future income and expenses. 

Why it matters 

The financial section of the business plan is critical for moving beyond wordy aspirations and into hard data and the wonderful world of numbers. 

Through the financial section, you can:

  • Forecast your business’s future finances
  • Budget for expenses (e.g., startup costs)
  • Get financing from lenders or investors
  • Grow your business

describes how you can use the four ways to use the financial section of business plan

  • Growth : 64% of businesses with a business plan were able to grow their business, compared to 43% of businesses without a business plan.
  • Financing : 36% of businesses with a business plan secured a loan, compared to 18% of businesses without a plan.

So, if you want to possibly double your chances of securing a business loan, consider putting in a little time and effort into your business plan’s financial section. 

Writing your financial section

To write the financial section, you first need to gather some information. Keep in mind that the information you gather depends on whether you have historical financial information or if you’re a brand-new startup. 

Your financial section should detail:

  • Business expenses 

Financial projections

Financial statements, break-even point, funding requests, exit strategy, business expenses.

Whether you’ve been in business for one day or 10 years, you have expenses. These expenses might simply be startup costs for new businesses or fixed and variable costs for veteran businesses. 

Take a look at some common business expenses you may need to include in the financial section of business plan:

  • Licenses and permits
  • Cost of goods sold 
  • Rent or mortgage payments
  • Payroll costs (e.g., salaries and taxes)
  • Utilities 
  • Equipment 
  • Supplies 
  • Advertising 

Write down each type of expense and amount you currently have as well as expenses you predict you’ll have. Use a consistent time period (e.g., monthly costs). 

Indicate which expenses are fixed (unchanging month-to-month) and which are variable (subject to changes). 

How much do you anticipate earning from sales each month? 

If you operate an existing business, you can look at previous monthly revenue to make an educated estimate. Take factors into consideration, like seasonality and economic ups and downs, when basing projections on previous cash flow.

Coming up with your financial projections may be a bit trickier if you are a startup. After all, you have nothing to go off of. Come up with a reasonable monthly goal based on things like your industry, competitors, and the market. Hint : Look at your market analysis section of the business plan for guidance. 

A financial statement details your business’s finances. The three main types of financial statements are income statements, cash flow statements, and balance sheets.

Income statements summarize your business’s income and expenses during a period of time (e.g., a month). This document shows whether your business had a net profit or loss during that time period. 

Cash flow statements break down your business’s incoming and outgoing money. This document details whether your company has enough cash on hand to cover expenses.

The balance sheet summarizes your business’s assets, liabilities, and equity. Balance sheets help with debt management and business growth decisions. 

If you run a startup, you can create “pro forma financial statements,” which are statements based on projections.

If you’ve been in business for a bit, you should have financial statements in your records. You can include these in your business plan. And, include forecasted financial statements. 

finance section in business plan

You’re just in luck. Check out our FREE guide, Use Financial Statements to Assess the Health of Your Business , to learn more about the different types of financial statements for your business.

Potential investors want to know when your business will reach its break-even point. The break-even point is when your business’s sales equal its expenses. 

Estimate when your company will reach its break-even point and detail it in the financial section of business plan.

If you’re looking for financing, detail your funding request here. Include how much you are looking for, list ideal terms (e.g., 10-year loan or 15% equity), and how long your request will cover. 

Remember to discuss why you are requesting money and what you plan on using the money for (e.g., equipment). 

Back up your funding request by emphasizing your financial projections. 

Last but not least, your financial section should also discuss your business’s exit strategy. An exit strategy is a plan that outlines what you’ll do if you need to sell or close your business, retire, etc. 

Investors and lenders want to know how their investment or loan is protected if your business doesn’t make it. The exit strategy does just that. It explains how your business will make ends meet even if it doesn’t make it. 

When you’re working on the financial section of business plan, take advantage of your accounting records to make things easier on yourself. For organized books, try Patriot’s online accounting software . Get your free trial now!

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How to Write the Financial Section of a Business Plan

Susan Ward wrote about small businesses for The Balance for 18 years. She has run an IT consulting firm and designed and presented courses on how to promote small businesses.

finance section in business plan

Taking Stock of Expenses

The income statement, the cash flow projection, the balance sheet.

The financial section of your business plan determines whether or not your business idea is viable and will be the focus of any investors who may be attracted to your business idea. The financial section is composed of four financial statements: the income statement, the cash flow projection, the balance sheet, and the statement of shareholders' equity. It also should include a brief explanation and analysis of these four statements.

Think of your business expenses as two cost categories: your start-up expenses and your operating expenses. All the costs of getting your business up and running should be considered start-up expenses. These may include:

  • Business registration fees
  • Business licensing and permits
  • Starting inventory
  • Rent deposits
  • Down payments on a property
  • Down payments on equipment
  • Utility setup fees

Your own list will expand as soon as you start to itemize them.

Operating expenses are the costs of keeping your business running . Think of these as your monthly expenses. Your list of operating expenses may include:

  • Salaries (including your own)
  • Rent or mortgage payments
  • Telecommunication expenses
  • Raw materials
  • Distribution
  • Loan payments
  • Office supplies
  • Maintenance

Once you have listed all of your operating expenses, the total will reflect the monthly cost of operating your business. Multiply this number by six, and you have a six-month estimate of your operating expenses. Adding this amount to your total startup expenses list, and you have a ballpark figure for your complete start-up costs.

Now you can begin to put together your financial statements for your business plan starting with the income statement.

The income statement shows your revenues, expenses, and profit for a particular period—a snapshot of your business that shows whether or not your business is profitable. Subtract expenses from your revenue to determine your profit or loss.

While established businesses normally produce an income statement each fiscal quarter or once each fiscal year, for the purposes of the business plan, an income statement should be generated monthly for the first year.

Not all of the categories in this income statement will apply to your business. Eliminate those that do not apply, and add categories where necessary to adapt this template to your business.

If you have a product-based business, the revenue section of the income statement will look different. Revenue will be called sales, and you should account for any inventory.

The cash flow projection shows how cash is expected to flow in and out of your business. It is an important tool for cash flow management because it indicates when your expenditures are too high or if you might need a short-term investment to deal with a cash flow surplus. As part of your business plan, the cash flow projection will show how  much capital investment  your business idea needs.

For investors, the cash flow projection shows whether your business is a good credit risk and if there is enough cash on hand to make your business a good candidate for a line of credit, a  short-term loan , or a longer-term investment. You should include cash flow projections for each month over one year in the financial section of your business plan.

Do not confuse the cash flow projection with the cash flow statement. The cash flow statement shows the flow of cash in and out of your business. In other words, it describes the cash flow that has occurred in the past. The cash flow projection shows the cash that is anticipated to be generated or expended over a chosen period in the future.

There are three parts to the cash flow projection:

  • Cash revenues: Enter your estimated sales figures for each month. Only enter the sales that are collectible in cash during each month you are detailing.
  • Cash disbursements: Take the various expense categories from your ledger and list the cash expenditures you actually expect to pay for each month.
  • Reconciliation of cash revenues to cash disbursements: This section shows an opening balance, which is the carryover from the previous month's operations. The current month's revenues are added to this balance, the current month's disbursements are subtracted, and the adjusted cash flow balance is carried over to the next month.

The balance sheet reports your business's net worth at a particular point in time. It summarizes all the financial data about your business in three categories:

  • Assets :  Tangible objects of financial value that are owned by the company.
  • Liabilities: Debt owed to a creditor of the company.
  • Equity: The net difference when the  total liabilities  are subtracted from the total assets.

The relationship between these elements of financial data is expressed with the equation: Assets = Liabilities + Equity .

For your  business plan , you should create a pro forma balance sheet that summarizes the information in the income statement and cash flow projections. A business typically prepares a balance sheet once a year.

Once your balance sheet is complete, write a brief analysis for each of the three financial statements. The analysis should be short with highlights rather than in-depth analysis. The financial statements themselves should be placed in your business plan's appendices.

Free Financial Templates for a Business Plan

By Andy Marker | July 29, 2020

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In this article, we’ve rounded up expert-tested financial templates for your business plan, all of which are free to download in Excel, Google Sheets, and PDF formats.

Included on this page, you’ll find the essential financial statement templates, including income statement templates , cash flow statement templates , and balance sheet templates . Plus, we cover the key elements of the financial section of a business plan .

Financial Plan Templates

Download and prepare these financial plan templates to include in your business plan. Use historical data and future projections to produce an overview of the financial health of your organization to support your business plan and gain buy-in from stakeholders

Business Financial Plan Template

Business Financial Plan Template

Use this financial plan template to organize and prepare the financial section of your business plan. This customizable template has room to provide a financial overview, any important assumptions, key financial indicators and ratios, a break-even analysis, and pro forma financial statements to share key financial data with potential investors.

Download Financial Plan Template

Word | PDF | Smartsheet

Financial Plan Projections Template for Startups

Startup Financial Projections Template

This financial plan projections template comes as a set of pro forma templates designed to help startups. The template set includes a 12-month profit and loss statement, a balance sheet, and a cash flow statement for you to detail the current and projected financial position of a business.

‌ Download Startup Financial Projections Template

Excel | Smartsheet

Income Statement Templates for Business Plan

Also called profit and loss statements , these income statement templates will empower you to make critical business decisions by providing insight into your company, as well as illustrating the projected profitability associated with business activities. The numbers prepared in your income statement directly influence the cash flow and balance sheet forecasts.

Pro Forma Income Statement/Profit and Loss Sample

finance section in business plan

Use this pro forma income statement template to project income and expenses over a three-year time period. Pro forma income statements consider historical or market analysis data to calculate the estimated sales, cost of sales, profits, and more.

‌ Download Pro Forma Income Statement Sample - Excel

Small Business Profit and Loss Statement

Small Business Profit and Loss Template

Small businesses can use this simple profit and loss statement template to project income and expenses for a specific time period. Enter expected income, cost of goods sold, and business expenses, and the built-in formulas will automatically calculate the net income.

‌ Download Small Business Profit and Loss Template - Excel

3-Year Income Statement Template

3 Year Income Statement Template

Use this income statement template to calculate and assess the profit and loss generated by your business over three years. This template provides room to enter revenue and expenses associated with operating your business and allows you to track performance over time.

Download 3-Year Income Statement Template

For additional resources, including how to use profit and loss statements, visit “ Download Free Profit and Loss Templates .”

Cash Flow Statement Templates for Business Plan

Use these free cash flow statement templates to convey how efficiently your company manages the inflow and outflow of money. Use a cash flow statement to analyze the availability of liquid assets and your company’s ability to grow and sustain itself long term.

Simple Cash Flow Template

finance section in business plan

Use this basic cash flow template to compare your business cash flows against different time periods. Enter the beginning balance of cash on hand, and then detail itemized cash receipts, payments, costs of goods sold, and expenses. Once you enter those values, the built-in formulas will calculate total cash payments, net cash change, and the month ending cash position.

Download Simple Cash Flow Template

12-Month Cash Flow Forecast Template

finance section in business plan

Use this cash flow forecast template, also called a pro forma cash flow template, to track and compare expected and actual cash flow outcomes on a monthly and yearly basis. Enter the cash on hand at the beginning of each month, and then add the cash receipts (from customers, issuance of stock, and other operations). Finally, add the cash paid out (purchases made, wage expenses, and other cash outflow). Once you enter those values, the built-in formulas will calculate your cash position for each month with.

‌ Download 12-Month Cash Flow Forecast

3-Year Cash Flow Statement Template Set

3 Year Cash Flow Statement Template

Use this cash flow statement template set to analyze the amount of cash your company has compared to its expenses and liabilities. This template set contains a tab to create a monthly cash flow statement, a yearly cash flow statement, and a three-year cash flow statement to track cash flow for the operating, investing, and financing activities of your business.

Download 3-Year Cash Flow Statement Template

For additional information on managing your cash flow, including how to create a cash flow forecast, visit “ Free Cash Flow Statement Templates .”

Balance Sheet Templates for a Business Plan

Use these free balance sheet templates to convey the financial position of your business during a specific time period to potential investors and stakeholders.

Small Business Pro Forma Balance Sheet

finance section in business plan

Small businesses can use this pro forma balance sheet template to project account balances for assets, liabilities, and equity for a designated period. Established businesses can use this template (and its built-in formulas) to calculate key financial ratios, including working capital.

Download Pro Forma Balance Sheet Template

Monthly and Quarterly Balance Sheet Template

finance section in business plan

Use this balance sheet template to evaluate your company’s financial health on a monthly, quarterly, and annual basis. You can also use this template to project your financial position for a specified time in the future. Once you complete the balance sheet, you can compare and analyze your assets, liabilities, and equity on a quarter-over-quarter or year-over-year basis.

Download Monthly/Quarterly Balance Sheet Template - Excel

Yearly Balance Sheet Template

finance section in business plan

Use this balance sheet template to compare your company’s short and long-term assets, liabilities, and equity year-over-year. This template also provides calculations for common financial ratios with built-in formulas, so you can use it to evaluate account balances annually.

Download Yearly Balance Sheet Template - Excel

For more downloadable resources for a wide range of organizations, visit “ Free Balance Sheet Templates .”

Sales Forecast Templates for Business Plan

Sales projections are a fundamental part of a business plan, and should support all other components of your plan, including your market analysis, product offerings, and marketing plan . Use these sales forecast templates to estimate future sales, and ensure the numbers align with the sales numbers provided in your income statement.

Basic Sales Forecast Sample Template

Basic Sales Forecast Template

Use this basic forecast template to project the sales of a specific product. Gather historical and industry sales data to generate monthly and yearly estimates of the number of units sold and the price per unit. Then, the pre-built formulas will calculate percentages automatically. You’ll also find details about which months provide the highest sales percentage, and the percentage change in sales month-over-month. 

Download Basic Sales Forecast Sample Template

12-Month Sales Forecast Template for Multiple Products

finance section in business plan

Use this sales forecast template to project the future sales of a business across multiple products or services over the course of a year. Enter your estimated monthly sales, and the built-in formulas will calculate annual totals. There is also space to record and track year-over-year sales, so you can pinpoint sales trends.

Download 12-Month Sales Forecasting Template for Multiple Products

3-Year Sales Forecast Template for Multiple Products

3 Year Sales Forecast Template

Use this sales forecast template to estimate the monthly and yearly sales for multiple products over a three-year period. Enter the monthly units sold, unit costs, and unit price. Once you enter those values, built-in formulas will automatically calculate revenue, margin per unit, and gross profit. This template also provides bar charts and line graphs to visually display sales and gross profit year over year.

Download 3-Year Sales Forecast Template - Excel

For a wider selection of resources to project your sales, visit “ Free Sales Forecasting Templates .”

Break-Even Analysis Template for Business Plan

A break-even analysis will help you ascertain the point at which a business, product, or service will become profitable. This analysis uses a calculation to pinpoint the number of service or unit sales you need to make to cover costs and make a profit.

Break-Even Analysis Template

Break Even Analysis

Use this break-even analysis template to calculate the number of sales needed to become profitable. Enter the product's selling price at the top of the template, and then add the fixed and variable costs. Once you enter those values, the built-in formulas will calculate the total variable cost, the contribution margin, and break-even units and sales values.

Download Break-Even Analysis Template

For additional resources, visit, “ Free Financial Planning Templates .”

Business Budget Templates for Business Plan

These business budget templates will help you track costs (e.g., fixed and variable) and expenses (e.g., one-time and recurring) associated with starting and running a business. Having a detailed budget enables you to make sound strategic decisions, and should align with the expense values listed on your income statement.

Startup Budget Template

finance section in business plan

Use this startup budget template to track estimated and actual costs and expenses for various business categories, including administrative, marketing, labor, and other office costs. There is also room to provide funding estimates from investors, banks, and other sources to get a detailed view of the resources you need to start and operate your business.

Download Startup Budget Template

Small Business Budget Template

finance section in business plan

This business budget template is ideal for small businesses that want to record estimated revenue and expenditures on a monthly and yearly basis. This customizable template comes with a tab to list income, expenses, and a cash flow recording to track cash transactions and balances.

Download Small Business Budget Template

Professional Business Budget Template

finance section in business plan

Established organizations will appreciate this customizable business budget template, which  contains a separate tab to track projected business expenses, actual business expenses, variances, and an expense analysis. Once you enter projected and actual expenses, the built-in formulas will automatically calculate expense variances and populate the included visual charts. 

‌ Download Professional Business Budget Template

For additional resources to plan and track your business costs and expenses, visit “ Free Business Budget Templates for Any Company .”

Other Financial Templates for Business Plan

In this section, you’ll find additional financial templates that you may want to include as part of your larger business plan.

Startup Funding Requirements Template

Startup Funding Requirements Template

This simple startup funding requirements template is useful for startups and small businesses that require funding to get business off the ground. The numbers generated in this template should align with those in your financial projections, and should detail the allocation of acquired capital to various startup expenses.

Download Startup Funding Requirements Template - Excel

Personnel Plan Template

Personnel Plan Template

Use this customizable personnel plan template to map out the current and future staff needed to get — and keep — the business running. This information belongs in the personnel section of a business plan, and details the job title, amount of pay, and hiring timeline for each position. This template calculates the monthly and yearly expenses associated with each role using built-in formulas. Additionally, you can add an organizational chart to provide a visual overview of the company’s structure. 

Download Personnel Plan Template - Excel

Elements of the Financial Section of a Business Plan

Whether your organization is a startup, a small business, or an enterprise, the financial plan is the cornerstone of any business plan. The financial section should demonstrate the feasibility and profitability of your idea and should support all other aspects of the business plan. 

Below, you’ll find a quick overview of the components of a solid financial plan.

  • Financial Overview: This section provides a brief summary of the financial section, and includes key takeaways of the financial statements. If you prefer, you can also add a brief description of each statement in the respective statement’s section.
  • Key Assumptions: This component details the basis for your financial projections, including tax and interest rates, economic climate, and other critical, underlying factors.
  • Break-Even Analysis: This calculation helps establish the selling price of a product or service, and determines when a product or service should become profitable.
  • Pro Forma Income Statement: Also known as a profit and loss statement, this section details the sales, cost of sales, profitability, and other vital financial information to stakeholders.
  • Pro Forma Cash Flow Statement: This area outlines the projected cash inflows and outflows the business expects to generate from operating, financing, and investing activities during a specific timeframe.
  • Pro Forma Balance Sheet: This document conveys how your business plans to manage assets, including receivables and inventory.
  • Key Financial Indicators and Ratios: In this section, highlight key financial indicators and ratios extracted from financial statements that bankers, analysts, and investors can use to evaluate the financial health and position of your business.

Need help putting together the rest of your business plan? Check out our free simple business plan templates to get started. You can learn how to write a successful simple business plan  here . 

Visit this  free non-profit business plan template roundup  or download a  fill-in-the-blank business plan template  to make things easy. If you are looking for a business plan template by file type, visit our pages dedicated specifically to  Microsoft Excel ,  Microsoft Word , and  Adobe PDF  business plan templates. Read our articles offering  startup business plan templates  or  free 30-60-90-day business plan templates  to find more tailored options.

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How to Write a Small Business Financial Plan

Stairs leading up to a dollar sign. Represents creating a financial plan to achieve profitability.

Noah Parsons

3 min. read

Updated January 3, 2024

Creating a financial plan is often the most intimidating part of writing a business plan. It’s also one of the most vital. Businesses with well-structured and accurate financial statements in place are more prepared to pitch to investors, receive funding, and achieve long-term success.

Thankfully, you don’t need an accounting degree to successfully put your budget and forecasts together. Here is everything you need to include in your financial plan along with optional performance metrics, specifics for funding, and free templates.

  • Key components of a financial plan

A sound financial plan is made up of six key components that help you easily track and forecast your business financials. They include your:

Sales forecast

What do you expect to sell in a given period? Segment and organize your sales projections with a personalized sales forecast based on your business type.

Subscription sales forecast

While not too different from traditional sales forecasts—there are a few specific terms and calculations you’ll need to know when forecasting sales for a subscription-based business.

Expense budget

Create, review, and revise your expense budget to keep your business on track and more easily predict future expenses.

How to forecast personnel costs

How much do your current, and future, employees’ pay, taxes, and benefits cost your business? Find out by forecasting your personnel costs.

Profit and loss forecast

Track how you make money and how much you spend by listing all of your revenue streams and expenses in your profit and loss statement.

Cash flow forecast

Manage and create projections for the inflow and outflow of cash by building a cash flow statement and forecast.

Balance sheet

Need a snapshot of your business’s financial position? Keep an eye on your assets, liabilities, and equity within the balance sheet.

What to include if you plan to pursue funding

Do you plan to pursue any form of funding or financing? If the answer is yes, then there are a few additional pieces of information that you’ll need to include as part of your financial plan.

Highlight any risks and assumptions

Every entrepreneur takes risks with the biggest being assumptions and guesses about the future. Just be sure to track and address these unknowns in your plan early on.

Plan your exit strategy

Investors will want to know your long-term plans as a business owner. While you don’t need to have all the details, it’s worth taking the time to think through how you eventually plan to leave your business.

  • Financial ratios and metrics

With all of your financial statements and forecasts in place, you have all the numbers needed to calculate insightful financial ratios. While these metrics are entirely optional to include in your plan, having them easily accessible can be valuable for tracking your performance and overall financial situation.

Common business ratios

Unsure of which business ratios you should be using? Check out this list of key financial ratios that bankers, financial analysts, and investors will want to see.

Break-even analysis

Do you want to know when you’ll become profitable? Find out how much you need to sell to offset your production costs by conducting a break-even analysis.

How to calculate ROI

How much could a business decision be worth? Evaluate the efficiency or profitability by calculating the potential return on investment (ROI).

  • Financial plan templates and tools

Download and use these free financial templates and calculators to easily create your own financial plan.

finance section in business plan

Sales forecast template

Download a free detailed sales forecast spreadsheet, with built-in formulas, to easily estimate your first full year of monthly sales.

Download Template

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Accurate and easy financial forecasting

Get a full financial picture of your business with LivePlan's simple financial management tools.

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Content Author: Noah Parsons

Noah is the COO at Palo Alto Software, makers of the online business plan app LivePlan. He started his career at Yahoo! and then helped start the user review site Epinions.com. From there he started a software distribution business in the UK before coming to Palo Alto Software to run the marketing and product teams.

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First Steps: Writing the Financials Section of Your Business Plan This quick guide offers tips that will help you create the financials section for your business plan.

By The Staff of Entrepreneur Media, Inc. • Jan 4, 2015

In their book Write Your Business Plan , the staff of Entrepreneur Media, Inc. offer an in-depth understanding of what's essential to any business plan, what's appropriate for your venture, and what it takes to ensure success. In this edited excerpt, the authors outline what type of information you should include in the financials section of your business plan.

Financial data is always at the back of the business plan, but that doesn't mean it's any less important than such up-front material as the description of the business concept and the management team. Astute investors look carefully at the charts, tables, formulas and spreadsheets in the financial section because they know this information is like the pulse, respiration rate and blood pressure in a human being—it shows the condition of the patient. In fact, you'll find many potential investors taking a quick peak at the numbers before reading the plan.

Financial statements come in threes: income statement, balance sheet, and cash flow statement. Taken together they provide an accurate picture of a company's current value, plus its ability to pay its bills today and earn a profit going forward. This information is very important to business plan readers.

You can typically gather information and use Excel or another financial program to create your spreadsheets. You'll also find them available in most business plan software; these programs also do the calculations.

Income statement.

An income statement shows whether you're making any money. It adds up all your revenue from sales and other sources, subtracts all your costs, and comes up with the net income figure, also known as the bottom line.

Income statements are called various names—profit and loss statement (P&L) and earnings statement are two common alternatives. They can get pretty complicated in their attempt to capture sources of income, such as interest, and expenses, such as depreciation. But the basic idea is pretty simple: If you subtract costs from income, what you have left is profit.

To figure your income statement, you need to gather a bunch of numbers, including your gross revenue, which is made up of sales and any income from interest or sales of assets; your sales, general and administrative (SG&A) expenses; what you paid out in interest and dividends, if anything; and your corporate tax rate. If you have those, you're ready to go.

If you're a startup and don't have any prior years' figures to look at, look for statistics about other businesses within your industry. The most important question to ask is: What has been the experience of similar companies? If you know that car dealers across the nation have averaged 12 percent annual sales gains, that's a good starting point for figuring your company's projections.

Balance sheet.

If the income sheet shows what you're earning, the balance sheet shows what you're worth. A balance sheet can help an investor see that a company owns valuable assets that don't show up on the income statement or that it may be profitable but is heavily in debt. It adds up everything your business owns, subtracts everything the business owes, and shows the difference as the net worth of the business.

Actually, accountants put it differently and, of course, use different names. The things you own are called assets. The things you owe money on are called liabilities. And net worth is referred to as equity.

A balance sheet shows your condition on a given date, usually the end of your fiscal year. Sometimes balance sheets are compared. That is, next to the figures for the end of the most recent year, you place the entries for the end of the prior period. This gives you a snapshot of how and where your financial position has changed.

A balance sheet also places a value on the owner's equity in the business. When you subtract liabilities from assets, what's left is the value of the equity in the business owned by you and any partners. Tracking changes in this number will tell you whether you're getting richer or poorer.

Balance sheets can also be projected into the future, and the projections can serve as targets to aim for or benchmarks to compare against actual results. Balance sheets are affected by sales, too. If your accounts receivable go up or inventory increases, your balance sheet reflects this. And, of course, increases in cash show up on the balance sheet. So it's important to look ahead to see how your balance sheet will appear given your sales forecast.

Cash flow statement.

The cash flow statement monitors the flow of cash over a period of time (a year, a quarter, a month) and shows you how much cash you have on hand at the moment.

The cash flow statement, also called the statement of changes in financial position, probes and analyzes changes that have occurred on the balance sheet. It's different from the income statement, which describes sales and profits but doesn't necessarily tell you where your cash came from or how it's being used.

A cash flow statement consists of two parts. One follows the flow of cash into and out of the company. The other shows how the funds were spent. The two parts are called, respectively, sources of funds and uses of funds. At the bottom is, naturally, the bottom line, called net changes in cash position. It shows whether you improved your cash position and by how much during the period.

Other Financial Information

If you're seeking investors for your company, you'll probably need to provide quite a bit more financial information than what is in the income statement, balance sheet and cash flow statements. For instance, a personal finance statement may be needed if you're guaranteeing loans yourself. Applying business data to other ratios and formulas will yield important information on what your profit margin is and what level of sales it will take for you to reach profitability. Still other figures, such as the various ratios, will help predict whether you'll be able to pay your bills for long. These bits of information are helpful to you as well as to investors, it should be noted. Understanding and, if possible, mastering them, will help you run your business more smoothly.

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How to Complete the Financial Section of Business Plan

A plan intends to explain the business, introduce critical contributors, products and, services and defines the goals for the future. It paints a picture of the founder’s expectations and helps others see their vision. The financial section of the plan provides the proof behind the story. It is the section that investors and lenders are most interested in, and often the first section they read, despite it being near the end of the plan. It also acts as a roadmap and a guide for the direction the company will take into the future.

Financial Section Elements

While it may sound complicated, the financial section of a business plan only contains three documents and a brief explanation of each. It is necessary to prepare an income statement, cash flow projection and a balance sheet either using spreadsheets, or software that does all of the calculations automatically. Before beginning this statement, it’s necessary to gather the following information:

Business Start-Up Expenses

This list of all of the costs associated with getting the business up and running comprises what primarily are one-time fees such as registering the company. Following is only a partial list of possible start-up costs, every business is unique, and the list may, or may not, contain these items and more.

  • Business registration fees
  • Licensing and permits
  • Product inventory
  • Deposit on rental property
  • Down payment to purchase property
  • Down payment on machines and equipment
  • Set-up fees for utilities

Business Operating Costs

As the name implies, operating costs are the ongoing expenses that need to be paid to keep the business running. These expenses are usually monthly bills, and for a start-up, estimate six months worth of these costs. A company’s list of operating expenses might include:

  • Monthly mortgage payment or rent
  • Logistics and distribution
  • Marketing and promotion
  • Loan paymentsRaw materials
  • Office supplies
  • Building/vehicle maintenance

The Income Statement

This financial statement details the company’s revenues, expenses, and profit for a set period. Established businesses generated these annually, or semi-annually, based on actual performance. Start-ups with no previous years to look at have to use statistical data within the industry to make reasonable projections. A start-up will also produce monthly versions of this statement to show the forecast of growth. This section will include the data such as:

  • Gross revenue (sales, interest income and sales of assets)
  • General and administrative expenses (start-up and operating costs)
  • Corporate tax rate (expected tax liabilities)

The math is simple here: subtract the expenditures from the revenue, and the remaining number is profit. When put into the proper format, an income statement gives a clear view of the financial viability of a company.

Cash-Flow Projection

This statement shows how you expect cash to flow in to, and out of, your business. It’s an essential internal cash management tool and a source of data that shows what your business’s capital needs will be in the near future. For investors and bank loan officers, it helps determine your creditworthiness and amount you can borrow. The cash-flow projection contains three parts:

  • Cash revenues — This part details the incoming cash from sales for specific periods of time, usually monthly. It is an estimate, based upon past performance and future projections for current businesses, and industry averages for start-ups.
  • Cash disbursements — Every monthly bill or other expense that is paid out in cash gets listed in this section. As with revenue, these are estimates, either based upon historical data, current data, or industry data.
  • Cash flow projection — This merely is a reconciliation of the cash revenues to cash disbursements. Adding the current month’s revenues to the carried-over balance, then subtracting the month’s disbursements creates estimated cash flow.

The Balance Sheet

The final financial statement required for the business plan’s financial section is a balance sheet. This statement is a snapshot of the company’s net worth at a given point in time. Established businesses produce a balance sheet annually. Information from the income statement and cash flow projection are used to complete this statement. It summarizes the business’s financial data into three main categories:

  • Assets — This is the total of all of the tangible items that the company owns that hold monetary value. That includes equipment, property, and cash-on-hand, for example.
  • Liabilities — This is the total amount of debt that the company owes its creditors. You’ll include every debt, whether recurring, one-time, fixed, or variable.
  • Equity — This is merely the difference between the company’s assets, including retained earnings and current earnings, and its liabilities.

Side-Notes and Details

In some cases, it may be necessary to explain details within the financial statements. Denote these instances within the statement and include a brief explanation sheet as an attachment. It may also be useful to add information on the process used to estimate revenues and expenses, which will show interested parties the intent and help them better understand the data.

Don’t Sweat the Process

It’s important to note that the order in which these financial statements is created may vary from the way they are presented here. This is to be expected. In fact, most business plan creators end up going back and forth with these statements as the numbers reveal the business’s financial reality. It paints a crystal clear picture of its economic viability, which can present to a lender, investor, or shareholder with confidence.

All of these financial documents can be created by using accounting and business software readily available online. Even so, some people aren’t entirely comfortable creating financial statements for their business plan, and outsource this critical task to a professional. Even the largest corporations struggle with financial planning and reporting, and they often hire the job out to someone more qualified. It’s merely a matter of making sure that the data is accurate, easy to track, and based on sound accounting practices.

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How to Prepare a Financial Plan for Startup Business (w/ example)

Financial Statements Template

Free Financial Statements Template

Ajay Jagtap

  • December 7, 2023

13 Min Read

financial plan for startup business

If someone were to ask you about your business financials, could you give them a detailed answer?

Let’s say they ask—how do you allocate your operating expenses? What is your cash flow situation like? What is your exit strategy? And a series of similar other questions.

Instead of mumbling what to answer or shooting in the dark, as a founder, you must prepare yourself to answer this line of questioning—and creating a financial plan for your startup is the best way to do it.

A business plan’s financial plan section is no easy task—we get that.

But, you know what—this in-depth guide and financial plan example can make forecasting as simple as counting on your fingertips.

Ready to get started? Let’s begin by discussing startup financial planning.

What is Startup Financial Planning?

Startup financial planning, in simple terms, is a process of planning the financial aspects of a new business. It’s an integral part of a business plan and comprises its three major components: balance sheet, income statement, and cash-flow statement.

Apart from these statements, your financial section may also include revenue and sales forecasts, assets & liabilities, break-even analysis, and more. Your first financial plan may not be very detailed, but you can tweak and update it as your company grows.

Key Takeaways

  • Realistic assumptions, thorough research, and a clear understanding of the market are the key to reliable financial projections.
  • Cash flow projection, balance sheet, and income statement are three major components of a financial plan.
  • Preparing a financial plan is easier and faster when you use a financial planning tool.
  • Exploring “what-if” scenarios is an ideal method to understand the potential risks and opportunities involved in the business operations.

Why is Financial Planning Important to Your Startup?

Poor financial planning is one of the biggest reasons why most startups fail. In fact, a recent CNBC study reported that running out of cash was the reason behind 44% of startup failures in 2022.

A well-prepared financial plan provides a clear financial direction for your business, helps you set realistic financial objectives, create accurate forecasts, and shows your business is committed to its financial objectives.

It’s a key element of your business plan for winning potential investors. In fact, YC considered recent financial statements and projections to be critical elements of their Series A due diligence checklist .

Your financial plan demonstrates how your business manages expenses and generates revenue and helps them understand where your business stands today and in 5 years.

Makes sense why financial planning is important to your startup, doesn’t it? Let’s cut to the chase and discuss the key components of a startup’s financial plan.

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Key Components of a Startup Financial Plan

Whether creating a financial plan from scratch for a business venture or just modifying it for an existing one, here are the key components to consider including in your startup’s financial planning process.

Income Statement

An Income statement , also known as a profit-and-loss statement(P&L), shows your company’s income and expenditures. It also demonstrates how your business experienced any profit or loss over a given time.

Consider it as a snapshot of your business that shows the feasibility of your business idea. An income statement can be generated considering three scenarios: worst, expected, and best.

Your income or P&L statement must list the following:

  • Cost of goods or cost of sale
  • Gross margin
  • Operating expenses
  • Revenue streams
  • EBITDA (Earnings before interest, tax, depreciation , & amortization )

Established businesses can prepare annual income statements, whereas new businesses and startups should consider preparing monthly statements.

Cash flow Statement

A cash flow statement is one of the most critical financial statements for startups that summarize your business’s cash in-and-out flows over a given time.

This section provides details on the cash position of your business and its ability to meet monetary commitments on a timely basis.

Your cash flow projection consists of the following three components:

✅ Cash revenue projection: Here, you must enter each month’s estimated or expected sales figures.

✅ Cash disbursements: List expenditures that you expect to pay in cash for each month over one year.

✅ Cash flow reconciliation: Cash flow reconciliation is a process used to ensure the accuracy of cash flow projections. The adjusted amount is the cash flow balance carried over to the next month.

Furthermore, a company’s cash flow projections can be crucial while assessing liquidity, its ability to generate positive cash flows and pay off debts, and invest in growth initiatives.

Balance Sheet

Your balance sheet is a financial statement that reports your company’s assets, liabilities, and shareholder equity at a given time.

Consider it as a snapshot of what your business owns and owes, as well as the amount invested by the shareholders.

This statement consists of three parts: assets , liabilities, and the balance calculated by the difference between the first two. The final numbers on this sheet reflect the business owner’s equity or value.

Balance sheets follow the following accounting equation with assets on one side and liabilities plus Owner’s equity on the other:

Here is what’s the core purpose of having a balance-sheet:

  • Indicates the capital need of the business
  • It helps to identify the allocation of resources
  • It calculates the requirement of seed money you put up, and
  • How much finance is required?

Since it helps investors understand the condition of your business on a given date, it’s a financial statement you can’t miss out on.

Break-even Analysis

Break-even analysis is a startup or small business accounting practice used to determine when a company, product, or service will become profitable.

For instance, a break-even analysis could help you understand how many candles you need to sell to cover your warehousing and manufacturing costs and start making profits.

Remember, anything you sell beyond the break-even point will result in profit.

You must be aware of your fixed and variable costs to accurately determine your startup’s break-even point.

  • Fixed costs: fixed expenses that stay the same no matter what.
  • Variable costs: expenses that fluctuate over time depending on production or sales.

A break-even point helps you smartly price your goods or services, cover fixed costs, catch missing expenses, and set sales targets while helping investors gain confidence in your business. No brainer—why it’s a key component of your startup’s financial plan.

Having covered all the key elements of a financial plan, let’s discuss how you can create a financial plan for your startup.

How to Create a Financial Section of a Startup Business Plan?

1. determine your financial needs.

You can’t start financial planning without understanding your financial requirements, can you? Get your notepad or simply open a notion doc; it’s time for some critical thinking.

Start by assessing your current situation by—calculating your income, expenses , assets, and liabilities, what the startup costs are, how much you have against them, and how much financing you need.

Assessing your current financial situation and health will help determine how much capital you need for your startup and help plan fundraising activities and outreach.

Furthermore, determining financial needs helps prioritize operational activities and expenses, effectively allocate resources, and increase the viability and sustainability of a business in the long run.

Having learned to determine financial needs, let’s head straight to setting financial goals.

2. Define Your Financial Goals

Setting realistic financial goals is fundamental in preparing an effective financial plan. So, it would help to outline your long-term strategies and goals at the beginning of your financial planning process.

Let’s understand it this way—if you are a SaaS startup pursuing VC financing rounds, you may ask investors about what matters to them the most and prepare your financial plan accordingly.

However, a coffee shop owner seeking a business loan may need to create a plan that appeals to banks, not investors. At the same time, an internal financial plan designed to offer financial direction and resource allocation may not be the same as previous examples, seeing its different use case.

Feeling overwhelmed? Just define your financial goals—you’ll be fine.

You can start by identifying your business KPIs (key performance indicators); it would be an ideal starting point.

3. Choose the Right Financial Planning Tool

Let’s face it—preparing a financial plan using Excel is no joke. One would only use this method if they had all the time in the world.

Having the right financial planning software will simplify and speed up the process and guide you through creating accurate financial forecasts.

Many financial planning software and tools claim to be the ideal solution, but it’s you who will identify and choose a tool that is best for your financial planning needs.

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Create a Financial Plan with Upmetrics in no time

Enter your Financial Assumptions, and we’ll calculate your monthly/quarterly and yearly financial projections.

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4. Make Assumptions Before Projecting Financials

Once you have a financial planning tool, you can move forward to the next step— making financial assumptions for your plan based on your company’s current performance and past financial records.

You’re just making predictions about your company’s financial future, so there’s no need to overthink or complicate the process.

You can gather your business’ historical financial data, market trends, and other relevant documents to help create a base for accurate financial projections.

After you have developed rough assumptions and a good understanding of your business finances, you can move forward to the next step—projecting financials.

5. Prepare Realistic Financial Projections

It’s a no-brainer—financial forecasting is the most critical yet challenging aspect of financial planning. However, it’s effortless if you’re using a financial planning software.

Upmetrics’ forecasting feature can help you project financials for up to 7 years. However, new startups usually consider planning for the next five years. Although it can be contradictory considering your financial goals and investor specifications.

Following are the two key aspects of your financial projections:

Revenue Projections

In simple terms, revenue projections help investors determine how much revenue your business plans to generate in years to come.

It generally involves conducting market research, determining pricing strategy , and cash flow analysis—which we’ve already discussed in the previous steps.

The following are the key components of an accurate revenue projection report:

  • Market analysis
  • Sales forecast
  • Pricing strategy
  • Growth assumptions
  • Seasonal variations

This is a critical section for pre-revenue startups, so ensure your projections accurately align with your startup’s financial model and revenue goals.

Expense Projections

Both revenue and expense projections are correlated to each other. As revenue forecasts projected revenue assumptions, expense projections will estimate expenses associated with operating your business.

Accurately estimating your expenses will help in effective cash flow analysis and proper resource allocation.

These are the most common costs to consider while projecting expenses:

  • Fixed costs
  • Variable costs
  • Employee costs or payroll expenses
  • Operational expenses
  • Marketing and advertising expenses
  • Emergency fund

Remember, realistic assumptions, thorough research, and a clear understanding of your market are the key to reliable financial projections.

6. Consider “What if” Scenarios

After you project your financials, it’s time to test your assumptions with what-if analysis, also known as sensitivity analysis.

Using what-if analysis with different scenarios while projecting your financials will increase transparency and help investors better understand your startup’s future with its best, expected, and worst-case scenarios.

Exploring “what-if” scenarios is the best way to better understand the potential risks and opportunities involved in business operations. This proactive exercise will help you make strategic decisions and necessary adjustments to your financial plan.

7. Build a Visual Report

If you’ve closely followed the steps leading to this, you know how to research for financial projections, create a financial plan, and test assumptions using “what-if” scenarios.

Now, we’ll prepare visual reports to present your numbers in a visually appealing and easily digestible format.

Don’t worry—it’s no extra effort. You’ve already made a visual report while creating your financial plan and forecasting financials.

Check the dashboard to see the visual presentation of your projections and reports, and use the necessary financial data, diagrams, and graphs in the final draft of your financial plan.

Here’s what Upmetrics’ dashboard looks like:

Upmetrics financial projections visual report

8. Monitor and Adjust Your Financial Plan

Even though it’s not a primary step in creating a good financial plan, it’s quite essential to regularly monitor and adjust your financial plan to ensure the assumptions you made are still relevant, and you are heading in the right direction.

There are multiple ways to monitor your financial plan.

For instance, you can compare your assumptions with actual results to ensure accurate projections based on metrics like new customers acquired and acquisition costs, net profit, and gross margin.

Consider making necessary adjustments if your assumptions are not resonating with actual numbers.

Also, keep an eye on whether the changes you’ve identified are having the desired effect by monitoring their implementation.

And that was the last step in our financial planning guide. However, it’s not the end. Have a look at this financial plan example.

Startup Financial Plan Example

Having learned about financial planning, let’s quickly discuss a coffee shop startup financial plan example prepared using Upmetrics.

Important Assumptions

  • The sales forecast is conservative and assumes a 5% increase in Year 2 and a 10% in Year 3.
  • The analysis accounts for economic seasonality – wherein some months revenues peak (such as holidays ) and wanes in slower months.
  • The analysis assumes the owner will not withdraw any salary till the 3rd year; at any time it is assumed that the owner’s withdrawal is available at his discretion.
  • Sales are cash basis – nonaccrual accounting
  • Moderate ramp- up in staff over the 5 years forecast
  • Barista salary in the forecast is $36,000 in 2023.
  • In general, most cafes have an 85% gross profit margin
  • In general, most cafes have a 3% net profit margin

Projected Balance Sheet

Projected Balance Sheet

Projected Cash-Flow Statement

Cash-Flow Statement

Projected Profit & Loss Statement

Profit & Loss Statement

Break Even Analysis

Break Even Analysis

Start Preparing Your Financial Plan

We covered everything about financial planning in this guide, didn’t we? Although it doesn’t fulfill our objective to the fullest—we want you to finish your financial plan.

Sounds like a tough job? We have an easy way out for you—Upmetrics’ financial forecasting feature. Simply enter your financial assumptions, and let it do the rest.

So what are you waiting for? Try Upmetrics and create your financial plan in a snap.

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with step-by-step Guidance & AI Assistance.

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Frequently Asked Questions

How often should i update my financial projections.

Well, there is no particular rule about it. However, reviewing and updating your financial plan once a year is considered an ideal practice as it ensures that the financial aspirations you started and the projections you made are still relevant.

How do I estimate startup costs accurately?

You can estimate your startup costs by identifying and factoring various one-time, recurring, and hidden expenses. However, using a financial forecasting tool like Upmetrics will ensure accurate costs while speeding up the process.

What financial ratios should startups pay attention to?

Here’s a list of financial ratios every startup owner should keep an eye on:

  • Net profit margin
  • Current ratio
  • Quick ratio
  • Working capital
  • Return on equity
  • Debt-to-equity ratio
  • Return on assets
  • Debt-to-asset ratio

What are the 3 different scenarios in scenario analysis?

As discussed earlier, Scenario analysis is the process of ascertaining and analyzing possible events that can occur in the future. Startups or businesses often consider analyzing these three scenarios:

  • base-case (expected) scenario
  • Worst-case scenario
  • best case scenario.

About the Author

finance section in business plan

Ajay is a SaaS writer and personal finance blogger who has been active in the space for over three years, writing about startups, business planning, budgeting, credit cards, and other topics related to personal finance. If not writing, he’s probably having a power nap. Read more

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Financial Assumptions and Your Business Plan

Written by Dave Lavinsky

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Financial assumptions are an integral part of a well-written business plan. You can’t accurately forecast the future without them. Invest the time to write solid assumptions so you have a good foundation for your financial forecast.

Download our Ultimate Business Plan Template here

What are Financial Assumptions?

Financial assumptions are the guidelines you give your business plan to follow. They can range from financial forecasts about costs, revenue, return on investment, and operating and startup expenses. Basically, financial assumptions serve as a forecast of what your business will do in the future. You need to include them so that anyone reading your plan will have some idea of how accurate its projections may be.

Of course, your financial assumptions should accurately reflect the information you’ve given in your business plan and they should be reasonably accurate. You need to keep this in mind when you make them because if you make outlandish claims, it will make people less likely to believe any part of your business plan including other financial projections that may be accurate.

That’s why you always want to err on the side of caution when it comes to financial assumptions for your business plan. The more conservative your assumptions are the more likely you’ll be able to hit them, and the less likely you’ll be off by so much that people will ignore everything in your plan.

Why are Financial Assumptions Important?

Many investors skip straight to the financial section of your business plan. It is critical that your assumptions and projections in this section be realistic. Plans that show penetration, operating margin, and revenues per employee figures that are poorly reasoned; internally inconsistent, or simply unrealistic greatly damage the credibility of the entire business plan. In contrast, sober, well-reasoned financial assumptions and projections communicate operational maturity and credibility.

For instance, if the company is categorized as a networking infrastructure firm, and the business plan projects 80% operating margins, investors will raise a red flag. This is because investors can readily access the operating margins of publicly-traded networking infrastructure firms and find that none have operating margins this high.

As much as possible, the financial assumptions should be based on actual results from your or other firms. As the example above indicates, it is fairly easy to look at a public company’s operating margins and use these margins to approximate your own. Likewise, the business plan should base revenue growth on other firms. 

Many firms find this impossible, since they believe they have a breakthrough product in their market, and no other company compares. In such a case, base revenue growth on companies in other industries that have had breakthrough products. If you expect to grow even faster than they did (maybe because of new technologies that those firms weren’t able to employ), you can include more aggressive assumptions in your business plan as long as you explain them in the text.

The financial assumptions can either enhance or significantly harm your business plan’s chances of assisting you in the capital-raising process. By doing the research to develop realistic assumptions, based on actual results of your or other companies, the financials can bolster your firm’s chances of winning investors. As importantly, the more realistic financials will also provide a better roadmap for your company’s success.

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Financial assumptions vs projections.

Financial Assumptions – Estimates of future financial results that are based on historical data, an understanding of the business, and a company’s operational strategy.

Financial Projections – Estimates of future financial results that are calculated from the assumptions factored into the financial model.

The assumptions are your best guesses of what the future holds; the financial projections are numerical versions of those assumptions. 

Key Assumptions By Financial Statement

Below you will find a list of the key business assumptions by the financial statement:

Income Statement

The income statement assumptions should include revenue, cost of goods sold, operating expenses, and depreciation/amortization, as well as any other line items that will impact the income statement.

When you are projecting future operating expenses, you should project these figures based on historical information and then adjust them as necessary with the intent to optimize and/or minimize them.

Balance Sheet

The balance sheet assumptions should include assets, liabilities, and owner’s equity, as well as any other line items that will impact the balance sheet. One of the most common mistakes is not including all cash inflows and outflows.

Cash Flow Statement

Cash flow assumptions should be made, but they do not impact the balance sheet or income statement until actually received or paid. You can include the cumulative cash flow assumption on the financial model to be sure it is included with each year’s projections. 

The cumulative cash flow assumption is useful for showing your investors and potential investors how you will spend the money raised. This line item indicates how much of the initial investment will be spent each year, which allows you to control your spending over time.

Notes to Financial Statements

The notes to financial statements should explain assumptions made by management regarding accounting policies, carrying value of long-lived assets, goodwill impairment testing, contingencies, and income taxes. It is important not only to list these items within the notes but also to provide a brief explanation.

What are the Assumptions Needed in Preparing a Financial Model?

In our article on “ How to Create Financial Projections for Your Business Plan ,” we list the 25+ most common assumptions to include in your financial model. Below are a few of them:

For EACH key product or service you offer:

  • What is the number of units you expect to sell each month?
  • What is your expected monthly sales growth rate?

For EACH subscription/membership you offer:

  • What is the monthly/quarterly/annual price of your membership?
  • How many members do you have now or how many members do you expect to gain in the first month/quarter/year?

Cost Assumptions

  • What is your monthly salary? What is the annual growth rate in your salary?
  • What is your monthly salary for the rest of your team? What is the expected annual growth rate in your team’s salaries?
  • What is your initial monthly marketing expense? What is the expected annual growth rate in your marketing expense?

Assumptions related to Capital Expenditures, Funding, Tax and Balance Sheet Items

  • How much money do you need for capital expenditures in your first year  (to buy computers, desks, equipment, space build-out, etc.)
  • How much other funding do you need right now?
  • What is the number of years in which your debt (loan) must be paid back

Properly Preparing Your Financial Assumptions

So how do you prepare your financial assumptions? It’s recommended that you use a spreadsheet program like Microsoft Excel. You’ll need to create separate columns for each line item and then fill in the cells with the example information described below.

Part 1 – Current Financials

Year to date (YTD) units sold and units forecast for next year. This is the same as YTD revenue, but you divide by the number of days in the period to get an average daily amount. If your plan includes a pro forma financial section, your financial assumptions will be projections that are consistent with the pro forma numbers.

Part 2 – Financial Assumptions

Estimated sales forecasts for next year by product or service line, along with the associated margin. List all major items in this section, not just products. For instance, you might include “Professional Services” as a separate item, with revenue and margin information.

List the number of employees needed to support this level of business, including yourself or key managers, along with your cost assumptions for compensation, equipment leasing (if applicable), professional services (accounting/legal/consultants), and other line items.

Part 3 – Projected Cash Flow Statement and Balance Sheet

List all key assumptions like: sources and uses of cash, capital expenditures, Planned and Unplanned D&A (depreciation & amortization), changes in operating assets and liabilities, along with those for investing activities. For example, you might list the assumptions as follows:

  • Increases in accounts receivable from customers based on assumed sales levels
  • Decreases in inventory due to increased sales
  • Increases in accounts payable due to higher expenses for the year
  • Decrease in unearned revenue as evidenced by billings received compared with those projected (if there is no change, enter 0)
  • Increase/decrease in other current assets due to changes in business conditions
  • Increase/decrease in other current liabilities due to changes in business conditions
  • Increases in long term debt (if necessary)
  • Cash acquired from financing activities (interest expense, dividends paid, etc.)

You make many of these assumptions based on your own experience. It is also helpful to look at the numbers for public companies and use those as a benchmark.

Part 4 – Future Financials

This section is for more aggressive financial projections that can be part of your plan, but which you cannot necessarily prove at the present time. This could include:

  • A projection of earnings per share (EPS) using the assumptions above and additional information such as new products, new customer acquisition, expansion into new markets
  • New product lines or services to be added in the second year. List the projected amount of revenue and margin associated with these items
  • A change in your gross margins due to a specific initiative you are planning, such as moving from a high volume/low margin business to a low volume/high margin business

Part 5 – Calculations

Calculate all critical financial numbers like:

  • Cash flow from operating activities (CFO)
  • Operating income or loss (EBITDA)  (earnings before interest, taxes, depreciation, and amortization)
  • EBITDA margin (gross profits divided by revenue less cost of goods sold)
  • Adjusted EBITDA (CFO plus other cash changes like capital expenditure, deferred taxes, non-cash stock compensation, and other items)
  • Net income or loss before tax  (EBT)
  • Cash from financing activities (increase/decrease in debt and equity)

Part 6 – Sensitivity Analysis

If your assumptions are reasonably accurate, you will have a column for “base case” and a column for “worst case.”  If you have a lot of variables with different possible outcomes, just list the potential range in one cell.

Calculate both EBITDA margins and EPS ranges at each level.

Part 7 – Section Highlights

Just list the two or three key points you want to make. If it is hard to distill them down, you need to go back and work on Part 3 until it makes sense.

Part 8 – Financial Summary

Include all the key numbers from your assumptions, section highlights, and calculations. In one place, you can add up CFO, EPS at different levels, and EBITDA margins under both base case and worst-case scenarios to give a complete range for each assumption.

The key to a successful business plan is being able to clearly communicate your financial assumptions. Be sure to include your assumptions in the narrative of your plan so you can clearly explain why you are making them. If you are using the business plan for financing or other purposes, it may also be helpful to include a separate “financials” section so people unfamiliar with your industry can quickly find and understand key information.

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  • How to Write the Management Team Section of a Business Plan + Examples
  • How to Create Financial Projections for Your Business Plan
  • Everything You Need to Know about the Business Plan Appendix
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Example of the Financial Section of a Business Plan

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FINANCIAL SECTION OF YOUR BUSINESS PLAN

The Financial Section, in many cases, is the most scrutinized section of your business plan. In short, it provides details on how potentially profitable the business will be, how much debt and equity capital is required for the business venture, and when debts are scheduled to be repaid to investors.  In addition, this section includes your financial statement forecasts, and the assumptions made when creating your financial projections.

The Financial Section of your business plan relies on Forecasted Financial Statements. Forecasted financial statements help an entrepreneur determine the feasibility of his/her business venture.  Also, forecasted financial statements help to estimate the amount of money an entrepreneur will need in order to successfully launch and operate the proposed endeavor. In addition, these statements help investors determine the plan's feasibility and its potential profitability. It is for these reasons that many refer the financial section as the "heart of a business plan". All other sections of the plan (operations section, management section, marketing section, etc) show an investor whether or not an entrepreneurs' financial projections can materialize as envisioned.

The structure of the financial section generally includes the following items:

Part A.    Introduction to the Financial Plan Part B.    Forecasted Financial Statements Part C.    Notes to the Forecasted Financial Statements

Click on the above links for information on each item of the Financial Plan.  Examples are also provided.

Below provides examples of  Financial Plans.  (Please note, the financial statements and analysis for two of the examples below; namely " The Internet Company " and " Scholarship Information Services " provide forecasted financial statements for a two year period. Your forecasted financial statements and analysis, however, should generally provide projections for at least a three year period.

EXAMPLES OF THE FINANCIAL PLAN SECTION OF A BUSINESS PLAN

J&B Incorporated Scholarship Information Services The Internet Company The Maple Syrup Company

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How to write the financial section of a business plan

How to Write the Financial Section of a Business Plan

When you are starting a small business or a startup, you will need to make financial projections for your business.

What is Financial Plan in Business Plan?

How to write a business plan financial section, profit and loss statement.

  • Cash Flow Statement
  • Balance Sheet
  • Sales Forecast
  • Personnel Plan

Breakeven Analysis and Business Ratios

Frequently asked questions (faqs).

Financial plan in business plan helps understand the chances of your business becoming a financial success. Investors want to see a financial plan to know how much money they’ll invest and what the expected return over investment is for them.

We have briefly discussed the process of writing a financial plan in business plan. One thing that can make or break your financial plan in business plan is your honesty about numbers.

Try not to be over-optimistic. See the growth pattern of similar businesses and project closely to them. Don’t overestimate the effects of your competitive advantage.

financial plan in business plan

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A financial plan in business plan is an overview of your business financial projections.

Business plan financial projections include financial reports including Profit & Loss, cash flow statement, and balance sheet.

A financial plan will also discuss sales forecast, employees’ salaries and other expenses forecast, business breakeven analysis, and important business rations that help measure growth.

A business plan financial section is about making simple forecasts and creating a few financial reports. You don’t need to know accounting, nor is it necessary for creating financial projections.

We have outlined and simplified the process of creating a financial plan for business plan. Simply follow the process and take help from our examples and templates to write an excellent financial plan section of a business plan.

How to write a financial analysis for a business plan

Review your Business Goals and Strategic Plan

You have set business goals in your business plan. A strategic plan is how you will navigate to financial success. 

Everything in a business plan that contributes toward your business goals. Before writing financial projections, consider these goals and milestones:

  • Expansion plans 
  • Adding more people to your team 
  • Resources required to meet your business goals 
  • Cash flow needs of your business in the short and long term
  • Financing needs to meet business goals 

Create Financial Projections

 Financial projections in a business plan will include the following:

  • Profit and loss statement

Cash Flow Statement 

Sales forecast .

  • Business Ratios and Breakeven Analysis 

We will explore each in detail in the following section. By the end of the article, you will fully understand how to create financial plan in business plan. 

A profit and loss statement is the first financial report you will create when writing financial plan in business plan.

A profit and loss statement reports your business income or loss over a certain period of time.

Profit and loss statement is also known by other names including its short form i.e., P & L statement, income statement, and pro forma income statement.

A profit and loss statement includes total revenues, expenses, and costs. A P&L statement is made for different time intervals like quarterly, bi-annual and annual. It shows net income after the cost of goods sold, expenses, taxes, depreciation, and amortization.

Before creating a P&L statement for your business, you may need to look for the right format for your business structure. For example, you will need a different format for a profit and loss statement for a sole proprietorship and a different one for an LLC.

Check income statement examples to understand and create one yourself. 

Profit and Loss Statement Template

Download our free profit and loss statement templates &  examples, and make a professional income statement for financial plan in business plan. 

Parts of a Profit and Loss Statement 

Every profit and loss statement includes the following elements:

  • Total Revenues 
  • Cost of Sales or Cost of Goods Sold 
  • Gross Margin 

Depending on the business type, a P&L statement may include insurance, taxes, depreciation, and amortization. Make sure to include a forecast for all heads in financial plan in business plan.

Calculate Operating Income 

Start your profit and loss statement by calculating operating income; use this formula. 

Gross Margin – Operating Expenses = Operating Income

Typically, operating income is equal to EBITDA (earnings before interest, taxes, depreciation, and amortization). 

Operating income is also called the gross profit and it does not deduce taxes or other accounting adjustments from the income.

Calculate Net Income 

Use this formula to calculate net income. 

Operating Income – (Interest + Taxes + Depreciation + Amortization Expenses) = Net Income

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A cash flow statement is typically prepared every month. You can create monthly and quarterly cash flow statement in financial plan in business plan.

A cash flow statement informs about the cash your business brought income, the cash it paid out, and how much is still available with the bank.

A cash flow statement gives an understanding of your income sources and expenses. When you forecast your financial reports, a cash flow statement will show your expected income sources and expenses.

A cash flow statement will help potential lenders and investors understand how you plan to make money. It provides reliable data about cash in and cash out. Keep it realistic and in line with the industry number for the most part. An exception may be an innovation or a breakthrough you bring to the market.

Your profit and cash flow are not the same. It is possible to have a cashless, profitable business or a business in loss with plenty of cash. A good cash flow helps you keep your business open and turn things around.

A cash flow statement also reflects your behavior with money. It shows if you spend on spur of the moment or think strategically. When creating a cash flow statement in a business plan, you will need to understand two basic concepts of accounting; cash accounting and accrual accounting.

Professional Business Templates for Small Businesses

Check our extensive library of business templates for small businesses and make use of the templates and examples in writing your business plan.

Difference between Cash and Accrual Accounting 

The difference between cash and accrual accounting is Accrual accounting records revenues/income and expenses when they occur while cash accounting records income/revenue and expenses when the money actually changes hands. 

You will need to decide if you will use cash accounting or accrual accounting. However, the final choice will depend on your business type and product. 

For example, you are selling tickets to a show or you are taking preorders for your new product. Under cash accounting, you will record all income now and expenses when you have actually shipped the product or organized the show. 

However, with accrual accounting, you will record both income and expenses when you have shipped the product or held the show. 

Here, cash accounting will show the months with cash abundance as profitable and the months of spending, like shipping of the products of event organization, as a loss. It is hard to see a pattern and get actionable insight with cash accounting. 

It is a good time to decide about the accounting method you will use when you are writing a financial plan in business plan. 

Check with your accounting consultant and discuss accrual and cash accounting to select the one most suitable for your business.

Balance Sheet 

A balance sheet is a summary of the financial position of your business. 

A balance sheet includes assets, liabilities, and equity. A balance sheet is based on this formula and it is always equal on both sides of the equation. 

Assets = Liabilities + Equity

Here, Assets include your inventory, cash at hand and bank, property, vehicles, accounts receivables, etc. Liabilities are debts, loans and account payables. Equity includes shares proceeds, retained earnings, and owner’s money. 

Download Balance Sheet Template from WiseBusinessPlan and make a balance sheet easy. 

A sales forecast is your projection about the sales you will make in a certain time. Investors and lenders will be interested in seeing your sales forecast. They will estimate your chances of meeting the forecast and projections. 

Keep your sales forecast consistent with the financial reports like the cash flow statement and profit & loss statement.

How To Make A Sales Forecast For A Business Plan?

First, decide the period for the sales forecast, like one month or a quarter. Then, do the following steps to make a sales forecast for that period. 

  • List goods or services your business sells
  • Forecast sales for each product or service 
  • Set per unit price for your goods or services 
  • Find sales volume by multiplying units sold with unit price 
  • Calculate the cost of goods sold 
  • Multiply the cost of goods sold by the number of units sold, this is your total cost 
  • Take the total cost amount from the total sales amount

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Personnel Plan 

A personnel plan shows the costs and value of the employees you will hire. 

Very small businesses, startups, or solopreneurs may not need a personnel plan but any business with employees, or plans to hire employees, will need this. 

Forecast the cost of each employee and the value they will provide. You don’t need to discuss everything about employees, just do a short cost-benefit analysis for each position or employee.

Breakeven analysis tells you the number of sales you need to bring in to cover all of your business expenses. 

Use this formula to calculate the breakeven point for your business. 

Break-Even Point (units) = Fixed Costs /  (Sales price per unit – Variable costs per unit) 

Business ratios are like signals for your business. You can quickly spot a growth or fall with a ratio. Some business ratios also help you see business health. 

You are not required to include business ratio forecasts however, it is good to know about them when writing a business plan. 

Here are some of the most used business ratios.

  • Gross margin
  • Return on sales
  • Return on assets
  • Return on investment
  • Debt-to-equity
  • Current ratio
  • Working capital
  • gross margin
  •  return on investment (ROI)
  • Debt-to-equity.

Use Financial Plan as a Tool for Business Management

One mistake that most people make is thinking that building a business plan is a one time thing. 

Your business plan and your financial projections can help you measure your business growth. You can use these numbers as a yard stick to see if you are meeting your projections or not. 

Here is how you can your business plan as a management tool for your business. 

Schedule monthly and quarterly business review meetings. Compare your actual data for that period with your forecast data and see how you are moving towards your business goals. Adjust your forecast or projections with the help of actual data to keep your growth trajectory in the right direction.

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The financial section of a business plan should include key financial statements such as the income statement, balance sheet, and cash flow statement. It should also provide details on projected sales, expenses, and profitability, along with any assumptions or financial ratios used.

Forecasting sales and revenue involves analyzing market research, understanding your target audience, and considering factors such as pricing, competition, and marketing strategies. Utilize historical data, industry benchmarks, and realistic growth assumptions to estimate future sales figures.

In addition to sales and revenue projections, the financial section should include projected expenses, such as operational costs, marketing expenses, and overheads. It should also outline anticipated profits, cash flow projections, and return on investment (ROI) calculations.

Yes, including a break-even analysis is important as it helps determine the point at which your business will start generating profits. It identifies the sales volume needed to cover all expenses and provides insights into the viability of your business.

Supporting documents may include historical financial statements, tax returns, cash flow statements, balance sheets, and any other relevant financial records. Additionally, include details about any loans, investments, or funding sources that contribute to the financial projections.

Loving the information on this web site, you have done great job on the content.

I thought of the same thing before reading this blog that a business plan is a one-time thing but now I know that a business plan and financial projections can really help you measure business growth. Let me just change my stance from now onward.

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  • What should a financial section of a business plan include?
  • Blog , Launch your startup

financial section

No matter how good your business idea is and how much money you manage to invest in it, the foundation of the company is its financial stability. Especially in the business plan, you need to show that in the foreseeable future your startup will get off the ground and become profitable. How to write the financial section of a business plan? Read our article to find out.

Financial section of a business plan – table of contents:

What is a financial section, the income statement, the balance sheet, break-even point (bep), benefits of a financial plan.

What exactly is the financial section in a business plan? In the financial section you should focus on forecasting the startup’s financial situation as it is mainly needed to attract investors or take out a loan. When creating such a section, you can better understand the functioning of your company and learn about the prospects of how the company can manage in the future.

It is a good idea to start building a financial plan by setting goals for the company. Goals can be divided into short-term, medium-term and long-term. The first are usually set for no more than 5 years. Here we can outline, for example, repayment of debts and loans, but also the purchase of new assets or increase of market presence. Medium-term plans are usually implemented in 5 up to 10 years, and these are larger investments. Everything that we want to realize in more than 10 years is referred to as long-term goals – difficult, often costly, but important for the development of the company.

Next, it is worth including an income statement in your financial plan. This will give the reader of the business plan an insight into expenses, revenues, and profit for a particular period. This will also allow you to assess the most important financial results and get an idea of what condition your startup is currently in – whether it is making a profit or a loss.

In a financial plan, it is also important to include a balance sheet which shows how much equity the company has in a given period. This is a kind of summary of the financial situation. On the one hand, you need to determine the company’s assets, that is, everything the startup owns. On the other hand, you have liabilities, that is debts owed to the creditor of the company. Learning the exact value of assets and liabilities, you can determine the amount of equity. You simply have to subtract the liabilities from the assets.

financial section

Another element that must be included in the financial section of the business plan is the cash flow projection. It shows how cash is expected to flow in and out of the company. In this way you can easily determine when expenses become too high and when you should think about external funding. Thanks to the cash flow projection, potential investors reading the business plan can tell whether the company has enough cash, and whether it is worth investing in it.

In the financial plan, it is also worth defining the break-even point. What is it? The break-even point is the point at which total cost and total revenue are equal, meaning there is no loss or gain for your business. If your company exceeds a break-even point, it means it has started making a profit. Determining the break-even point comes in handy when analyzing sales figures, when analyzing costs, and when setting prices. Thanks to a break-even analysis, you can think about what to do to increase profitability and reduce the time to reach this threshold.

What are the benefits of a financial plan? With such an analysis, you can clearly set the company’s goals. A financial plan will allow you to manage your cash flow more sensibly, enabling you to better allocate your company’s budget. Such a plan also helps to identify and reduce costs. This, in turn, minimizes financial risks. Above all, however, a financial plan increases the chances of raising capital.

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What should a financial section of a business plan include? andy nichols avatar 1

Author: Andy Nichols A problem solver with 5 different degrees and endless reserves of motivation. This makes him a perfect Business Owner & Manager. When searching for employees and partners, openness and curiosity of the world are qualities he values the most. View all posts

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How to write a financial business plan.

In this blog, we will dive into what a financial section in a business plan is and the key elements of this section in a business plan.

--> Updated on December 09, 2023

writing a business plan

Every business plan, amidst its content list ranging from company description, product details, and marketing plan to management information, remains a descriptive content in the absence of a financial business plan. 

The financial projection in a business plan is often known as the most crucial element of the document for it is what you need when you wish to get funded or are looking for a bank loan. Even when you are not looking for financing, the financial section gives you a clear view of the direction in which your business is headed. 

Creating a financial plan for a company is a critical element in every guide to starting a business . So every entrepreneur, no matter whether they are establishing a business, closing their 100th business deal, or looking for funding, is required to prepare a financial section of business plan. 

In the following article, we are going to dive into the answer of “how to write the financial section of a business plan” along with its multiple facets. We will dive into what a financial section in a business plan is, why it matters, and what to include. 

What is financial analysis in a business plan?

creating a business plan

Typically, the financial plan of a company is a set of documents or statistics which highlight the company’s historical financial standing and the future projections. 

It usually consists of information around budgets, financial statements, funding details, etc. Information that helps get financing from investors, loans from banks, and help you budget the company’s present and future income and expenses. 

Why is a financial plan for business important?

If there’s anything that the 2020 financial crisis taught us, it was that no financial leader knew how the crisis might end or would impact their business. To manage business continuity better, businesses started creating and tracking financial plans on a monthly and quarterly basis. The financial column of a business plan is necessary for not just funding reasons but also for tracking the business performance, revenue, and expenses. A financial plan for business helps with:

  • Estimate your business’s future revenue and expenses, profit and loss 
  • Proper budgeting of expenses
  • Getting finances from investors and lenders
  • Strategically-planned business growth 

While the benefits of having financial projections in a business plan are well established, companies are able to get the outcome only when they correctly prepare a financial section of business plan. The key step to achieving that lies in understanding its different elements. 

The key elements of a financial business plan

A detailed description of a financial plan in a business plan is necessary to ensure your business will be able to pay the bills, make a profit, get funding support, and achieve its financial goals. Here are the different contents that help achieve these outcomes. 

business plan structure

1. Business expenses

Whether your business is 10 days old or 5 years, you will have business expenses. While for startups, these can be operation costs, for established businesses, they can be fixed or variable. Irrespective of what stage your business is at and the kind of expenses you have, it is critical that you mention them in the financial section of a business plan. Here’s a list of some business expenses - 

  • Permits and licenses 
  • Rent payments
  • Employee costs 
  • Utilities 
  • Equipment and supplies 
  • Advertising

2. Financial projection in business plan 

These numbers deal with the future. In a typical financial projections template you will find details into revenue that you envision earning in the coming month or financial year. 

If you have an existing business, all you need to do is look at the last six months or year’s revenue to make an educated guess. But if you are a startup, the same process becomes challenging. Financial projections for startups are difficult because they don’t have an established user base nor enough past data to make an estimate. The solution to this lies in creating a reasonable financial goal at par with the competitors, market, and industry. 

3. Profit and loss statement 

Also known as an income statement, the document explains how your business made profit over time and areas where it is making a loss. Typically in a tabular format, it lists down all the revenue models and expenses for a specific time region along with the total amount of net profit or loss made at the end of the statement. 

Things that are added in the profit and loss sections of a business plan include - 

  • Business revenue
  • Cost of sale (if you are a product firm)
  • The gross margin (revenue - cost of sales)
  • Business expenses

4. Cash flow payment 

Every business runs on cash. Thus, it is extremely crucial to track where from and in what amount the cash in and the areas you spent them in. What is left is what you enter in the financial plan in business plan as the cash flow payment number. 

Without having a clarity on where the money is coming in from, where it is going, and how you can save the cash, you will not be able to run a healthy business. It is possible for you to be very profitable but not have enough cash to pay out the expenses - this is why drafting this financial statement is so critical. 

5. Balance sheet 

The balance sheet is a synopsis of your company’s financial position. It answers questions like: how is your business performing, how much cash do you have in bank, how much customers’ payments are pending, and how much you need to pay out to vendors. 

Things to add in the balance sheet section of financial business plan includes: 

  • Assets - Money in bank account, account receivable, inventory, etc. 
  • Liabilities - Account payable, loan repayments, credit card balances, etc. 
  • Equities - Owner’s shares, investors’ equity, stocks, etc.

6. Sales forecast

Sales forecast is the projection of what you think you will be earning in a stipulated time period. It is one of the most critical financial section of a business plan, especially when investors and lenders are involved in the process. 

Typically, companies break down the sales forecasts in different segments which come handy in the planning and marketing activities. For example, if you have a restaurant, you would want to distinguish the forecast on the basis of lunch and dinner sales, however, a gym owner would make the difference according to the different membership types.

7. Personnel planning

This factor finds itself in either the company overview or financial sections of a business plan. In this section, you should describe every member of the management team - who they are, skills they hold, their market knowledge, and how they impact the organization. Following this, you give details of the expenses you are making behind them as a way to justify the personnel cost. 

8. Break-even point

Investors are almost always heavily interested in finding the break-even point - when would the sales be equal to expenses. For determining that, companies will need to find the contribution margin. Let us tell you how through an example. 

Imagine a customer pays $100 for shoes. The selling cost is $70 and the wages paid to the store staff is $5. So the contribution margin would be - $100-$70-$5 = $25. Using this formula, you will be able to calculate how high the sales revenue needs to be in order for you to reach break even. 

So here were the different aspects of creating a financial plan for business. Now while these answer how to write the financial section of a business plan, it is imperative to note that the process is extremely difficult. A reason why companies turn to the best finance apps . These apps are engineered to aid financial business plans by helping entrepreneurs track their revenue and expenses.

Parting Notes

There are a number of reasons that make it imperative for businesses to make and maintain the financial section of a business plan. Reasons that vary from strategic cash flow management, smarter budget allocation, mitigation of risk, and crisis management, among others. 

However, for a company to achieve these outcomes they would either need to hire skilled finance experts or follow a diy approach. While for established businesses it makes sense to invest in skilled business finance experts, startups, with their limited budget, often rely on smart finance apps for drafting the financial plan for business. We hope that the information we covered in the article would help you add financial projection in business plan in a way that is preferred by both stakeholders and prospective investors. 

Sakshi Kaushik

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Run » finance, 4 simple steps to smart financial planning for small businesses.

Financial planning often involves looking for funding to help take your business performance to the next level. Here are some strategies to explore.

 A young woman sits at a wooden table in a cafe and types something on a digital tablet. On the table next to the tablet are several receipts, a pair of glasses, a small brown paper bag, and a calculator. The woman has long dark hair in braids with gold beads, and she wears a pale pink sweater and a gold necklace with a small pendant.

Financial planning is an iterative, ongoing process that helps your business reach its long-term goals. Financial planning strategies assess your business’s current financial position and allow you to adapt to market changes, forecast business growth, and achieve higher returns.

A typical financial strategy combines two key elements to help you reach your short- and long-term financial benchmarks. These elements are debt and investments. As you think about your financial strategy for the next year and beyond, here’s how to evaluate these options for fueling growth.

Start with goal-setting

Before you can determine whether to take on debt or pitch to investors, you must know the result toward which you are working. Set a SMART goal — one that’s Specific, Measurable, Achievable, Relevant, and Time-Bound — that you can break down into smaller financial targets.

For instance, most business owners aim to increase profit. However, there are more manageable goals that you can set along the way to earning more profit, such as:

  • Increase revenue.
  • Streamline operating expenses.
  • Improve customer retention.
  • Optimize pricing.

Set numerical targets and deadlines for these smaller benchmarks to get a clear picture of the resources and financial strategy that will help you make progress toward your larger objective.

[Read more: CO— Roadmap for Rebuilding: Planning Your Financial Future ]

How to use debt as a financial strategy

Loans are the most common form of debt that a company can use in its financial planning strategy. Loans from financial institutions, credit card companies, or even friends and family can be a good way to get the cash you need for short-term investments.

As a financial planning strategy, the appeal of using debt is that it’s relatively flexible. “Banks offer a range of different business loan products, including term loans, business lines of credit, equipment financing and commercial real estate loans, among other options,” wrote NerdWallet . “Unless you opt for a product that has a specific use case, like a business auto loan, for example, you can generally use a bank loan in a variety of ways to grow and expand your business.”

However, loans have strict eligibility requirements and can be slow to fund, involving a lot of paperwork and a strong credit score. New businesses may struggle to use debt in their financial planning strategy.

Loans are the most common form of debt that a company can use in its financial planning strategy.

How to use equity or investments in financial planning

Issuing equity (stock) is another way to fund your financial plan. Startups in particular can sell shares of ownership to investors to raise capital for growth, expansion, or acquisitions. This allows you to avoid taking on debt and can bring on partners with mentorship and advice to offer.

“With equity financing, there is no loan to repay. The business doesn’t have to make a monthly loan payment which can be particularly important if the business doesn’t initially generate a profit. This in turn, gives you the freedom to channel more money into your growing business,” wrote The Hartford .

The downside of equity financing is that you will need to share a part of your profit with your equity partners. Equity is best suited for financial strategies that require significant capital quickly.

[Read more: 4 Financial Forecasting Models for Small Businesses ]

Final tips for financial planning

Debt and equity are the key ways to ensure you have the cash flow to reach your financial goals, but there are other elements to consider in your strategy. Make sure you plan a safety net for unforeseen risks; build an emergency fund and get insurance to protect your business. In addition, review your financial results quarterly and annually to ensure your projections are realistic.

“As you look over your annual income reports, you can gain insight into the activities that led to improved revenue and double down on them to raise profits as part of your financial plan,” wrote FundKite , a business funding platform.

Revisit your financial plan frequently to make sure the funding options you explore are still serving your business goals. There are plenty of alternative funding sources — such as grants and crowdfunding — that can help you reach short-term benchmarks along the way.

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CO—is committed to helping you start, run and grow your small business. Learn more about the benefits of small business membership in the U.S. Chamber of Commerce, here .

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I'm a financial planner — I have 4 tips for my business owner clients looking to open a business bank account

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  • Legally protecting yourself in case of an audit is the No. 1 reason to use a business bank account.
  • Different banks will offer different levels of convenience, and they'll come with different fees.
  • Fraud detection and other security features are especially important for protecting your business.

Insider Today

When starting a business, it can be overwhelming thinking about all the things you need to do and consider. However, it is essential that you do not overlook the value of opening a business bank account — usually both a business checking account and a high-yield business savings account .

As a CPA and financial planner, one of the first things I tell all my business owner clients to do is to keep their personal and business transactions separate. While there are a multitude of reasons you should have a separate bank account for your business, legal protection is certainly the most important.

If you experience an audit, it is important to have an easy way to track your business expenses and income. When business finances are commingled with personal finances, it becomes nearly impossible to provide a clear financial trail.

When choosing a business bank account, there are several important factors to consider. Here are four things I tell my business owner clients to consider when choosing a business bank account.

1. Access to banking services and customer service

When it comes to running a business, a variety of banking services can help you effectively manage your business finances. Beyond just opening a business bank account, you want to ensure that the financial institution you choose can provide access to services such as a checking account, savings account, business loans , wire transfers, fraud prevention services, a notary, checkbooks, business credit cards , online and mobile banking, and bill payment services.

If you want more one-on-one attention from a banker, consider opening an account with your local bank or credit union. You may also prefer a physical branch if you plan to make daily deposits or withdrawals of cash or checks.

This may be more challenging to do with an online bank. Many online banks may offer deposits and withdrawals, but their ATM network may not be as large as a well-known brick-and-mortar bank. For this reason, some small business owners open an account at their local bank where they have their personal accounts and know the level of customer service they will receive.

Consider opening your business checking and savings accounts at different financial institutions so that you can have access to both better banking services at a physical branch and higher interest rates at an online bank.

2. Terms and fees (including minimum balance)

The fees associated with business bank accounts can vary widely depending on the financial institution. Some of the most common fees to be aware of include monthly maintenance fees, overdraft fees , wire transfer fees, minimum balance fees, and ATM fees.

You may find that online banks charge fewer fees than brick-and-mortar banks, but you must consider this in conjunction with the other features.

Seek an account with reasonable fees that can accommodate your business.

3. Ease of paying contractors

Some business bank accounts, especially online accounts, offer free invoicing and bookkeeping software/features.

If you use accounting software (such as QuickBooks) to manage your business finances, accessing a business bank account that offers integration features may be desirable. Trust me, this will make your or your accountant's life much easier.

In addition, some accounts allow integrations with payroll and tax preparation software. This will help to make the process of paying contractors with 1099s more seamless.

4. The bank's security offerings

One of the most important things you should consider when choosing a business bank account is security. There are certain features that you want to look for to make sure your account is protected.

First, you want to make sure that the bank you choose is FDIC-insured (or NCUA-insured if a credit union). In addition, you want to make sure that the institution has additional layers of security such as multi-factor authentication and fraud detection services, which include account monitoring and alerts for suspicious activity.

Ensure that whatever bank you choose offers the best security features to protect your business from fraud.

When choosing a bank account, consider all the various banking features offered by different financial institutions to find the one that best suits your business's financial needs. Also, remember that your decision is not permanent. It is easy to switch banks if necessary.

Watch: The 3 most important things you need to know about starting a business

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Artificial Intelligence Computing Leadership from NVIDIA

Press Release Details

Nvidia announces financial results for fourth quarter and fiscal 2024.

  • Record quarterly revenue of $22.1 billion, up 22% from Q3, up 265% from year ago 
  • Record quarterly Data Center revenue of $18.4 billion, up 27% from Q3, up 409% from year ago
  • Record full-year revenue of $60.9 billion, up 126%

SANTA CLARA, Calif., Feb. 21, 2024 (GLOBE NEWSWIRE) -- NVIDIA (NASDAQ: NVDA) today reported revenue for the fourth quarter ended January 28, 2024, of $22.1 billion, up 22% from the previous quarter and up 265% from a year ago.

For the quarter, GAAP earnings per diluted share was $4.93, up 33% from the previous quarter and up 765% from a year ago. Non-GAAP earnings per diluted share was $5.16, up 28% from the previous quarter and up 486% from a year ago.

For fiscal 2024, revenue was up 126% to $60.9 billion. GAAP earnings per diluted share was $11.93, up 586% from a year ago. Non-GAAP earnings per diluted share was $12.96, up 288% from a year ago.

“Accelerated computing and generative AI have hit the tipping point. Demand is surging worldwide across companies, industries and nations,” said Jensen Huang, founder and CEO of NVIDIA.

“Our Data Center platform is powered by increasingly diverse drivers — demand for data processing, training and inference from large cloud-service providers and GPU-specialized ones, as well as from enterprise software and consumer internet companies. Vertical industries — led by auto, financial services and healthcare — are now at a multibillion-dollar level.

“NVIDIA RTX, introduced less than six years ago, is now a massive PC platform for generative AI, enjoyed by 100 million gamers and creators. The year ahead will bring major new product cycles with exceptional innovations to help propel our industry forward. Come join us at next month’s GTC, where we and our rich ecosystem will reveal the exciting future ahead,” he said.

NVIDIA will pay its next quarterly cash dividend of $0.04 per share on March 27, 2024, to all shareholders of record on March 6, 2024.

Q4 Fiscal 2024 Summary

Fiscal 2024 Summary

Outlook NVIDIA’s outlook for the first quarter of fiscal 2025 is as follows:

  • Revenue is expected to be $24.0 billion, plus or minus 2%.
  • GAAP and non-GAAP gross margins are expected to be 76.3% and 77.0%, respectively, plus or minus 50 basis points.
  • GAAP and non-GAAP operating expenses are expected to be approximately $3.5 billion and $2.5 billion, respectively.
  • GAAP and non-GAAP other income and expense are expected to be an income of approximately $250 million, excluding gains and losses from non-affiliated investments.
  • GAAP and non-GAAP tax rates are expected to be 17.0%, plus or minus 1%, excluding any discrete items.

NVIDIA achieved progress since its previous earnings announcement in these areas: 

Data Center

  • Fourth-quarter revenue was a record $18.4 billion, up 27% from the previous quarter and up 409% from a year ago. Full-year revenue rose 217% to a record $47.5 billion.
  • Launched, in collaboration with Google, optimizations across NVIDIA’s data center and PC AI platforms for Gemma , Google’s groundbreaking open language models.
  • Expanded its strategic collaboration with Amazon Web Services to host NVIDIA ® DGX™ Cloud on AWS.
  • Announced that Amgen will use the NVIDIA DGX SuperPOD ™ to power insights into drug discovery, diagnostics and precision medicine.
  • Announced  NVIDIA NeMo™ Retriever , a generative AI microservice that lets enterprises connect custom large language models with enterprise data to deliver highly accurate responses for AI applications. 
  • Introduced NVIDIA MONAI™ cloud APIs to help developers and platform providers integrate AI into their medical-imaging offerings. 
  • Announced that Singtel will bring generative AI services to Singapore through energy-efficient data centers that the telco is building with NVIDIA Hopper™ architecture GPUs.
  • Introduced plans with Cisco to help enterprises quickly and easily deploy and manage secure AI infrastructure.
  • Supported the National Artificial Intelligence Research Resource pilot program , a major step by the U.S. government toward a shared national research infrastructure.
  • Fourth-quarter revenue was $2.9 billion, flat from the previous quarter and up 56% from a year ago. Full-year revenue rose 15% to $10.4 billion.
  • Launched GeForce RTX™ 40 SUPER Series GPUs , starting at $599, which support the latest NVIDIA RTX™ technologies, including DLSS 3.5 Ray Reconstruction and NVIDIA Reflex.
  • Announced generative AI capabilities for its installed base of over 100 million RTX AI PCs, including Tensor-RT™ LLM to accelerate inference on large language models, and Chat with RTX, a tech demo that lets users personalize a chatbot with their own content.
  • Introduced microservices for the NVIDIA Avatar Cloud Engine , allowing game and application developers to integrate state-of-the-art generative AI models into non-playable characters.
  • Reached the milestone of 500 AI-powered RTX games and applications utilizing NVIDIA DLSS, ray tracing and other NVIDIA RTX technologies.

Professional Visualization

  • Fourth-quarter revenue was $463 million, up 11% from the previous quarter and up 105% from a year ago. Full-year revenue rose 1% to $1.6 billion.
  • Announced adoption of NVIDIA Omniverse ™ by the global automotive-configurator ecosystem.
  • Announced the NVIDIA RTX 2000 Ada Generation GPU , bringing the latest AI, graphics and compute technology to compact workstations.
  • Fourth-quarter revenue was $281 million, up 8% from the previous quarter and down 4% from a year ago. Full-year revenue rose 21% to $1.1 billion.
  • Announced further adoption of its NVIDIA DRIVE ® platform , with Great Wall Motors, ZEEKR and Xiaomi using DRIVE Orin™ to power intelligent automated-driving systems and Li Auto selecting DRIVE Thor™ as its centralized car computer.

CFO Commentary Commentary on the quarter by Colette Kress, NVIDIA’s executive vice president and chief financial officer, is available at https://investor.nvidia.com .

Conference Call and Webcast Information NVIDIA will conduct a conference call with analysts and investors to discuss its fourth quarter and fiscal 2024 financial results and current financial prospects today at 2 p.m. Pacific time (5 p.m. Eastern time). A live webcast (listen-only mode) of the conference call will be accessible at NVIDIA’s investor relations website, https://investor.nvidia.com . The webcast will be recorded and available for replay until NVIDIA’s conference call to discuss its financial results for its first quarter of fiscal 2025.

Non-GAAP Measures To supplement NVIDIA’s condensed consolidated financial statements presented in accordance with GAAP, the company uses non-GAAP measures of certain components of financial performance. These non-GAAP measures include non-GAAP gross profit, non-GAAP gross margin, non-GAAP operating expenses, non-GAAP income from operations, non-GAAP other income (expense), net, non-GAAP net income, non-GAAP net income, or earnings, per diluted share, and free cash flow. For NVIDIA’s investors to be better able to compare its current results with those of previous periods, the company has shown a reconciliation of GAAP to non-GAAP financial measures. These reconciliations adjust the related GAAP financial measures to exclude acquisition termination costs, stock-based compensation expense, acquisition-related and other costs, IP-related costs, other, gains and losses from non-affiliated investments, interest expense related to amortization of debt discount, and the associated tax impact of these items where applicable. Free cash flow is calculated as GAAP net cash provided by operating activities less both purchases related to property and equipment and intangible assets and principal payments on property and equipment and intangible assets. NVIDIA believes the presentation of its non-GAAP financial measures enhances the user’s overall understanding of the company’s historical financial performance. The presentation of the company’s non-GAAP financial measures is not meant to be considered in isolation or as a substitute for the company’s financial results prepared in accordance with GAAP, and the company’s non-GAAP measures may be different from non-GAAP measures used by other companies.

About NVIDIA Since its founding in 1993, NVIDIA (NASDAQ: NVDA) has been a pioneer in accelerated computing. The company’s invention of the GPU in 1999 sparked the growth of the PC gaming market, redefined computer graphics, ignited the era of modern AI and is fueling industrial digitalization across markets. NVIDIA is now a full-stack computing infrastructure company with data-center-scale offerings that are reshaping industry. More information at https://nvidianews.nvidia.com/ .

Certain statements in this press release including, but not limited to, statements as to: demand for accelerated computing and generative AI surging worldwide across companies, industries and nations; our Data Center platform being powered by increasingly diverse drivers, including demand for data processing, training and inference from large cloud-service providers and GPU-specialized ones, as well as from enterprise software and consumer internet companies; vertical industries led by auto, financial, services and healthcare now at a multibillion-dollar level; NVIDIA RTX becoming a massive PC platform for generative AI enjoyed by 100 million gamers and creators; the year ahead bringing major new product cycles with exceptional innovations to help propel our industry forward; our upcoming conference at GTC, where we and our rich ecosystem will reveal the exciting future ahead; NVIDIA’s next quarterly cash dividend; NVIDIA’s financial outlook and expected tax rates for the first quarter of fiscal 2025; the benefits, impact, performance, features and availability of NVIDIA’s products and technologies, including NVIDIA AI platforms, NVIDIA DGX Cloud, NVIDIA DGX SuperPOD, NVIDIA NeMo Retriever, NVIDIA MONAI cloud APIs, NVIDIA Hopper architecture GPUs, NVIDIA GeForce RTX 40 SUPER Series GPUs, NVIDIA DLSS 3.5 Ray Reconstruction, NVIDIA Reflex, NVIDIA TensorRT-LLM, Chat with RTX, microservices for the NVIDIA Avatar Cloud Engine, NVIDIA DLSS, ray tracing and other NVIDIA RTX technologies, NVIDIA Omniverse, NVIDIA RTX 2000 Ada Generation GPU, NVIDIA DRIVE platform, NVIDIA DRIVE Orin and NVIDIA DRIVE Thor; and our collaborations with third parties are forward-looking statements that are subject to risks and uncertainties that could cause results to be materially different than expectations. Important factors that could cause actual results to differ materially include: global economic conditions; our reliance on third parties to manufacture, assemble, package and test our products; the impact of technological development and competition; development of new products and technologies or enhancements to our existing product and technologies; market acceptance of our products or our partners’ products; design, manufacturing or software defects; changes in consumer preferences or demands; changes in industry standards and interfaces; and unexpected loss of performance of our products or technologies when integrated into systems, as well as other factors detailed from time to time in the most recent reports NVIDIA files with the Securities and Exchange Commission, or SEC, including, but not limited to, its annual report on Form 10-K and quarterly reports on Form 10-Q. Copies of reports filed with the SEC are posted on the company’s website and are available from NVIDIA without charge. These forward-looking statements are not guarantees of future performance and speak only as of the date hereof, and, except as required by law, NVIDIA disclaims any obligation to update these forward-looking statements to reflect future events or circumstances.

© 2024 NVIDIA Corporation. All rights reserved. NVIDIA, the NVIDIA logo, GeForce, GeForce RTX, NVIDIA DGX, NVIDIA DGX SuperPOD, NVIDIA DRIVE, NVIDIA DRIVE Orin, NVIDIA DRIVE Thor, NVIDIA Hopper, NVIDIA MONAI, NVIDIA NeMo, NVIDIA Omniverse, NVIDIA RTX and TensorRT are trademarks and/or registered trademarks of NVIDIA Corporation in the U.S. and/or other countries. Other company and product names may be trademarks of the respective companies with which they are associated. Features, pricing, availability and specifications are subject to change without notice.

A photo accompanying this announcement is available at https://www.globenewswire.com/NewsRoom/AttachmentNg/38343cb8-8bc8-42b0-aa76-e3d280ae5507

finance section in business plan

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finance section in business plan

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IMAGES

  1. Financial Section of Business Plan

    finance section in business plan

  2. How to Write a Financial Plan for Your Business Plan in 2023

    finance section in business plan

  3. Financial Business Plan Template

    finance section in business plan

  4. FREE 9+ Sample Financial Business Plan Templates in Google Docs

    finance section in business plan

  5. How to Write the Financial Plan in Business Plan?

    finance section in business plan

  6. BUSINESS PLAN FINANCIAL SECTION

    finance section in business plan

VIDEO

  1. Empowering Your Business's Future: Budget Planning and Business Planning strategies Unleashed

  2. How to create Financial Plan

  3. Technological Innovation and Entrepreneurship Term Project

COMMENTS

  1. How to Write the Financial Section of a Business Plan

    The financial section of a business plan is one of the most essential components of the plan, as you will need it if you have any hope of winning over investors or obtaining a bank loan. Even...

  2. Financial Section of Business Plan

    Generally, the financial section is one of the last sections in a business plan. It describes a business's historical financial state (if applicable) and future financial projections. Businesses include supporting documents such as budgets and financial statements, as well as funding requests in this section of the plan.

  3. Basics Of A Business Plan Financials Section

    You need to include at least three documents in the financials section of your business plan: 1. Income statement: Are you profitable? 2. Cash flow statement: How much cash do you have on...

  4. Business Plan Essentials: Writing the Financial Plan

    The financial section is composed of four financial statements: the income statement, the cash flow projection, the balance sheet, and the statement of shareholders' equity. It also should include a brief explanation and analysis of these four statements. Taking Stock of Expenses

  5. Business Plan Financial Templates

    Use this financial plan template to organize and prepare the financial section of your business plan. This customizable template has room to provide a financial overview, any important assumptions, key financial indicators and ratios, a break-even analysis, and pro forma financial statements to share key financial data with potential investors.

  6. Business Plan Example and Template

    A business plan is a document that contains the operational and financial plan of a business, and details how its objectives will be achieved. It serves as a road map for the business and can be used when pitching investors or financial institutions for debt or equity financing.

  7. How to Write a Financial Plan: Budget and Forecasts

    Key components of a financial plan A sound financial plan is made up of six key components that help you easily track and forecast your business financials. They include your: Sales forecast What do you expect to sell in a given period? Segment and organize your sales projections with a personalized sales forecast based on your business type.

  8. Guide to Writing a Financial Plan for a Business

    The financial plan section often consists mostly of spreadsheets. It's where the business owner presents a paint-by-numbers case that the business will continue to be profitable or, if it's a startup, become profitable. The financial section is the part of a business plan that many investors turn to first, so it deserves extra attention.

  9. First Steps: Writing the Financials Section of Your Business Plan

    Financial statements come in threes: income statement, balance sheet, and cash flow statement. Taken together they provide an accurate picture of a company's current value, plus its ability to...

  10. Write your business plan

    Executive summary. Briefly tell your reader what your company is and why it will be successful. Include your mission statement, your product or service, and basic information about your company's leadership team, employees, and location. You should also include financial information and high-level growth plans if you plan to ask for financing.

  11. Writing Business Plan Financials? Include These 3 Statements

    Sections to include in your business plan financials Here are the three statements to include in the finance section of your business plan: Profit and loss statement A profit and loss statement, also known as an income statement, identifies your business's revenue (profit) and expenses (loss).

  12. How to write a business plan financial section: a guide

    The financial section of a business plan contains all of the documents that forecast sales, expenses, cash-flows and other projections. Businesses often highlight this section when trying to gain the interest of investors, as they may want to see the financial forecast of the company to ensure that it is a safe investment.

  13. How to Complete the Financial Section of Business Plan

    The financial section of the plan provides the proof behind the story. It is the section that investors and lenders are most interested in, and often the first section they read, despite it being near the end of the plan. It also acts as a roadmap and a guide for the direction the company will take into the future. Financial Section Elements

  14. How to Prepare a Financial Plan for Startup Business (w/ example)

    It's an integral part of a business plan and comprises its three major components: balance sheet, income statement, and cash-flow statement. Apart from these statements, your financial section may also include revenue and sales forecasts, assets & liabilities, break-even analysis, and more.

  15. How to Format the Financial Section of a Business Plan

    The Financial Statement. First, a financial plan should include a financial statement that consists of the following three parts. Income statement: Also called the profit and loss statement, or P&L, it details the profit or loss the business will generate. Cash flow statement: Functioning a little like a check register for a checking account ...

  16. How to Complete the Financial Plan Section of Your Business Plan

    A business' financial plan is the part of your business plan that details how your company will achieve its financial goals. It includes information on your company's projected income, expenses, and cash flow in the form of a 5-Year Income Statement, Balance Sheet and Cash Flow Statement. The plan should also detail how much funding your ...

  17. How To Write A Business Plan (2024 Guide)

    Describe Your Services or Products. The business plan should have a section that explains the services or products that you're offering. This is the part where you can also describe how they fit ...

  18. Financial Assumptions and Your Business Plan

    Many investors skip straight to the financial section of your business plan. It is critical that your assumptions and projections in this section be realistic. Plans that show penetration, operating margin, and revenues per employee figures that are poorly reasoned; internally inconsistent, or simply unrealistic greatly damage the credibility ...

  19. Seven Sections Your Business Plan Should Have

    Once you have completed your business plan, write the Executive Summary last. 2. Company Overview. List the goods and services the company will provide, the market it will serve, short- and long ...

  20. Example of the Financial Section of a Business Plan

    The Financial Section, in many cases, is the most scrutinized section of your business plan. In short, it provides details on how potentially profitable the business will be, how much debt and equity capital is required for the business venture, and when debts are scheduled to be repaid to investors. In addition, this section includes your ...

  21. How to Write the Financial Plan in Business Plan?

    A business plan financial section is about making simple forecasts and creating a few financial reports. You don't need to know accounting, nor is it necessary for creating financial projections. We have outlined and simplified the process of creating a financial plan for business plan.

  22. What should a financial section of a business plan include?

    What exactly is the financial section in a business plan? In the financial section you should focus on forecasting the startup's financial situation as it is mainly needed to attract investors or take out a loan.

  23. How to write the financial section of a business plan?

    Equities - Owner's shares, investors' equity, stocks, etc. 6. Sales forecast. Sales forecast is the projection of what you think you will be earning in a stipulated time period. It is one of the most critical financial section of a business plan, especially when investors and lenders are involved in the process.

  24. Financial Planning Strategies to Reach your Money Goals

    As a financial planning strategy, the appeal of using debt is that it's relatively flexible. "Banks offer a range of different business loan products, including term loans, business lines of credit, equipment financing and commercial real estate loans, among other options," wrote NerdWallet. "Unless you opt for a product that has a ...

  25. Financial planning: A comprehensive guide

    Financial planning is a process that helps you achieve your goals and dreams by enabling you to better manage your finances. The end product of the process, a written financial plan, typically ...

  26. Tips From a Financial Planner for Opening a Business Bank Account

    Beyond just opening a business bank account, you want to ensure that the financial institution you choose can provide access to services such as a checking account, savings account, business loans ...

  27. Trump's civil fraud verdict appeal may hinge on 'no victims' defense

    Donald Trump's planned appeal of a $355 million judgment against him in his civil fraud case may focus on the former president's contention that there were no actual victims from his conduct at ...

  28. NVIDIA Announces Financial Results for Fourth Quarter and Fiscal 2024

    Record quarterly revenue of $22.1 billion, up 22% from Q3, up 265% from year ago Record quarterly Data Center revenue of $18.4 billion, up 27% from Q3, up 409% from year ago Record full-year revenue of $60.9 billion, up 126% SANTA CLARA, Calif., Feb. 21, 2024 (GLOBE NEWSWIRE) - NVIDIA (NASDAQ: NVDA) today reported revenue for the fourth quarter ended January 28, 2024, of $22.1 billion, up 22% ...

  29. McKinsey-led think-tank advised China on policy that fed US tensions

    Ultimately, the Five-Year Plan adopted a number of policies to improve China's technological prowess, including a "Made in China 2025" strategy with global market share targets for strategic ...