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What is Cost Allocation? Definition & Process
Jul 16, 2020 Michael Whitmire
Working with the former accountants now working at FloQast, we decided to take a look at some of the pillars of the accounting professions.
The key to running a profitable enterprise of any kind is making sure that your prices are high enough to cover all your costs — and leave at least a bit for profit. For a really simple business — like the proverbial lemonade stand that almost every kid ran — that’s pretty simple. Your costs are what you (or your parents) paid for lemons and sugar. But what if it’s a more complex business? Then you might need to brush up on cost accounting, and learn about allocation accounting . Let’s walk through this using the hypothetical company, Lisa’s Luscious Lemonade.
What is cost allocation ?
The cost allocation definition is best described as the process of assigning costs to the things that benefit from those costs or to cost centers . For Lisa’s Luscious Lemonade, a cost center can be as granular as each jug of lemonade that’s produced, or as broad as the manufacturing plant in Houston.
Let’s assume that the owner, Lisa, needs to know the cost of a jug of lemonade. The total cost to create that jug of lemonade isn’t just the costs of the water, lemons, sugar and the jug itself, but also includes all the allocated costs to make it.
Let’s start by defining some terms…
Direct costs are costs that can be traced directly to the product or service itself. For manufacturers, these consist of direct materials and direct labor. They appear in the financial statements as part of the cost of goods sold .
Direct materials are those that become an integral part of the finished product. This will be the costs of the water, sugar, lemons, the plastic jug, and the label.
Direct labor includes the labor costs that can be easily traced to the production of those finished products. Direct labor for that jug will be the payroll for the workers on the production line.
Indirect costs are the costs that can’t be easily traced to a product or service but are clearly required for making whatever an enterprise sells. This includes materials that are used in such insignificant quantities that it’s not worth tracing them to finished products, and labor for employees who work in the factory, but not on the production line.
Overhead costs encompass all the costs that support the enterprise that can’t be directly linked to making the items that are sold. This includes indirect costs , as well as selling, marketing, administration, and facility costs.
Manufacturing overhead includes the overhead costs that are directly related to making the products for sale. This includes the electricity, rent, and utilities for the factory and salaries of supervisors on the factory floor.
Product costs are all the costs in making or acquiring the product for sale. These are also known as manufacturing costs or total costs . This includes direct labor, direct materials, and allocated manufacturing overhead.
What is the process?
The first step in any cost allocation system is to identify the cost objects to which costs need to be allocated. Here, our cost objec t is a jug of lemonade. For a more complex organization, the cost object could be a product line, a department, or a branch.
Direct costs are the simplest to allocate. Last month, Lisa’s Luscious Lemonades produced 50,000 gallons of lemonade and had the following direct costs:
Total costs Cost per gallon Direct materials $142,500 $2.85 Direct labor $37,500 $.75
How are costs allocated?
Allocating overhead costs is a bit more complex. First, the overhead costs are split between manufacturing costs and non-manufacturing costs. Some of this is pretty straightforward: the factory floor supervisor’s salary is clearly a manufacturing cost, and the sales manager’s salary is a non-manufacturing cost. But what about the cost of human resources or other service departments that serve all parts of the organization? Or facilities costs, which might include the rent for the building, insurance, utilities, janitorial services, and general building maintenance?
Human resources and other services costs might be logically split based on the headcount of the manufacturing versus non-manufacturing parts of the business. Facilities costs might be split based on the square footage of the manufacturing space versus the administrative offices. Electricity usage might be allocated on the basis of square footage or machine hours , depending on the situation.
Let’s say that for Lisa’s Luscious Lemonades, after we split the overhead between manufacturing and non-manufacturing costs, we have the following annual manufacturing overhead costs :
Supervisor salary $84,000 Indirect costs $95,000 Facility costs $150,000 Human resources $54,000 Depreciation $65,000 Electricity $74,000 Total manufacturing overhead $522,000
In a perfect world, it would be possible to keep an accurate running total of all overhead costs so that management would have detailed and accurate cost information. However, in practice, a predetermined overhead rate is used to allocate overhead using an allocation base .
This overhead rate is determined by dividing the total estimated manufacturing overhead by the estimated total units in the allocation base . At the end of the year or quarter, the allocated costs are reconciled to actual costs.
Ideally, the allocation base should be a cost driver that causes those overhead costs . For manufacturers, direct labor hours or machine-hours are commonly used. Since Lisa only makes one product — gallon jugs of lemonade — the simplest cost driver is the number of jugs produced in a year.
If we estimate that 600,000 gallons of lemonade are produced in a year, then the overhead rate will be $522,000 / 600,000 = $.87 per gallon.
Our final cost to produce a gallon of Lisa’s Luscious Lemonade is as follows:
Direct materials $2.85 Direct labor $0.75 Manufacturing overhead $0.87 Total cost $4.47
What is cost allocation used for?
Cost allocation is used for both external reporting and internally for decision making. Under generally accepted accounting principles (GAAP), the matching principle requires that expenses be reported in the financial statements in the same period that the related revenue is earned.
This means that manufacturing overhead costs cannot be expensed in the period incurred, but must be allocated to inventory items, where those costs remain until the inventory is sold, when overhead is finally expensed as part of the cost of goods sold. For Lisa’s Luscious Lemonade, that means that every time a jug of lemonade is produced, another $4.47 goes into inventory. When a jug is sold, $4.47 goes to the cost of goods sold.
However, for internal decision-making, the cost allocation systems used for GAAP financials aren’t always helpful. Cost accountants often use activity-based costing , or ABC, in parallel with the cost allocation system used for external financial reporting .
In ABC, products are assigned all of the overhead costs that they can reasonably be assumed to have caused. This may include some — but not all — of the manufacturing overhead costs , as well as operating expenses that aren’t typically assigned to products under the costing systems used for GAAP.
AutoRec to keep you sane
Whatever cost accounting method you use, it’s going to require spreadsheets that you have to reconcile to the GL. Combine that with the other reconciliations you have to do to close out the books, and like Lisa’s controller, you might be ready to jump into a vat of lemonade to drown your sorrows.
Enter FloQast AutoRec. Rather than spend hours every month reconciling accounts, AutoRec leverages AI to match one-to-one, one-to-many, or many-to-many transactions in minutes. Simple set up means you can start using it in minutes because you don’t need to create or maintain rules. Try it out, and see how much time you can save this month.
Ready to find out more about how FloQast can help you tame the beast of the close?
As CEO and Co-Founder, Mike leads FloQast’s corporate vision, strategy and execution. Prior to founding FloQast, he managed the accounting team at Cornerstone OnDemand, a SaaS company in Los Angeles. He began his career at Ernst & Young in Los Angeles where he performed public company audits, opening balance sheet audits, cash to GAAP restatements, compilation reviews, international reporting, merger and acquisition audits and SOX compliance testing. He holds a Bachelor’s degree in Accounting from Syracuse University.
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Cost Allocation: The Key to Understanding Financial Efficiency
✅ All InspiredEconomist articles and guides have been fact-checked and reviewed for accuracy. Please refer to our editorial policy for additional information.
Cost Allocation Definition
Cost allocation is a financial accounting process that involves assigning various costs incurred by a business to the specific activities or elements used or benefitted from incurring these costs. Its purpose is to accurately represent the financial contribution of different parts of a business, providing insights into areas of efficiency or inefficiency, ultimately contributing to pricing and strategic decisions.
Methods of Cost Allocation
There are several methods of cost allocation that organizations can employ, each with their own merits and applications based on the specific circumstances, requirements, and objectives of the business.
Direct allocation, sometimes referred to as the direct method, is the most straightforward approach to cost allocation. Simply put, this method entails assigning costs directly to the appropriate cost objects, such as departments, products, or services, without taking into account whether those costs were incurred by multiple cost objects.
This method is predominantly used in situations where it is relatively easy to identify the specific cause-and-effect relationship between incurred costs and cost objects. Thus, it is particularly suitable for settings where resources are worn-out by specific departments, products, or services.
In contrast to direct allocation, the step-down method, also known as the sequential method or the stair-step method, allows for a more comprehensive spread of costs. This method begins with allocating the costs of the service department that provides the most services to other service departments. The total cost of each service department, including the allocated costs, is allocated step-by-step until all service departments have been allocated.
The step-down method is useful in situations where there are multiple service departments and some serve others more than they are served. It allows for a more distinct tracing of costs, improving the accuracy of indirect cost allocation. However, it can be somewhat arbitrary in terms of deciding which department's costs should be allocated first.
The reciprocal allocation method, also known as the simultaneous or algebraic method, is the most accurate and complex of the allocation methods. It accurately accounts for the mutual services provided among service departments.
The use of reciprocal allocation is recommended in situations where an organization has service departments that provide significant amounts of mutual services to each other. Although it requires a certain level of mathematical sophistication, this level of detail and precision can yield more accurate cost assignments and can facilitate better decision-making.
Remember, the key is for an organization to select the method that best fits its unique settings, demands, and operational stipulations. Each method has its own strengths and weaknesses, and hence a well-informed decision is critical to optimally assign costs and enhance economic efficiency.
Criticality of Cost Allocation
Understanding the criticality of cost allocation goes beyond just marking it as a method of sharing costs. It plays a substantial role in the effective operation of a business in various ways:
Accurate Product Cost
One of the main benefits of cost allocation is achieving accurate product cost. With costs properly allocated, the actual costs incurred in producing a given product or service are easily identifiable. This not only facilitates pricing decisions, but also measures the profitability of each product or service. An inaccurate cost allocation can lead to distorted product costs. This could mean over-pricing, which can discourage customers, or under-pricing, which could lead to business losses.
Cost allocation assists in measuring operational efficiency. For example, if a particular department is consistently exceeding its allocated budget, it might be a sign that the operations in that department are not as efficient as they should be. Management can then delve into the department's operations to identify and rectify the inefficiencies. By allocating and reviewing costs, businesses can highlight areas of wastage, inefficiency, and potential improvement.
Meaningful Financial Reports
Lastly, cost allocation supports the generation of meaningful financial reports. Such reports provide deep insights to stakeholders – be it managers, investors, or creditors. They relay important information about business performance, profit generation, asset utilisation and cost management. Without proper cost allocation, these reports could be misleading, making it difficult for stakeholders to make informed decisions.
In conclusion, cost allocation is not merely an accounting formality, but a tool that can significantly impact a company's ability to accurately price products, operate efficiently, and provide meaningful financial information. Its criticality in business operations cannot be overstated.
Cost Pools and Cost Drivers in Cost Allocation
In cost allocation, consistency and accuracy are paramount. And two concepts play a significant role in ensuring this: Cost Pools and Cost Drivers .
Role of Cost Pools in Cost Allocation
Cost pools are essentially aggregations of individual costs that relate to a specific task or factor. They play an essential role in simplifying the cost allocation process. Rather than assigning may individual costs to specific products, services, or departments, firms organize these costs into cost pools that can be allocated based on a common denominator – the cost driver.
Role of Cost Drivers in Cost Allocation
Cost drivers are the actual basis upon which these costs are allocated. They are units of activity or volume that cause a business to incur costs. Typical cost drivers include direct labor hours, machine hours, or units produced. Cost drivers serve as a measure of resource consumption and establish an ongoing basis of measurement for the cost pool.
Connection Between Cost Pools and Cost Drivers
The allocation of cost pools across different departments or products is driven by these cost drivers. In essence, cost drivers provide the linkage between the collected costs (cost pools) and the segments to which those costs are assigned. They provide a consistent basis for distributing costs in the cost pool to the relevant cost objects.
Selecting Appropriate Cost Drivers
Choosing the right cost driver is crucial for accurate cost allocation. Firms should select cost drivers that have a strong correlation with the root cause of costs. This is often derived through a cause-and-effect relationship. For instance, if a factory's costs are primarily driven by machine operations, then 'machine hours' might be an appropriate cost driver.
Likewise, if a service-based organization incurs more costs due to labor, 'labor hours' could serve as the key cost driver. Firms need to ensure that chosen cost drivers reflect a degree of variance. If certain costs have little variability, regardless of changes in the driver, that driver may not be appropriate.
In summary, cost pools and cost drivers are critical elements of the cost allocation process. They enable firms to aggregate related costs and to distribute them in a consistent, fair manner based on a measurable factor. The careful selection of cost drivers ensures that costs are allocated in a way that accurately reflects the realities of an organization's operations.
Cost Allocation in Decision Making
Cost allocation in decision making is integral to multiple areas of a business. A few of these areas, such as pricing, budgeting, and investment decisions, leverage cost allocation heavily.
Role of Cost Allocation in Pricing
In most businesses, pricing decisions directly involve cost allocation. To competitively price a product or a service, firms must divide the total costs into units of a product or service. This process allows them to determine the minimum price to cover the costs and achieve the desired profit margin.
For instance, a manufacturing company using varied types of raw materials, labor, and machinery might initially find it difficult to ascertain the price of one finished unit. Cost allocation, however, provides a mechanism to allot each cost element to each unit. Thus, unit costs drive the ultimate pricing decisions and influence the firm's competitiveness in the market place.
Impact of Cost Allocation on Budgeting
Cost allocation affects budgeting, virtually shaping every financial decision a company makes. Businesses, with clarity on cost division across departments, processes, or products, can plan budgets more effectively. They can identify which areas are cost-intensive and adjust the budget proportionately. Without the right cost allocation, a budget may not accurately reflect the financial resources needed or generated by different business segments.
For example, an IT company might allocate shared costs like server expenses, software license fees, and maintenance costs based on the users or usage in different departments. This allocation helps formulate realistic budgets, ensuring cost efficiency and operational effectiveness.
Cost Allocation and Investment Decisions
Investment decisions constitute another crucial area where cost allocation aids informed decision-making. When evaluating the profitability of an investment opportunity, whether it’s a new project, acquisition, or expansion, companies must understand the associated costs thoroughly.
By correctly allocating costs, companies can more accurately calculate potential returns, leading to more informed investment decisions. Misplacing or underestimating costs might mistakenly make an unprofitable investment appear profitable, resulting in detrimental financial outcomes.
In summary, the process of cost allocation serves to bridge the gap between operational activities and financial management. This linkage is vital in making strategic business decisions, from setting product prices to planning budgets to making investment decisions. Therefore, understanding cost allocation is fundamental to business' financial success.
Challenges and Criticisms of Cost Allocation
Despite their usefulness, implementing cost allocation methods can often be fraught with several challenges. Some of these obstacles are intrinsic to the process of allocation, such as the complexity of accurately tracing costs to specific cost objects and the subjectivity inherent in some allocation bases.
One frequent criticism is the arbitrariness of some allocative decisions. For instance, in the allocation of indirect costs, the choice of allocation base (e.g., labor hours, machine hours, etc.) can be somewhat subjective. Some critics argue that this introduces a degree of arbitrariness that may distort the true cost picture.
While there is no perfect solution to this problem, efforts can be made to ensure that the chosen allocation bases are logical and justifiable given the nature of the costs being allocated. Some organizations may also choose to use multiple allocation bases for different types of costs to minimize this arbitrariness.
Overemphasis on Full Costing
Another criticism of cost allocation is its overemphasis on full costing. Full costing attempts to assign all costs, both direct and indirect, to cost objects. However, this approach can lead to the inclusion of irrelevant costs in decision-making processes, which might not add any value. For example, the inclusion of fixed costs, which are incurred regardless of the level of output, may not be helpful in short-term pricing decisions.
In response to this, some firms might opt to use variable costing as a supplement, which includes only those costs that change with production volume. This can provide a more relevant basis for operational and tactical decision-making.
The Use of Assumptions
Different cost allocation methods rely on different assumptions. These assumptions may not always hold true and can lead to inaccurate cost data. For example, the assumption of cost homogeneity in a cost pool may lead to inappropriate allocations if the costs in the pool are driven by different activities.
To mitigate this, it's essential to carefully examine and validate the assumptions underlying a chosen allocation method. Continuous review and refinement of cost pools and allocation bases can also help in keeping allocations realistic and meaningful.
Cost allocations also rely heavily on estimations. Inaccurate estimations can lead to over or under-allocation of costs.
To address this challenge, organizations can develop robust estimation methods and validate their cost estimates periodically. This will not only reduce inaccuracies but also enhance the credibility of the cost data generated.
In conclusion, while cost allocation is not without its challenges and criticisms, these can be managed and mitigated through thoughtful and informed management practices. Regular reviews and audits, coupled with the use of technological tools for data collection and analysis, can further enhance the accuracy and relevance of cost allocation in an organization.
Principles of Cost Allocation within a Business Entity
Cost allocation within a business entity should uphold certain principles for the process to be fair, efficient, and effective. The guiding principles of cost allocation are causality, benefits received, fairness, and ability to bear.
Causality refers to the direct correlation between costs incurred and the activities leading to them. When a certain activity or set of activities within an organization results to specific costs, the principle of causality suggests that these costs should be allocated to that activity or activities. This kind of cost allocation allows businesses to link each cost with the function that drives it, making it easier to manage costs and improve profitability.
The principle of 'benefits received' posits that costs should be shared among departments or units depending on the extent to which they benefit from the cost pool. If a department derives more value from a resource or service, then it should bear a higher proportion of the cost. Consequently, such a sideways view of cost allocation can incentivize departments to be more efficient in how they use shared resources or services.
Fairness is a crucial principle in cost allocation. The goal is to distribute costs in a manner that all departments or units perceive as just. This rarely means each department pays an equal share of the costs; rather, the distribution takes into account factors like usage, value derived, and department size. Unfair allocation could demoralize departments or units, leading to internal conflicts and reduced productivity.
Ability to Bear
The 'ability to bear' principle suggests that costs should be allocated considering the unit's capacity to absorb the cost. Here, larger or more profitable departments may shoulder a larger share of the costs. However, it is important that the application of this principle does not stifle the growth potential of smaller or less profitable units.
These principles aim to allocate costs in a way that reflects the operational realities of an organization while promoting fairness and operational efficiency. By adherently diligently to these principles, an organization can ensure a seamless and fair cost allocation process.
Cost Allocation and Its Implications on CSR and Sustainability
Correlation between Cost Allocation and CSR Efforts
Cost allocation plays a significant role in a company's Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) efforts. Resources, both tangible and intangible, are frequently limited within organizations. The allocation of these resources can either inhibit or promote CSR activities. If CSR is not viewed as a business priority, resources may not be allocated sufficiently to develop and implement effective initiatives. Conversely, if an organization is committed to its CSR responsibilities, it will allocate costs accordingly to ensure its efforts are adequately funded and supported.
Inappropriately allocating costs could lead some stakeholders to wrongly believe that an organization is not committed to its CSR responsibilities. Therefore, cost allocation not only influences the actual implementation of CSR measures but also political and public perceptions of an organization’s ethical and social responsibilities.
Impact of Cost Allocation on Sustainability Measures
Sustainability measures are another key area impacted by cost allocation. When it comes to sustainability reporting, cost allocation is essential. The amount of funds set aside for these initiatives can boost a company's green programs or alternatively limit their scope. This can vary from energy-efficient modifications to the infrastructure, reduction in waste production to policy changes that minimize an organization’s environmental footprint.
The strategic decision-making process is a critical area where the effects of cost allocation are evident. If sustainability is significant for an organization, the costs associated with these measures will likely be prioritized in strategic decisions. Leaders must consider both short-term financial implications and long-term societal and environmental impacts. Particularly, these decisions bear a direct influence on the company's reputation and sustainability.
Moreover, cost allocation decisions have a bearing on the company's external communication as well. Specifically, when it comes to issuing sustainability reports, the allocation of costs provides an explicit representation of the company's commitment to sustainable practices.
Making strategic decisions with sustainability implications in mind could increase costs in the short-term but prove beneficial and cost-saving in the long run. Therefore, it is essential that decision-makers view cost allocation as not just a financial concern but a critical aspect of their CSR and sustainability efforts.
Cost Allocation as a Reflection of Organizational Priorities
Through the lens of CSR and sustainability, the implications of cost allocation are evident in the allocation decisions made by an organization. How a company chooses to allocate its costs is a reflection of its values and priorities. If sustainability and ethics are prioritized, cost allocation will support corresponding initiatives. If not, cost allocation can inadvertently communicate non-commitment to external stakeholders, potentially adversely affecting the organization's reputation and market position.
Cost Allocation across Different Industries
Although cost allocation is a universal concept in all kinds of businesses, the way it is implemented can differ significantly between industries.
The Manufacturing Industry
For the manufacturing sector, cost allocation is primarily linked with material costs, labor costs, and overhead expenses, which are apportioned to individual products. By allocating costs following these categories, companies are better positioned to price their products accurately. For instance, in direct material cost allocation, a manufacturing company can include the expenditures related to raw materials required to produce a particular product.
However, this straightforward approach can face complications when dealing with shared or indirect costs. For example, in a factory that builds both toasters and microwaves, how would one allocate the cost of shared raw materials, like steel or energy used in the factory? It becomes even more complex with overhead costs like salaries of administrative staff and, maintenance and depreciation of machinery, where a direct relationship between the cost and product isn’t apparent.
The Service Industry
On the other hand, within the service industry, cost allocation is traditionally more abstract. Labor cost is typically the most significant category, but costs associated with physical resources, like office spaces or computer equipment, also become relevant. Unlike manufacturing, services can't inventory their output in advance of demand. Service industries often allocate costs according to service hours provided or the number of clients served, but this also raises unique challenges.
For instance, a law firm may find it challenging to allocate the cost for a lawyer who handles various cases simultaneously. Similarly, a hospital might struggle with cost allocation for shared resources, such as an MRI machine used by multiple departments. These challenges necessitate creative and fair methods to spread costs and ensure profitability.
The Retail Industry
In the retail industry, purchasing and storing inventory comprise a significant portion of costs. Transportation costs, warehouse expenses and inventory buying costs are examples of costs that are allocated across various products. However, deciding on an allocation basis can be complex. While using sales volume might seem the easiest route, it might distort cost allocation for slow-moving or seasonal products.
As seen above, the cost allocation methods differ across industries due to their operational divergences, and each faces its unique set of challenges. Therefore, it's crucial for a business to understand the approach that works best for its industry and specific situation.
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- Cost Classifications
- Relevant Cost of Material
- Manufacturing Overhead Costs
- Conversion Costs
- Quality Costs
- Revenue Expenditure
- Product Cost vs Period Cost
- Direct Costs and Indirect Costs
- Prime Costs and Conversion Costs
- Relevant vs Irrelevant Costs
- Avoidable and Unavoidable Costs
- Cost Allocation
- Joint Products
- Accounting for Joint Costs
- Service Department Cost Allocation
- Repeated Distribution Method
- Simultaneous Equation Method
- Specific Order of Closing Method
- Direct Allocation Method
Cost allocation is the process by which the indirect costs are distributed among different cost objects such as a project, a department, a branch, a customer, etc. It involves identifying the cost object, identifying and accumulating the costs that are incurred and assigning them to the cost object on some reasonable basis.
Cost allocation is important for both pricing and planning and control decisions. If costs are not accurately calculated, a business might never know which products are making money and which ones are losing money. If cost are mis-allocated, a business may be charging wrong price to its customers and/or it might be wasting resources on products that are wrongly categorized as profitable.
Cost allocation is a sub-process of cost assignment , which is the overall process of finding total cost of a cost object. Cost assignment involves both cost tracing and cost allocation. Cost tracing encompasses finding direct costs of a cost object while the cost allocation is concerned with indirect cost charge.
Steps in cost allocation process
Typical cost allocation mechanism involves:
- Identifying the object to which the costs have to be assigned,
- Accumulating the costs in different pools,
- Identifying the most appropriate basis/method for allocating the cost.
A cost object is an item for which a business need to separately estimate cost.
Examples of cost object include a branch, a product line, a service line, a customer, a department, a brand, a project, etc.
A cost pool is the account head in which costs are accumulated for further assignment to cost objects.
Examples of cost pools include factory rent, insurance, machine maintenance cost, factory fuel, etc. Selection of cost pool depends on the cost allocation base used. For example if a company uses just one allocation base say direct labor hours, it might use a broad cost pool such as fixed manufacturing overheads. However, if it uses more specific cost allocation bases, for example labor hours, machine hours, etc. it might define narrower cost pools.
A cost driver is any variable that ‘drives’ some cost. If increase or decrease in a variable causes an increase or decrease is a cost that variable is a cost driver for that cost.
Examples of cost driver include:
- Number of payments processed can be a good cost driver for salaries of Accounts Payable section of accounting department,
- Number of purchase orders can be a good cost driver for cost of purchasing department,
- Number of invoices sent can be a good cost driver for cost of billing department,
- Number of units shipped can be a good cost driver for cost of distribution department, etc.
While direct costs are easily traced to cost objects, indirect costs are allocated using some systematic approach.
Cost allocation base
Cost allocation base is the variable that is used for allocating/assigning costs in different cost pools to different cost objects. A good cost allocation base is something which is an appropriate cost driver for a particular cost pool.
T2F is a university café owned an operated by a student. While it has plans for expansion it currently offers two products: (a) tea & coffee and (b) shakes. It employs 2 people: Mr. A, who looks after tea & coffee and Mr. B who prepares and serves shakes & desserts.
Its costs for the first quarter are as follows:
Total tea and coffee sales and shakes sales were $50,000 & $60,000 respectively. Number of customers who ordered tea or coffee were 10,000 while those ordering shakes were 8,000.
The owner is interested in finding out which product performed better.
Salaries of Mr. A & B and direct materials consumed are direct costs which do not need any allocation. They are traced directly to the products. The rest of the costs are indirect costs and need some basis for allocation.
Cost objects in this situation are the products: hot beverages (i.e. tea & coffee) & shakes. Cost pools include rent, electricity, music, internet and wi-fi subscription and magazines.
Appropriate cost drivers for the indirect costs are as follows:
Since number of customers is a good cost driver for almost all the costs, the costs can be accumulated together to form one cost pool called manufacturing overheads. This would simply the cost allocation.
Total manufacturing overheads for the first quarter are $19,700. Total number of customers who ordered either product are 18,000. This gives us a cost allocation base of $1.1 per customer ($19,700/18,000).
A detailed cost assignment is as follows:
Manufacturing overheads allocated to Tea & Cofee = $1.1×10,000
Manufacturing overheads allocated to Shakes = $1.1×8,000
by Irfanullah Jan, ACCA and last modified on Jul 22, 2020
- Cost Behavior
All Chapters in Accounting
- Intl. Financial Reporting Standards
- Accounting Principles
- Business Combinations
- Accounting Cycle
- Financial Statements
- Non-Current Assets
- Fixed Assets
- Revenue Recognition
- Current Assets
- Shareholders' Equity
- Liability Accounts
- Accounting for Taxes
- Employee Benefits
- Accounting for Partnerships
- Financial Ratios
- Cost Accounting Systems
- CVP Analysis
- Relevant Costing
- Capital Budgeting
- Master Budget
- Inventory Management
- Cash Management
- Standard Costing
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Using AWS cost allocation tags
A tag is a label that you or AWS assigns to an AWS resource. Each tag consists of a key and a value . For each resource, each tag key must be unique, and each tag key can have only one value. You can use tags to organize your resources, and cost allocation tags to track your AWS costs on a detailed level. After you activate cost allocation tags, AWS uses the cost allocation tags to organize your resource costs on your cost allocation report, to make it easier for you to categorize and track your AWS costs.
AWS provides two types of cost allocation tags, an AWS-generated tags and user-defined tags .
AWS, or AWS Marketplace ISV defines, creates, and applies the AWS-generated tags for you, and you define, create, and apply user-defined tags. You must activate both types of tags separately before they can appear in Cost Explorer or on a cost allocation report.
The following diagram illustrates the concept. In the example, you've assigned and activated tags on two Amazon EC2 instances, one tag called Cost Center and another tag called Stack. Each of the tags has an associated value. You also activated the AWS-generated tags, createdBy before creating these resources. The createdBy tag tracks who created the resource. The user-defined tags use the user prefix, and the AWS-generated tag uses the aws: prefix.
After you or AWS applies tags to your AWS resources (such as Amazon EC2 instances or Amazon S3 buckets) and you activate the tags in the Billing and Cost Management console, AWS generates a cost allocation report as a comma-separated value (CSV file) with your usage and costs grouped by your active tags. You can apply tags that represent business categories (such as cost centers, application names, or owners) to organize your costs across multiple services.
The cost allocation report includes all of your AWS costs for each billing period. The report includes both tagged and untagged resources, so that you can clearly organize the charges for resources. For example, if you tag resources with an application name, you can track the total cost of a single application that runs on those resources. The following screenshot shows a partial report with columns for each tag.
At the end of the billing cycle, the total charges (tagged and untagged) on the billing report with cost allocation tags reconciles with the total charges on your Bills page total and other billing reports for the same period.
You can also use tags to filter views in Cost Explorer. For more information about Cost Explorer, see Analyzing your costs with AWS Cost Explorer .
For more information about activating the AWS-generated tags, see Activating the AWS generated cost allocation tags . For more information about applying and activating user-defined tags, see User-defined cost allocation tags . All tags can take up to 24 hours to appear in the Billing and Cost Management console.
As a best practice, don't include sensitive information in tags.
Only the management account in an organization and single accounts that aren't members of an organization have access to the cost allocation tags manager in the Billing console.
To create and update tags, use AWS Tag Editor. For more information about Tag Editor, see Using Tag Editor in the Tagging AWS Resources User Guide .
- AWS generated cost allocation tags
- User-defined cost allocation tags
- Monthly cost allocation report
- Understanding dates for cost allocation tags
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