Basic Steps in the Research Process
The following steps outline a simple and effective strategy for writing a research paper. Depending on your familiarity with the topic and the challenges you encounter along the way, you may need to rearrange these steps.
Step 1: Identify and develop your topic
Selecting a topic can be the most challenging part of a research assignment. Since this is the very first step in writing a paper, it is vital that it be done correctly. Here are some tips for selecting a topic:
- Select a topic within the parameters set by the assignment. Many times your instructor will give you clear guidelines as to what you can and cannot write about. Failure to work within these guidelines may result in your proposed paper being deemed unacceptable by your instructor.
- Select a topic of personal interest to you and learn more about it. The research for and writing of a paper will be more enjoyable if you are writing about something that you find interesting.
- Select a topic for which you can find a manageable amount of information. Do a preliminary search of information sources to determine whether existing sources will meet your needs. If you find too much information, you may need to narrow your topic; if you find too little, you may need to broaden your topic.
- Be original. Your instructor reads hundreds of research papers every year, and many of them are on the same topics (topics in the news at the time, controversial issues, subjects for which there is ample and easily accessed information). Stand out from your classmates by selecting an interesting and off-the-beaten-path topic.
- Still can't come up with a topic to write about? See your instructor for advice.
Once you have identified your topic, it may help to state it as a question. For example, if you are interested in finding out about the epidemic of obesity in the American population, you might pose the question "What are the causes of obesity in America ?" By posing your subject as a question you can more easily identify the main concepts or keywords to be used in your research.
Step 2 : Do a preliminary search for information
Before beginning your research in earnest, do a preliminary search to determine whether there is enough information out there for your needs and to set the context of your research. Look up your keywords in the appropriate titles in the library's Reference collection (such as encyclopedias and dictionaries) and in other sources such as our catalog of books, periodical databases, and Internet search engines. Additional background information may be found in your lecture notes, textbooks, and reserve readings. You may find it necessary to adjust the focus of your topic in light of the resources available to you.
Step 3: Locate materials
With the direction of your research now clear to you, you can begin locating material on your topic. There are a number of places you can look for information:
If you are looking for books, do a subject search in One Search . A Keyword search can be performed if the subject search doesn't yield enough information. Print or write down the citation information (author, title,etc.) and the location (call number and collection) of the item(s). Note the circulation status. When you locate the book on the shelf, look at the books located nearby; similar items are always shelved in the same area. The Aleph catalog also indexes the library's audio-visual holdings.
Use the library's electronic periodical databases to find magazine and newspaper articles. Choose the databases and formats best suited to your particular topic; ask at the librarian at the Reference Desk if you need help figuring out which database best meets your needs. Many of the articles in the databases are available in full-text format.
Use search engines ( Google , Yahoo , etc.) and subject directories to locate materials on the Internet. Check the Internet Resources section of the NHCC Library web site for helpful subject links.
Step 4: Evaluate your sources
See the CARS Checklist for Information Quality for tips on evaluating the authority and quality of the information you have located. Your instructor expects that you will provide credible, truthful, and reliable information and you have every right to expect that the sources you use are providing the same. This step is especially important when using Internet resources, many of which are regarded as less than reliable.
Step 5: Make notes
Consult the resources you have chosen and note the information that will be useful in your paper. Be sure to document all the sources you consult, even if you there is a chance you may not use that particular source. The author, title, publisher, URL, and other information will be needed later when creating a bibliography.
Step 6: Write your paper
Begin by organizing the information you have collected. The next step is the rough draft, wherein you get your ideas on paper in an unfinished fashion. This step will help you organize your ideas and determine the form your final paper will take. After this, you will revise the draft as many times as you think necessary to create a final product to turn in to your instructor.
Step 7: Cite your sources properly
Give credit where credit is due; cite your sources.
Citing or documenting the sources used in your research serves two purposes: it gives proper credit to the authors of the materials used, and it allows those who are reading your work to duplicate your research and locate the sources that you have listed as references. The MLA and the APA Styles are two popular citation formats.
Failure to cite your sources properly is plagiarism. Plagiarism is avoidable!
Step 8: Proofread
The final step in the process is to proofread the paper you have created. Read through the text and check for any errors in spelling, grammar, and punctuation. Make sure the sources you used are cited properly. Make sure the message that you want to get across to the reader has been thoroughly stated.
Additional research tips:
- Work from the general to the specific -- find background information first, then use more specific sources.
- Don't forget print sources -- many times print materials are more easily accessed and every bit as helpful as online resources.
- The library has books on the topic of writing research papers at call number area LB 2369.
- If you have questions about the assignment, ask your instructor.
- If you have any questions about finding information in the library, ask the librarian.
Librarian 763-424-0733 [email protected] Zoom: myzoom Available by appointment
- PRO Courses Guides New Tech Help Pro Expert Videos About wikiHow Pro Upgrade Sign In
- EDIT Edit this Article
- EXPLORE Tech Help Pro About Us Random Article Quizzes Request a New Article Community Dashboard This Or That Game Popular Categories Arts and Entertainment Artwork Books Movies Computers and Electronics Computers Phone Skills Technology Hacks Health Men's Health Mental Health Women's Health Relationships Dating Love Relationship Issues Hobbies and Crafts Crafts Drawing Games Education & Communication Communication Skills Personal Development Studying Personal Care and Style Fashion Hair Care Personal Hygiene Youth Personal Care School Stuff Dating All Categories Arts and Entertainment Finance and Business Home and Garden Relationship Quizzes Cars & Other Vehicles Food and Entertaining Personal Care and Style Sports and Fitness Computers and Electronics Health Pets and Animals Travel Education & Communication Hobbies and Crafts Philosophy and Religion Work World Family Life Holidays and Traditions Relationships Youth
- Browse Articles
- Learn Something New
- Quizzes Hot
- This Or That Game New
- Train Your Brain
- Explore More
- Support wikiHow
- About wikiHow
- Log in / Sign up
- Education and Communications
- College University and Postgraduate
- Academic Writing
- Research Papers
How to Write a Research Paper
Last Updated: January 31, 2023 Fact Checked
This article was co-authored by Chris Hadley, PhD . Chris Hadley, PhD is part of the wikiHow team and works on content strategy and data and analytics. Chris Hadley earned his PhD in Cognitive Psychology from UCLA in 2006. Chris' academic research has been published in numerous scientific journals. There are 15 references cited in this article, which can be found at the bottom of the page. This article has been fact-checked, ensuring the accuracy of any cited facts and confirming the authority of its sources. This article has been viewed 4,159,097 times.
Whether you’re in a history, literature, or science class, you’ll probably have to write a research paper at some point. It may seem daunting when you’re just starting out, but staying organized and budgeting your time can make the process a breeze. Research your topic, find reliable sources, and come up with a working thesis. Then create an outline and start drafting your paper. Be sure to leave plenty of time to make revisions, as editing is essential if you want to hand in your best work!
Sample Research Papers and Outlines
Researching Your Topic
- For instance, you might start with a general subject, like British decorative arts. Then, as you read, you home in on transferware and pottery. Ultimately, you focus on 1 potter in the 1780s who invented a way to mass-produce patterned tableware.
Tip: If you need to analyze a piece of literature, your task is to pull the work apart into literary elements and explain how the author uses those parts to make their point.
- Authoritative, credible sources include scholarly articles (especially those other authors reference), government websites, scientific studies, and reputable news bureaus. Additionally, check your sources' dates, and make sure the information you gather is up to date.
- Evaluate how other scholars have approached your topic. Identify authoritative sources or works that are accepted as the most important accounts of the subject matter. Additionally, look for debates among scholars, and ask yourself who presents the strongest evidence for their case.  X Trustworthy Source Purdue Online Writing Lab Trusted resource for writing and citation guidelines Go to source
- You’ll most likely need to include a bibliography or works cited page, so keep your sources organized. List your sources, format them according to your assigned style guide (such as MLA or Chicago ), and write 2 or 3 summary sentences below each one.  X Research source
- Imagine you’re a lawyer in a trial and are presenting a case to a jury. Think of your readers as the jurors; your opening statement is your thesis and you’ll present evidence to the jury to make your case.
- A thesis should be specific rather than vague, such as: “Josiah Spode’s improved formula for bone china enabled the mass production of transfer-printed wares, which expanded the global market for British pottery.”
Drafting Your Essay
- Your outline is your paper’s skeleton. After making the outline, all you’ll need to do is fill in the details.
- For easy reference, include your sources where they fit into your outline, like this: III. Spode vs. Wedgewood on Mass Production A. Spode: Perfected chemical formula with aims for fast production and distribution (Travis, 2002, 43) B. Wedgewood: Courted high-priced luxury market; lower emphasis on mass production (Himmelweit, 2001, 71) C. Therefore: Wedgewood, unlike Spode, delayed the expansion of the pottery market.
- For instance, your opening line could be, “Overlooked in the present, manufacturers of British pottery in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries played crucial roles in England’s Industrial Revolution.”
- After presenting your thesis, lay out your evidence, like this: “An examination of Spode’s innovative production and distribution techniques will demonstrate the importance of his contributions to the industry and Industrial Revolution at large.”
Tip: Some people prefer to write the introduction first and use it to structure the rest of the paper. However, others like to write the body, then fill in the introduction. Do whichever seems natural to you. If you write the intro first, keep in mind you can tweak it later to reflect your finished paper’s layout.
- After setting the context, you'd include a section on Josiah Spode’s company and what he did to make pottery easier to manufacture and distribute.
- Next, discuss how targeting middle class consumers increased demand and expanded the pottery industry globally.
- Then, you could explain how Spode differed from competitors like Wedgewood, who continued to court aristocratic consumers instead of expanding the market to the middle class.
- The right number of sections or paragraphs depends on your assignment. In general, shoot for 3 to 5, but check your prompt for your assigned length.
- If you bring up a counterargument, make sure it’s a strong claim that’s worth entertaining instead of ones that's weak and easily dismissed.
- Suppose, for instance, you’re arguing for the benefits of adding fluoride to toothpaste and city water. You could bring up a study that suggested fluoride produced harmful health effects, then explain how its testing methods were flawed.
- Sum up your argument, but don’t simply rewrite your introduction using slightly different wording. To make your conclusion more memorable, you could also connect your thesis to a broader topic or theme to make it more relatable to your reader.
- For example, if you’ve discussed the role of nationalism in World War I, you could conclude by mentioning nationalism’s reemergence in contemporary foreign affairs.
Revising Your Paper
- This is also a great opportunity to make sure your paper fulfills the parameters of the assignment and answers the prompt!
- It’s a good idea to put your essay aside for a few hours (or overnight, if you have time). That way, you can start editing it with fresh eyes.
Tip: Try to give yourself at least 2 or 3 days to revise your paper. It may be tempting to simply give your paper a quick read and use the spell-checker to make edits. However, revising your paper properly is more in-depth.
- The passive voice, such as “The door was opened by me,” feels hesitant and wordy. On the other hand, the active voice, or “I opened the door,” feels strong and concise.
- Each word in your paper should do a specific job. Try to avoid including extra words just to fill up blank space on a page or sound fancy.
- For instance, “The author uses pathos to appeal to readers’ emotions” is better than “The author utilizes pathos to make an appeal to the emotional core of those who read the passage.”
- Read your essay out loud to help ensure you catch every error. As you read, check for flow as well and, if necessary, tweak any spots that sound awkward.  X Trustworthy Source University of North Carolina Writing Center UNC's on-campus and online instructional service that provides assistance to students, faculty, and others during the writing process Go to source
- It’s wise to get feedback from one person who’s familiar with your topic and another who’s not. The person who knows about the topic can help ensure you’ve nailed all the details. The person who’s unfamiliar with the topic can help make sure your writing is clear and easy to understand.
You Might Also Like
Video . By using this service, some information may be shared with YouTube.
- Remember that your topic and thesis should be as specific as possible. Thanks Helpful 4 Not Helpful 0
- Researching, outlining, drafting, and revising are all important steps, so do your best to budget your time wisely. Try to avoid waiting until the last minute to write your paper. Thanks Helpful 6 Not Helpful 1
- ↑ https://writing.wisc.edu/handbook/assignments/planresearchpaper/
- ↑ https://writingcenter.unc.edu/tips-and-tools/evaluating-print-sources/
- ↑ https://owl.purdue.edu/owl/research_and_citation/conducting_research/research_overview/index.html
- ↑ https://poorvucenter.yale.edu/writing/graduate-writing-lab/writing-through-graduate-school/working-sources
- ↑ https://opentextbc.ca/writingforsuccess/chapter/chapter-5-putting-the-pieces-together-with-a-thesis-statement/
- ↑ https://owl.purdue.edu/owl/general_writing/the_writing_process/developing_an_outline/index.html
- ↑ https://writingcenter.unc.edu/tips-and-tools/introductions/
- ↑ https://writingcenter.fas.harvard.edu/pages/essay-structure
- ↑ https://academicguides.waldenu.edu/writingcenter/writingprocess/counterarguments
- ↑ https://writingcenter.fas.harvard.edu/pages/ending-essay-conclusions
- ↑ https://writingcenter.unc.edu/tips-and-tools/revising-drafts/
- ↑ https://academicguides.waldenu.edu/formandstyle/writing/scholarlyvoice/activepassive
- ↑ https://writingcenter.unc.edu/tips-and-tools/editing-and-proofreading/
- ↑ https://writingcenter.unc.edu/tips-and-tools/reading-aloud/
- ↑ https://owl.purdue.edu/owl/general_writing/the_writing_process/proofreading/index.html
About This Article
To write a research paper, start by researching your topic at the library, online, or using an academic database. As you conduct your research and take notes, zero in on a specific topic that you want to write about and create a 1-2 sentence thesis to state the focus of your paper. Then, create an outline that includes an introduction, 3 to 5 body paragraphs to present your arguments, and a conclusion to sum up your main points. Once you have your paper's structure organized, draft your paragraphs, focusing on 1 argument per paragraph. Use the information you found through your research to back up your claims and prove your thesis statement. Finally, proofread and revise your content until it's polished and ready to submit. For more information on researching and citing sources, read on! Did this summary help you? Yes No
- Send fan mail to authors
Reader Success Stories
Private And Discrete
Aug 2, 2020
Did this article help you?
Jan 3, 2018
Oct 29, 2016
Jul 24, 2016
Nov 22, 2019
- Do Not Sell or Share My Info
- Not Selling Info
Get all the best how-tos!
Sign up for wikiHow's weekly email newsletter
Home » Research Report – Example, Writing Guide and Types
Research Report – Example, Writing Guide and Types
Table of Contents
Research Report is a written document that presents the results of a research project or study, including the research question, methodology, results, and conclusions, in a clear and objective manner.
The purpose of a research report is to communicate the findings of the research to the intended audience, which could be other researchers, stakeholders, or the general public.
Components of Research Report
Components of Research Report are as follows:
The introduction sets the stage for the research report and provides a brief overview of the research question or problem being investigated. It should include a clear statement of the purpose of the study and its significance or relevance to the field of research. It may also provide background information or a literature review to help contextualize the research.
The literature review provides a critical analysis and synthesis of the existing research and scholarship relevant to the research question or problem. It should identify the gaps, inconsistencies, and contradictions in the literature and show how the current study addresses these issues. The literature review also establishes the theoretical framework or conceptual model that guides the research.
The methodology section describes the research design, methods, and procedures used to collect and analyze data. It should include information on the sample or participants, data collection instruments, data collection procedures, and data analysis techniques. The methodology should be clear and detailed enough to allow other researchers to replicate the study.
The results section presents the findings of the study in a clear and objective manner. It should provide a detailed description of the data and statistics used to answer the research question or test the hypothesis. Tables, graphs, and figures may be included to help visualize the data and illustrate the key findings.
The discussion section interprets the results of the study and explains their significance or relevance to the research question or problem. It should also compare the current findings with those of previous studies and identify the implications for future research or practice. The discussion should be based on the results presented in the previous section and should avoid speculation or unfounded conclusions.
The conclusion summarizes the key findings of the study and restates the main argument or thesis presented in the introduction. It should also provide a brief overview of the contributions of the study to the field of research and the implications for practice or policy.
The references section lists all the sources cited in the research report, following a specific citation style, such as APA or MLA.
The appendices section includes any additional material, such as data tables, figures, or instruments used in the study, that could not be included in the main text due to space limitations.
Types of Research Report
Types of Research Report are as follows:
Thesis is a type of research report. A thesis is a long-form research document that presents the findings and conclusions of an original research study conducted by a student as part of a graduate or postgraduate program. It is typically written by a student pursuing a higher degree, such as a Master’s or Doctoral degree, although it can also be written by researchers or scholars in other fields.
Research paper is a type of research report. A research paper is a document that presents the results of a research study or investigation. Research papers can be written in a variety of fields, including science, social science, humanities, and business. They typically follow a standard format that includes an introduction, literature review, methodology, results, discussion, and conclusion sections.
A technical report is a detailed report that provides information about a specific technical or scientific problem or project. Technical reports are often used in engineering, science, and other technical fields to document research and development work.
A progress report provides an update on the progress of a research project or program over a specific period of time. Progress reports are typically used to communicate the status of a project to stakeholders, funders, or project managers.
A feasibility report assesses the feasibility of a proposed project or plan, providing an analysis of the potential risks, benefits, and costs associated with the project. Feasibility reports are often used in business, engineering, and other fields to determine the viability of a project before it is undertaken.
A field report documents observations and findings from fieldwork, which is research conducted in the natural environment or setting. Field reports are often used in anthropology, ecology, and other social and natural sciences.
An experimental report documents the results of a scientific experiment, including the hypothesis, methods, results, and conclusions. Experimental reports are often used in biology, chemistry, and other sciences to communicate the results of laboratory experiments.
Case Study Report
A case study report provides an in-depth analysis of a specific case or situation, often used in psychology, social work, and other fields to document and understand complex cases or phenomena.
Literature Review Report
A literature review report synthesizes and summarizes existing research on a specific topic, providing an overview of the current state of knowledge on the subject. Literature review reports are often used in social sciences, education, and other fields to identify gaps in the literature and guide future research.
Research Report Example
Following is a Research Report Example sample for Students:
Title: The Impact of Social Media on Academic Performance among High School Students
This study aims to investigate the relationship between social media use and academic performance among high school students. The study utilized a quantitative research design, which involved a survey questionnaire administered to a sample of 200 high school students. The findings indicate that there is a negative correlation between social media use and academic performance, suggesting that excessive social media use can lead to poor academic performance among high school students. The results of this study have important implications for educators, parents, and policymakers, as they highlight the need for strategies that can help students balance their social media use and academic responsibilities.
Social media has become an integral part of the lives of high school students. With the widespread use of social media platforms such as Facebook, Twitter, Instagram, and Snapchat, students can connect with friends, share photos and videos, and engage in discussions on a range of topics. While social media offers many benefits, concerns have been raised about its impact on academic performance. Many studies have found a negative correlation between social media use and academic performance among high school students (Kirschner & Karpinski, 2010; Paul, Baker, & Cochran, 2012).
Given the growing importance of social media in the lives of high school students, it is important to investigate its impact on academic performance. This study aims to address this gap by examining the relationship between social media use and academic performance among high school students.
The study utilized a quantitative research design, which involved a survey questionnaire administered to a sample of 200 high school students. The questionnaire was developed based on previous studies and was designed to measure the frequency and duration of social media use, as well as academic performance.
The participants were selected using a convenience sampling technique, and the survey questionnaire was distributed in the classroom during regular school hours. The data collected were analyzed using descriptive statistics and correlation analysis.
The findings indicate that the majority of high school students use social media platforms on a daily basis, with Facebook being the most popular platform. The results also show a negative correlation between social media use and academic performance, suggesting that excessive social media use can lead to poor academic performance among high school students.
The results of this study have important implications for educators, parents, and policymakers. The negative correlation between social media use and academic performance suggests that strategies should be put in place to help students balance their social media use and academic responsibilities. For example, educators could incorporate social media into their teaching strategies to engage students and enhance learning. Parents could limit their children’s social media use and encourage them to prioritize their academic responsibilities. Policymakers could develop guidelines and policies to regulate social media use among high school students.
In conclusion, this study provides evidence of the negative impact of social media on academic performance among high school students. The findings highlight the need for strategies that can help students balance their social media use and academic responsibilities. Further research is needed to explore the specific mechanisms by which social media use affects academic performance and to develop effective strategies for addressing this issue.
One limitation of this study is the use of convenience sampling, which limits the generalizability of the findings to other populations. Future studies should use random sampling techniques to increase the representativeness of the sample. Another limitation is the use of self-reported measures, which may be subject to social desirability bias. Future studies could use objective measures of social media use and academic performance, such as tracking software and school records.
The findings of this study have important implications for educators, parents, and policymakers. Educators could incorporate social media into their teaching strategies to engage students and enhance learning. For example, teachers could use social media platforms to share relevant educational resources and facilitate online discussions. Parents could limit their children’s social media use and encourage them to prioritize their academic responsibilities. They could also engage in open communication with their children to understand their social media use and its impact on their academic performance. Policymakers could develop guidelines and policies to regulate social media use among high school students. For example, schools could implement social media policies that restrict access during class time and encourage responsible use.
- Kirschner, P. A., & Karpinski, A. C. (2010). Facebook® and academic performance. Computers in Human Behavior, 26(6), 1237-1245.
- Paul, J. A., Baker, H. M., & Cochran, J. D. (2012). Effect of online social networking on student academic performance. Journal of the Research Center for Educational Technology, 8(1), 1-19.
- Pantic, I. (2014). Online social networking and mental health. Cyberpsychology, Behavior, and Social Networking, 17(10), 652-657.
- Rosen, L. D., Carrier, L. M., & Cheever, N. A. (2013). Facebook and texting made me do it: Media-induced task-switching while studying. Computers in Human Behavior, 29(3), 948-958.
Note*: Above mention, Example is just a sample for the students’ guide. Do not directly copy and paste as your College or University assignment. Kindly do some research and Write your own.
Applications of Research Report
Research reports have many applications, including:
- Communicating research findings: The primary application of a research report is to communicate the results of a study to other researchers, stakeholders, or the general public. The report serves as a way to share new knowledge, insights, and discoveries with others in the field.
- Informing policy and practice : Research reports can inform policy and practice by providing evidence-based recommendations for decision-makers. For example, a research report on the effectiveness of a new drug could inform regulatory agencies in their decision-making process.
- Supporting further research: Research reports can provide a foundation for further research in a particular area. Other researchers may use the findings and methodology of a report to develop new research questions or to build on existing research.
- Evaluating programs and interventions : Research reports can be used to evaluate the effectiveness of programs and interventions in achieving their intended outcomes. For example, a research report on a new educational program could provide evidence of its impact on student performance.
- Demonstrating impact : Research reports can be used to demonstrate the impact of research funding or to evaluate the success of research projects. By presenting the findings and outcomes of a study, research reports can show the value of research to funders and stakeholders.
- Enhancing professional development : Research reports can be used to enhance professional development by providing a source of information and learning for researchers and practitioners in a particular field. For example, a research report on a new teaching methodology could provide insights and ideas for educators to incorporate into their own practice.
How to write Research Report
Here are some steps you can follow to write a research report:
- Identify the research question: The first step in writing a research report is to identify your research question. This will help you focus your research and organize your findings.
- Conduct research : Once you have identified your research question, you will need to conduct research to gather relevant data and information. This can involve conducting experiments, reviewing literature, or analyzing data.
- Organize your findings: Once you have gathered all of your data, you will need to organize your findings in a way that is clear and understandable. This can involve creating tables, graphs, or charts to illustrate your results.
- Write the report: Once you have organized your findings, you can begin writing the report. Start with an introduction that provides background information and explains the purpose of your research. Next, provide a detailed description of your research methods and findings. Finally, summarize your results and draw conclusions based on your findings.
- Proofread and edit: After you have written your report, be sure to proofread and edit it carefully. Check for grammar and spelling errors, and make sure that your report is well-organized and easy to read.
- Include a reference list: Be sure to include a list of references that you used in your research. This will give credit to your sources and allow readers to further explore the topic if they choose.
- Format your report: Finally, format your report according to the guidelines provided by your instructor or organization. This may include formatting requirements for headings, margins, fonts, and spacing.
Purpose of Research Report
The purpose of a research report is to communicate the results of a research study to a specific audience, such as peers in the same field, stakeholders, or the general public. The report provides a detailed description of the research methods, findings, and conclusions.
Some common purposes of a research report include:
- Sharing knowledge: A research report allows researchers to share their findings and knowledge with others in their field. This helps to advance the field and improve the understanding of a particular topic.
- Identifying trends: A research report can identify trends and patterns in data, which can help guide future research and inform decision-making.
- Addressing problems: A research report can provide insights into problems or issues and suggest solutions or recommendations for addressing them.
- Evaluating programs or interventions : A research report can evaluate the effectiveness of programs or interventions, which can inform decision-making about whether to continue, modify, or discontinue them.
- Meeting regulatory requirements: In some fields, research reports are required to meet regulatory requirements, such as in the case of drug trials or environmental impact studies.
When to Write Research Report
A research report should be written after completing the research study. This includes collecting data, analyzing the results, and drawing conclusions based on the findings. Once the research is complete, the report should be written in a timely manner while the information is still fresh in the researcher’s mind.
In academic settings, research reports are often required as part of coursework or as part of a thesis or dissertation. In this case, the report should be written according to the guidelines provided by the instructor or institution.
In other settings, such as in industry or government, research reports may be required to inform decision-making or to comply with regulatory requirements. In these cases, the report should be written as soon as possible after the research is completed in order to inform decision-making in a timely manner.
Overall, the timing of when to write a research report depends on the purpose of the research, the expectations of the audience, and any regulatory requirements that need to be met. However, it is important to complete the report in a timely manner while the information is still fresh in the researcher’s mind.
Characteristics of Research Report
There are several characteristics of a research report that distinguish it from other types of writing. These characteristics include:
- Objective: A research report should be written in an objective and unbiased manner. It should present the facts and findings of the research study without any personal opinions or biases.
- Systematic: A research report should be written in a systematic manner. It should follow a clear and logical structure, and the information should be presented in a way that is easy to understand and follow.
- Detailed: A research report should be detailed and comprehensive. It should provide a thorough description of the research methods, results, and conclusions.
- Accurate : A research report should be accurate and based on sound research methods. The findings and conclusions should be supported by data and evidence.
- Organized: A research report should be well-organized. It should include headings and subheadings to help the reader navigate the report and understand the main points.
- Clear and concise: A research report should be written in clear and concise language. The information should be presented in a way that is easy to understand, and unnecessary jargon should be avoided.
- Citations and references: A research report should include citations and references to support the findings and conclusions. This helps to give credit to other researchers and to provide readers with the opportunity to further explore the topic.
Advantages of Research Report
Research reports have several advantages, including:
- Communicating research findings: Research reports allow researchers to communicate their findings to a wider audience, including other researchers, stakeholders, and the general public. This helps to disseminate knowledge and advance the understanding of a particular topic.
- Providing evidence for decision-making : Research reports can provide evidence to inform decision-making, such as in the case of policy-making, program planning, or product development. The findings and conclusions can help guide decisions and improve outcomes.
- Supporting further research: Research reports can provide a foundation for further research on a particular topic. Other researchers can build on the findings and conclusions of the report, which can lead to further discoveries and advancements in the field.
- Demonstrating expertise: Research reports can demonstrate the expertise of the researchers and their ability to conduct rigorous and high-quality research. This can be important for securing funding, promotions, and other professional opportunities.
- Meeting regulatory requirements: In some fields, research reports are required to meet regulatory requirements, such as in the case of drug trials or environmental impact studies. Producing a high-quality research report can help ensure compliance with these requirements.
Limitations of Research Report
Despite their advantages, research reports also have some limitations, including:
- Time-consuming: Conducting research and writing a report can be a time-consuming process, particularly for large-scale studies. This can limit the frequency and speed of producing research reports.
- Expensive: Conducting research and producing a report can be expensive, particularly for studies that require specialized equipment, personnel, or data. This can limit the scope and feasibility of some research studies.
- Limited generalizability: Research studies often focus on a specific population or context, which can limit the generalizability of the findings to other populations or contexts.
- Potential bias : Researchers may have biases or conflicts of interest that can influence the findings and conclusions of the research study. Additionally, participants may also have biases or may not be representative of the larger population, which can limit the validity and reliability of the findings.
- Accessibility: Research reports may be written in technical or academic language, which can limit their accessibility to a wider audience. Additionally, some research may be behind paywalls or require specialized access, which can limit the ability of others to read and use the findings.
About the author
Researcher, Academic Writer, Web developer
You may also like
Assignment – Types, Examples and Writing Guide
References in Research – Types, Examples and...
Figures in Research Paper – Examples and Guide
Delimitations in Research – Types, Examples and...
Research Findings – Types Examples and Writing...
Research Paper – Structure, Examples and Writing...
- Research Report: Definition, Types + [Writing Guide]
One of the reasons for carrying out research is to add to the existing body of knowledge. Therefore, when conducting research, you need to document your processes and findings in a research report.
With a research report, it is easy to outline the findings of your systematic investigation and any gaps needing further inquiry. Knowing how to create a detailed research report will prove useful when you need to conduct research.
What is a Research Report?
A research report is a well-crafted document that outlines the processes, data, and findings of a systematic investigation. It is an important document that serves as a first-hand account of the research process, and it is typically considered an objective and accurate source of information.
In many ways, a research report can be considered as a summary of the research process that clearly highlights findings, recommendations, and other important details. Reading a well-written research report should provide you with all the information you need about the core areas of the research process.
Features of a Research Report
So how do you recognize a research report when you see one? Here are some of the basic features that define a research report.
- It is a detailed presentation of research processes and findings, and it usually includes tables and graphs.
- It is written in a formal language.
- A research report is usually written in the third person.
- It is informative and based on first-hand verifiable information.
- It is formally structured with headings, sections, and bullet points.
- It always includes recommendations for future actions.
Types of Research Report
The research report is classified based on two things; nature of research and target audience.
Nature of Research
- Qualitative Research Report
This is the type of report written for qualitative research . It outlines the methods, processes, and findings of a qualitative method of systematic investigation. In educational research, a qualitative research report provides an opportunity for one to apply his or her knowledge and develop skills in planning and executing qualitative research projects.
A qualitative research report is usually descriptive in nature. Hence, in addition to presenting details of the research process, you must also create a descriptive narrative of the information.
- Quantitative Research Report
A quantitative research report is a type of research report that is written for quantitative research. Quantitative research is a type of systematic investigation that pays attention to numerical or statistical values in a bid to find answers to research questions.
In this type of research report, the researcher presents quantitative data to support the research process and findings. Unlike a qualitative research report that is mainly descriptive, a quantitative research report works with numbers; that is, it is numerical in nature.
Also, a research report can be said to be technical or popular based on the target audience. If you’re dealing with a general audience, you would need to present a popular research report, and if you’re dealing with a specialized audience, you would submit a technical report.
- Technical Research Report
A technical research report is a detailed document that you present after carrying out industry-based research. This report is highly specialized because it provides information for a technical audience; that is, individuals with above-average knowledge in the field of study.
In a technical research report, the researcher is expected to provide specific information about the research process, including statistical analyses and sampling methods. Also, the use of language is highly specialized and filled with jargon.
Examples of technical research reports include legal and medical research reports.
- Popular Research Report
A popular research report is one for a general audience; that is, for individuals who do not necessarily have any knowledge in the field of study. A popular research report aims to make information accessible to everyone.
It is written in very simple language, which makes it easy to understand the findings and recommendations. Examples of popular research reports are the information contained in newspapers and magazines.
Importance of a Research Report
- Knowledge Transfer: As already stated above, one of the reasons for carrying out research is to contribute to the existing body of knowledge, and this is made possible with a research report. A research report serves as a means to effectively communicate the findings of a systematic investigation to all and sundry.
- Identification of Knowledge Gaps: With a research report, you’d be able to identify knowledge gaps for further inquiry. A research report shows what has been done while hinting at other areas needing systematic investigation.
- In market research, a research report would help you understand the market needs and peculiarities at a glance.
- A research report allows you to present information in a precise and concise manner.
- It is time-efficient and practical because, in a research report, you do not have to spend time detailing the findings of your research work in person. You can easily send out the report via email and have stakeholders look at it.
Guide to Writing a Research Report
A lot of detail goes into writing a research report, and getting familiar with the different requirements would help you create the ideal research report. A research report is usually broken down into multiple sections, which allows for a concise presentation of information.
Structure and Example of a Research Report
This is the title of your systematic investigation. Your title should be concise and point to the aims, objectives, and findings of a research report.
- Table of Contents
This is like a compass that makes it easier for readers to navigate the research report.
An abstract is an overview that highlights all important aspects of the research including the research method, data collection process, and research findings. Think of an abstract as a summary of your research report that presents pertinent information in a concise manner.
An abstract is always brief; typically 100-150 words and goes straight to the point. The focus of your research abstract should be the 5Ws and 1H format – What, Where, Why, When, Who and How.
Here, the researcher highlights the aims and objectives of the systematic investigation as well as the problem which the systematic investigation sets out to solve. When writing the report introduction, it is also essential to indicate whether the purposes of the research were achieved or would require more work.
In the introduction section, the researcher specifies the research problem and also outlines the significance of the systematic investigation. Also, the researcher is expected to outline any jargons and terminologies that are contained in the research.
- Literature Review
A literature review is a written survey of existing knowledge in the field of study. In other words, it is the section where you provide an overview and analysis of different research works that are relevant to your systematic investigation.
It highlights existing research knowledge and areas needing further investigation, which your research has sought to fill. At this stage, you can also hint at your research hypothesis and its possible implications for the existing body of knowledge in your field of study.
- An Account of Investigation
This is a detailed account of the research process, including the methodology, sample, and research subjects. Here, you are expected to provide in-depth information on the research process including the data collection and analysis procedures.
In a quantitative research report, you’d need to provide information surveys, questionnaires and other quantitative data collection methods used in your research. In a qualitative research report, you are expected to describe the qualitative data collection methods used in your research including interviews and focus groups.
In this section, you are expected to present the results of the systematic investigation.
This section further explains the findings of the research, earlier outlined. Here, you are expected to present a justification for each outcome and show whether the results are in line with your hypotheses or if other research studies have come up with similar results.
This is a summary of all the information in the report. It also outlines the significance of the entire study.
- References and Appendices
This section contains a list of all the primary and secondary research sources.
Tips for Writing a Research Report
- Define the Context for the Report
As is obtainable when writing an essay, defining the context for your research report would help you create a detailed yet concise document. This is why you need to create an outline before writing so that you do not miss out on anything.
- Define your Audience
Writing with your audience in mind is essential as it determines the tone of the report. If you’re writing for a general audience, you would want to present the information in a simple and relatable manner. For a specialized audience, you would need to make use of technical and field-specific terms.
- Include Significant Findings
The idea of a research report is to present some sort of abridged version of your systematic investigation. In your report, you should exclude irrelevant information while highlighting only important data and findings.
- Include Illustrations
Your research report should include illustrations and other visual representations of your data. Graphs, pie charts, and relevant images lend additional credibility to your systematic investigation.
- Choose the Right Title
A good research report title is brief, precise, and contains keywords from your research. It should provide a clear idea of your systematic investigation so that readers can grasp the entire focus of your research from the title.
- Proofread the Report
Before publishing the document, ensure that you give it a second look to authenticate the information. If you can, get someone else to go through the report, too, and you can also run it through proofreading and editing software.
How to Gather Research Data for Your Report
- Understand the Problem
Every research aims at solving a specific problem or set of problems, and this should be at the back of your mind when writing your research report. Understanding the problem would help you to filter the information you have and include only important data in your report.
- Know what your report seeks to achieve
This is somewhat similar to the point above because, in some way, the aim of your research report is intertwined with the objectives of your systematic investigation. Identifying the primary purpose of writing a research report would help you to identify and present the required information accordingly.
- Identify your audience
Knowing your target audience plays a crucial role in data collection for a research report. If your research report is specifically for an organization, you would want to present industry-specific information or show how the research findings are relevant to the work that the company does.
- Create Surveys/Questionnaires
A survey is a research method that is used to gather data from a specific group of people through a set of questions. It can be either quantitative or qualitative.
A survey is usually made up of structured questions, and it can be administered online or offline. However, an online survey is a more effective method of research data collection because it helps you save time and gather data with ease.
You can seamlessly create an online questionnaire for your research on Formplus . With the multiple sharing options available in the builder, you would be able to administer your survey to respondents in little or no time.
Formplus also has a report summary too l that you can use to create custom visual reports for your research.
Step-by-step guide on how to create an online questionnaire using Formplus
- Sign into Formplus
In the Formplus builder, you can easily create different online questionnaires for your research by dragging and dropping preferred fields into your form. To access the Formplus builder, you will need to create an account on Formplus.
Once you do this, sign in to your account and click on Create new form to begin.
- Edit Form Title : Click on the field provided to input your form title, for example, “Research Questionnaire.”
- Edit Form : Click on the edit icon to edit the form.
- Add Fields : Drag and drop preferred form fields into your form in the Formplus builder inputs column. There are several field input options for questionnaires in the Formplus builder.
- Edit fields
- Click on “Save”
- Form Customization: With the form customization options in the form builder, you can easily change the outlook of your form and make it more unique and personalized. Formplus allows you to change your form theme, add background images, and even change the font according to your needs.
- Multiple Sharing Options: Formplus offers various form-sharing options, which enables you to share your questionnaire with respondents easily. You can use the direct social media sharing buttons to share your form link to your organization’s social media pages. You can also send out your survey form as email invitations to your research subjects too. If you wish, you can share your form’s QR code or embed it on your organization’s website for easy access.
Always remember that a research report is just as important as the actual systematic investigation because it plays a vital role in communicating research findings to everyone else. This is why you must take care to create a concise document summarizing the process of conducting any research.
In this article, we’ve outlined essential tips to help you create a research report. When writing your report, you should always have the audience at the back of your mind, as this would set the tone for the document.
Connect to Formplus, Get Started Now - It's Free!
- ethnographic research survey
- research report
- research report survey
You may also like:
How to Write a Problem Statement for your Research
Learn how to write problem statements before commencing any research effort. Learn about its structure and explore examples
Ethnographic Research: Types, Methods + [Question Examples]
Simple guide on ethnographic research, it types, methods, examples and advantages. Also highlights how to conduct an ethnographic...
Assessment Tools: Types, Examples & Importance
In this article, you’ll learn about different assessment tools to help you evaluate performance in various contexts
21 Chrome Extensions for Academic Researchers in 2022
In this article, we will discuss a number of chrome extensions you can use to make your research process even seamless
Formplus - For Seamless Data Collection
Collect data the right way with a versatile data collection tool. try formplus and transform your work productivity today..
- Request new password
- Create a new account
Student resources, step 8: writing a research report, writing a research report.
- Checkpoint: Academic writing conventions
- Checkpoint: Research report content
- Checkpoint: Drawing conclusions and maintaining arguments
- Checkpoint: References and citations
Exercise: Writing a Research Proposal
Download the exercise that also appears in your textbook to help you step-by-step in writing a research proposal. You can also use this exercise to contribute to a final research portfoilio or help guide discussions with your supervisor.
Have a language expert improve your writing
Run a free plagiarism check in 10 minutes, generate accurate citations for free.
- Knowledge Base
- How to Write a Literature Review | Guide, Examples, & Templates
How to Write a Literature Review | Guide, Examples, & Templates
Published on January 2, 2023 by Shona McCombes . Revised on September 11, 2023.
What is a literature review? A literature review is a survey of scholarly sources on a specific topic. It provides an overview of current knowledge, allowing you to identify relevant theories, methods, and gaps in the existing research that you can later apply to your paper, thesis, or dissertation topic .
There are five key steps to writing a literature review:
- Search for relevant literature
- Evaluate sources
- Identify themes, debates, and gaps
- Outline the structure
- Write your literature review
A good literature review doesn’t just summarize sources—it analyzes, synthesizes , and critically evaluates to give a clear picture of the state of knowledge on the subject.
Table of contents
What is the purpose of a literature review, examples of literature reviews, step 1 – search for relevant literature, step 2 – evaluate and select sources, step 3 – identify themes, debates, and gaps, step 4 – outline your literature review’s structure, step 5 – write your literature review, free lecture slides, other interesting articles, frequently asked questions, introduction.
- Quick Run-through
- Step 1 & 2
When you write a thesis , dissertation , or research paper , you will likely have to conduct a literature review to situate your research within existing knowledge. The literature review gives you a chance to:
- Demonstrate your familiarity with the topic and its scholarly context
- Develop a theoretical framework and methodology for your research
- Position your work in relation to other researchers and theorists
- Show how your research addresses a gap or contributes to a debate
- Evaluate the current state of research and demonstrate your knowledge of the scholarly debates around your topic.
Writing literature reviews is a particularly important skill if you want to apply for graduate school or pursue a career in research. We’ve written a step-by-step guide that you can follow below.
A faster, more affordable way to improve your paper
Scribbr’s new AI Proofreader checks your document and corrects spelling, grammar, and punctuation mistakes with near-human accuracy and the efficiency of AI!
Proofread my paper
Writing literature reviews can be quite challenging! A good starting point could be to look at some examples, depending on what kind of literature review you’d like to write.
- Example literature review #1: “Why Do People Migrate? A Review of the Theoretical Literature” ( Theoretical literature review about the development of economic migration theory from the 1950s to today.)
- Example literature review #2: “Literature review as a research methodology: An overview and guidelines” ( Methodological literature review about interdisciplinary knowledge acquisition and production.)
- Example literature review #3: “The Use of Technology in English Language Learning: A Literature Review” ( Thematic literature review about the effects of technology on language acquisition.)
- Example literature review #4: “Learners’ Listening Comprehension Difficulties in English Language Learning: A Literature Review” ( Chronological literature review about how the concept of listening skills has changed over time.)
You can also check out our templates with literature review examples and sample outlines at the links below.
Download Word doc Download Google doc
Before you begin searching for literature, you need a clearly defined topic .
If you are writing the literature review section of a dissertation or research paper, you will search for literature related to your research problem and questions .
Make a list of keywords
Start by creating a list of keywords related to your research question. Include each of the key concepts or variables you’re interested in, and list any synonyms and related terms. You can add to this list as you discover new keywords in the process of your literature search.
- Social media, Facebook, Instagram, Twitter, Snapchat, TikTok
- Body image, self-perception, self-esteem, mental health
- Generation Z, teenagers, adolescents, youth
Search for relevant sources
Use your keywords to begin searching for sources. Some useful databases to search for journals and articles include:
- Your university’s library catalogue
- Google Scholar
- Project Muse (humanities and social sciences)
- Medline (life sciences and biomedicine)
- EconLit (economics)
- Inspec (physics, engineering and computer science)
You can also use boolean operators to help narrow down your search.
Make sure to read the abstract to find out whether an article is relevant to your question. When you find a useful book or article, you can check the bibliography to find other relevant sources.
You likely won’t be able to read absolutely everything that has been written on your topic, so it will be necessary to evaluate which sources are most relevant to your research question.
For each publication, ask yourself:
- What question or problem is the author addressing?
- What are the key concepts and how are they defined?
- What are the key theories, models, and methods?
- Does the research use established frameworks or take an innovative approach?
- What are the results and conclusions of the study?
- How does the publication relate to other literature in the field? Does it confirm, add to, or challenge established knowledge?
- What are the strengths and weaknesses of the research?
Make sure the sources you use are credible , and make sure you read any landmark studies and major theories in your field of research.
You can use our template to summarize and evaluate sources you’re thinking about using. Click on either button below to download.
Take notes and cite your sources
As you read, you should also begin the writing process. Take notes that you can later incorporate into the text of your literature review.
It is important to keep track of your sources with citations to avoid plagiarism . It can be helpful to make an annotated bibliography , where you compile full citation information and write a paragraph of summary and analysis for each source. This helps you remember what you read and saves time later in the process.
Receive feedback on language, structure, and formatting
Professional editors proofread and edit your paper by focusing on:
- Academic style
- Vague sentences
- Style consistency
See an example
To begin organizing your literature review’s argument and structure, be sure you understand the connections and relationships between the sources you’ve read. Based on your reading and notes, you can look for:
- Trends and patterns (in theory, method or results): do certain approaches become more or less popular over time?
- Themes: what questions or concepts recur across the literature?
- Debates, conflicts and contradictions: where do sources disagree?
- Pivotal publications: are there any influential theories or studies that changed the direction of the field?
- Gaps: what is missing from the literature? Are there weaknesses that need to be addressed?
This step will help you work out the structure of your literature review and (if applicable) show how your own research will contribute to existing knowledge.
- Most research has focused on young women.
- There is an increasing interest in the visual aspects of social media.
- But there is still a lack of robust research on highly visual platforms like Instagram and Snapchat—this is a gap that you could address in your own research.
There are various approaches to organizing the body of a literature review. Depending on the length of your literature review, you can combine several of these strategies (for example, your overall structure might be thematic, but each theme is discussed chronologically).
The simplest approach is to trace the development of the topic over time. However, if you choose this strategy, be careful to avoid simply listing and summarizing sources in order.
Try to analyze patterns, turning points and key debates that have shaped the direction of the field. Give your interpretation of how and why certain developments occurred.
If you have found some recurring central themes, you can organize your literature review into subsections that address different aspects of the topic.
For example, if you are reviewing literature about inequalities in migrant health outcomes, key themes might include healthcare policy, language barriers, cultural attitudes, legal status, and economic access.
If you draw your sources from different disciplines or fields that use a variety of research methods , you might want to compare the results and conclusions that emerge from different approaches. For example:
- Look at what results have emerged in qualitative versus quantitative research
- Discuss how the topic has been approached by empirical versus theoretical scholarship
- Divide the literature into sociological, historical, and cultural sources
A literature review is often the foundation for a theoretical framework . You can use it to discuss various theories, models, and definitions of key concepts.
You might argue for the relevance of a specific theoretical approach, or combine various theoretical concepts to create a framework for your research.
Like any other academic text , your literature review should have an introduction , a main body, and a conclusion . What you include in each depends on the objective of your literature review.
The introduction should clearly establish the focus and purpose of the literature review.
Depending on the length of your literature review, you might want to divide the body into subsections. You can use a subheading for each theme, time period, or methodological approach.
As you write, you can follow these tips:
- Summarize and synthesize: give an overview of the main points of each source and combine them into a coherent whole
- Analyze and interpret: don’t just paraphrase other researchers — add your own interpretations where possible, discussing the significance of findings in relation to the literature as a whole
- Critically evaluate: mention the strengths and weaknesses of your sources
- Write in well-structured paragraphs: use transition words and topic sentences to draw connections, comparisons and contrasts
In the conclusion, you should summarize the key findings you have taken from the literature and emphasize their significance.
When you’ve finished writing and revising your literature review, don’t forget to proofread thoroughly before submitting. Not a language expert? Check out Scribbr’s professional proofreading services !
This article has been adapted into lecture slides that you can use to teach your students about writing a literature review.
Scribbr slides are free to use, customize, and distribute for educational purposes.
Open Google Slides Download PowerPoint
If you want to know more about the research process , methodology , research bias , or statistics , make sure to check out some of our other articles with explanations and examples.
- Sampling methods
- Simple random sampling
- Stratified sampling
- Cluster sampling
- Likert scales
- Null hypothesis
- Statistical power
- Probability distribution
- Effect size
- Poisson distribution
- Optimism bias
- Cognitive bias
- Implicit bias
- Hawthorne effect
- Anchoring bias
- Explicit bias
A literature review is a survey of scholarly sources (such as books, journal articles, and theses) related to a specific topic or research question .
It is often written as part of a thesis, dissertation , or research paper , in order to situate your work in relation to existing knowledge.
There are several reasons to conduct a literature review at the beginning of a research project:
- To familiarize yourself with the current state of knowledge on your topic
- To ensure that you’re not just repeating what others have already done
- To identify gaps in knowledge and unresolved problems that your research can address
- To develop your theoretical framework and methodology
- To provide an overview of the key findings and debates on the topic
Writing the literature review shows your reader how your work relates to existing research and what new insights it will contribute.
The literature review usually comes near the beginning of your thesis or dissertation . After the introduction , it grounds your research in a scholarly field and leads directly to your theoretical framework or methodology .
A literature review is a survey of credible sources on a topic, often used in dissertations , theses, and research papers . Literature reviews give an overview of knowledge on a subject, helping you identify relevant theories and methods, as well as gaps in existing research. Literature reviews are set up similarly to other academic texts , with an introduction , a main body, and a conclusion .
An annotated bibliography is a list of source references that has a short description (called an annotation ) for each of the sources. It is often assigned as part of the research process for a paper .
Cite this Scribbr article
If you want to cite this source, you can copy and paste the citation or click the “Cite this Scribbr article” button to automatically add the citation to our free Citation Generator.
McCombes, S. (2023, September 11). How to Write a Literature Review | Guide, Examples, & Templates. Scribbr. Retrieved November 20, 2023, from https://www.scribbr.com/dissertation/literature-review/
Is this article helpful?
Other students also liked, what is a theoretical framework | guide to organizing, what is a research methodology | steps & tips, how to write a research proposal | examples & templates, what is your plagiarism score.
- Skip to main content
- Skip to primary sidebar
- Skip to footer
- Solutions Industries Gaming Automotive Sports and events Education Government Travel & Hospitality Financial Services Healthcare Cannabis Technology Use Case NPS+ Communities Audience Contactless surveys Mobile LivePolls Member Experience GDPR Positive People Science 360 Feedback Surveys
- Resources Blog eBooks Survey Templates Case Studies Training Help center
Home Market Research
Research Reports: Definition and How to Write Them
Reports are usually spread across a vast horizon of topics but are focused on communicating information about a particular topic and a niche target market. The primary motive of research reports is to convey integral details about a study for marketers to consider while designing new strategies.
Certain events, facts, and other information based on incidents need to be relayed to the people in charge, and creating research reports is the most effective communication tool. Ideal research reports are extremely accurate in the offered information with a clear objective and conclusion. These reports should have a clean and structured format to relay information effectively.
What are Research Reports?
Research reports are recorded data prepared by researchers or statisticians after analyzing the information gathered by conducting organized research, typically in the form of surveys or qualitative methods .
A research report is a reliable source to recount details about a conducted research. It is most often considered to be a true testimony of all the work done to garner specificities of research.
The various sections of a research report are:
- Implemented Methods
- Results based on Analysis
Learn more: Quantitative Research
Components of Research Reports
Research is imperative for launching a new product/service or a new feature. The markets today are extremely volatile and competitive due to new entrants every day who may or may not provide effective products. An organization needs to make the right decisions at the right time to be relevant in such a market with updated products that suffice customer demands.
The details of a research report may change with the purpose of research but the main components of a report will remain constant. The research approach of the market researcher also influences the style of writing reports. Here are seven main components of a productive research report:
- Research Report Summary: The entire objective along with the overview of research are to be included in a summary which is a couple of paragraphs in length. All the multiple components of the research are explained in brief under the report summary. It should be interesting enough to capture all the key elements of the report.
- Research Introduction: There always is a primary goal that the researcher is trying to achieve through a report. In the introduction section, he/she can cover answers related to this goal and establish a thesis which will be included to strive and answer it in detail. This section should answer an integral question: “What is the current situation of the goal?”. After the research design was conducted, did the organization conclude the goal successfully or they are still a work in progress – provide such details in the introduction part of the research report.
- Research Methodology: This is the most important section of the report where all the important information lies. The readers can gain data for the topic along with analyzing the quality of provided content and the research can also be approved by other market researchers . Thus, this section needs to be highly informative with each aspect of research discussed in detail. Information needs to be expressed in chronological order according to its priority and importance. Researchers should include references in case they gained information from existing techniques.
- Research Results: A short description of the results along with calculations conducted to achieve the goal will form this section of results. Usually, the exposition after data analysis is carried out in the discussion part of the report.
Learn more: Quantitative Data
- Research Discussion: The results are discussed in extreme detail in this section along with a comparative analysis of reports that could probably exist in the same domain. Any abnormality uncovered during research will be deliberated in the discussion section. While writing research reports, the researcher will have to connect the dots on how the results will be applicable in the real world.
- Research References and Conclusion: Conclude all the research findings along with mentioning each and every author, article or any content piece from where references were taken.
Learn more: Qualitative Observation
15 Tips for Writing Research Reports
Writing research reports in the manner can lead to all the efforts going down the drain. Here are 15 tips for writing impactful research reports:
- Prepare the context before starting to write and start from the basics: This was always taught to us in school – be well-prepared before taking a plunge into new topics. The order of survey questions might not be the ideal or most effective order for writing research reports. The idea is to start with a broader topic and work towards a more specific one and focus on a conclusion or support, which a research should support with the facts. The most difficult thing to do in reporting, without a doubt is to start. Start with the title, the introduction, then document the first discoveries and continue from that. Once the marketers have the information well documented, they can write a general conclusion.
- Keep the target audience in mind while selecting a format that is clear, logical and obvious to them: Will the research reports be presented to decision makers or other researchers? What are the general perceptions around that topic? This requires more care and diligence. A researcher will need a significant amount of information to start writing the research report. Be consistent with the wording, the numbering of the annexes and so on. Follow the approved format of the company for the delivery of research reports and demonstrate the integrity of the project with the objectives of the company.
- Have a clear research objective: A researcher should read the entire proposal again, and make sure that the data they provide contributes to the objectives that were raised from the beginning. Remember that speculations are for conversations, not for research reports, if a researcher speculates, they directly question their own research.
- Establish a working model: Each study must have an internal logic, which will have to be established in the report and in the evidence. The researchers’ worst nightmare is to be required to write research reports and realize that key questions were not included.
Learn more: Quantitative Observation
- Gather all the information about the research topic. Who are the competitors of our customers? Talk to other researchers who have studied the subject of research, know the language of the industry. Misuse of the terms can discourage the readers of research reports from reading further.
- Read aloud while writing. While reading the report, if the researcher hears something inappropriate, for example, if they stumble over the words when reading them, surely the reader will too. If the researcher can’t put an idea in a single sentence, then it is very long and they must change it so that the idea is clear to everyone.
- Check grammar and spelling. Without a doubt, good practices help to understand the report. Use verbs in the present tense. Consider using the present tense, which makes the results sound more immediate. Find new words and other ways of saying things. Have fun with the language whenever possible.
- Discuss only the discoveries that are significant. If some data are not really significant, do not mention them. Remember that not everything is truly important or essential within research reports.
Learn more: Qualitative Data
- Try and stick to the survey questions. For example, do not say that the people surveyed “were worried” about an research issue , when there are different degrees of concern.
- The graphs must be clear enough so that they understand themselves. Do not let graphs lead the reader to make mistakes: give them a title, include the indications, the size of the sample, and the correct wording of the question.
- Be clear with messages. A researcher should always write every section of the report with an accuracy of details and language.
- Be creative with titles – Particularly in segmentation studies choose names “that give life to research”. Such names can survive for a long time after the initial investigation.
- Create an effective conclusion: The conclusion in the research reports is the most difficult to write, but it is an incredible opportunity to excel. Make a precise summary. Sometimes it helps to start the conclusion with something specific, then it describes the most important part of the study, and finally, it provides the implications of the conclusions.
- Get a couple more pair of eyes to read the report. Writers have trouble detecting their own mistakes. But they are responsible for what is presented. Ensure it has been approved by colleagues or friends before sending the find draft out.
Learn more: Market Research and Analysis
MORE LIKE THIS
Earned Growth Rate: What It Is, Why and How to Calculate It
Nov 20, 2023
Information Analysis: From Collection to Decision-Making
Customer Interactions: What Is It, Importance, Tips & Benefits
Nov 17, 2023
Frontline Employees: Who They Are + Tips to Motivate Them
- Academic Research
- Artificial Intelligence
- Brand Awareness
- Case Studies
- Consumer Insights
- Customer effort score
- Customer Engagement
- Customer Experience
- Customer Loyalty
- Customer Research
- Customer Satisfaction
- Employee Benefits
- Employee Engagement
- Employee Retention
- Friday Five
- General Data Protection Regulation
- Insights Hub
- Market Research
- Mobile diaries
- Mobile Surveys
- New Features
- Online Communities
- Question Types
- QuestionPro Products
- Release Notes
- Research Tools and Apps
- Revenue at Risk
- Survey Templates
- Training Tips
- Video Learning Series
- What’s Coming Up
- Workforce Intelligence
Campus Career Club
Follow What Your Heart Says
Research Report Writing Steps with Format
Research report writing in effect regardless of the nature of your research study not only organizes your thoughts and research work but also serves as the template for the entire research process. Actually, the research report writing steps & format acts as a visual reminder so that you can include every detail of your research work. If you are a beginner in research report writing, then it is essential in order to write rightly your invaluable research paper.
Research Report Writing
The purpose of the research report writing is to deliver the results of the research to the interested person as far as possible and publish it in a coherent way so that the reader understands the information. Thus, the reader can determine the rationale of the research study itself. So, while you write down your own research report keep in mind the following factors well. Though, there is no fixed structure or rule for writing a research report.
(A) The report will agree realistically. Its report would be real based on the data obtained in the study.
(B) It will be complete. The researcher should be aware that all the things are included as per the purpose of the research study.
(C) It will be as short as possible. This does not mean that it is necessary to summarize without discussing the necessary issues. In fact, it is big enough to discuss essential issues in detail but short for unnecessary subject matters.
(D) The language of the report would be so clear and understandable. The report should use words that take into account the reader’s interest in reading the report.
(E) The researcher would be intellectually honest.
(F) The report will be readable so that the reader feels interested in reading it.
Research Report Writing Steps
The researcher would write the research report is a step-by-step process. The essential steps in research report writing might be as follows:
Step-1: Organizing the Research Report
Thinking about how the data collected for the study will be structured. Research problems can have different sides. Information can be of different types. All this information should be arranged in a systematic and consistent manner in the light of research questions and assumptions.
Develop an outline for organizing your ideas using the information collected. on note cards. An outline shows your core ideas and what you are about to write about them. Write down all the key concepts. List the subordinate ideas below the core concepts. Avoid repeating any concepts
Step-2: Preparing an Outline
The other important thing about writing a report is to create an outline that gives you an overall outlook on the topic of the study. Adjust the order of the items to be included in the report. Then, understand the title, the most important issues, and its overview. Basically, your outline will form in three main categories: introduction, body, and conclusion. But to make sure your paper is complete, consult with your instructor for the specific outline you want to include in your research. A sample outline for the research paper you might follow. But first, let’s point out the main sections of your paper and what information each should cover.
Step-3: Writing a Draft Report
After creating the report outline, the researcher will start writing the report based on the information received according to that outline. But first, make a draft report. Then, examine the draft report, find out mistakes, edit and make changes. This not only clears things up from the get-go but also regulates the process of writing a research paper. This helps to establish the basic structure of your paper. Prepare a first draft where you examine your outline and expand on ideas to support your thesis.
Step-4: Report Writing as per Objectives
The researcher needs to be very aware of the purpose of the study from the beginning of the report preparation. Writing reports according to the purpose of research reduces the opportunity for discussion of irrelevant issues of course. The goal of the research is your purpose, which is why you are doing research and the signals where you expect the end to come. Objectives are precise steps that you will take to get there. So when you write a report, your purpose should be kept in mind.
Research Report Writing Format
A research report has three basic parts.
Firstly, primary things, for example-research title, introduction, acknowledgments, & table of contents, etc.
Secondly, the main part, the research discussion, or research findings. The main part will necessarily be divided into some chapters.
Then, relevant issues, for example-annexure, bibliography, etc.
An Ideal Research Report Sample
You might also like, basic concept of research methodology and method, 5 basic steps in formulation of hypothesis in research, how do beginners start academic writing, leave a reply cancel reply.
Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *
- Book Lists by Age
- Book Lists by Category
- Reading Resources
- Language & Speech
- Raise a Reader Blog
- Back to School
- Success Guides by Grade
- Homework Help
- Social & Emotional Learning
- Activities for Kids
7 Steps to a Successful Research Report
Help your child produce his best work yet with this simple process..
If your child's about to tackle a big project, she can follow these simple steps to stay on track.
- Choose a topic. It should be a subject he can understand and one that interests him.
- Make a plan. Create a calendar together to map out the process.
- Check with the teacher. She should double-check the topic with her teacher.
- Conduct research and take notes. He can use a range of resources — from books, periodicals, and the Internet — to do this. Help him practice taking notes without copying word-for-word to reduce the risk of plagiarism.
- Outline the project. This will help her organize her notes and thoughts.
- Write the report. Use the outline as a road map.
- Edit and reread the report. Checking and correcting mistakes are the hallmarks of a good student.
- Trending Now
- Data Structures
- Foundational Courses
- Data Science
- Practice Problem
- Machine Learning
- Web Development
- Web Browser
- Explore Our Geeks Community
- 10 Tech Devices that help People with Disabilities
- 7 Most Recommended Programming Habits for Software Developers
- 5 Women Programmers Who Changed The World!
- 10 Creative Ways to Improve Your English Language Skills
- How to Build a Reputable StackOverflow Profile?
- 8 Time Consuming IT Tasks You Need to Automate Now
- Debugging: Tips To Get Better At It
- IDE for Python programming on Windows
- How to Learn Programming?
- When You Should Upgrade Your Smartphone?
- How to Protect Yourself From Cyber Attacks?
- Tips to Crack Google Season of Docs
- Types of Monitor Panels and Which One is Better?
- What is USB Tethering and How to Enable it?
- 20+ Tips To Get Your Resume Shortlisted For Top Tech Companies
- Should You Connect Your Devices to Free Wi-Fi?
- 5 Mind-Blowing Ways Facebook Uses Machine Learning
- 7 Steps to Getting Started With IoT
- 5 Mistakes To Avoid While Choosing Online Certifications
How to Write a Research Paper – A Complete Guide
You must have heard about Research Paper , right? But do you ever think about to write one? If yes, then you must come across various questions like, “What are the approaches for writing a Research Paper” or “What is the format of a Research Paper?” or many more. No worries!! In this article we will guide you about all the aspects of writing a Research Paper.
Firstly, let us understand what exactly a research paper is. A research paper is a piece of document written by students, professionals or others on a particular topic with a deep and genuine research study. However, writing a research paper is not a kind of task that has to be done in a few days. It takes a lot of research work and study. But you must note that the skills that you develop while writing a research paper will be very helpful to you in achieving your career goals. The approaches for Writing an Effective Research paper are listed below:
1. Choose the Topic
The first step while writing a research paper is to decide the topic. You can pen down various topics and can choose one of them as per your relevancy. While looking for a topic, you can ask several questions to yourself as – “Am I comfortable with this domain?” or “Will I be able to do deep research study of this topic?” or “What innovative stuff I can provide in this particular field?” , etc. And if you find a positive response from your side, go for that topic. Also, discuss the topic with your mentors and guides to know the worthiness of the topic.
2. Narrowing the Topic
After choosing the topic, you must check whether it is quite specific or general. If the topic is very broad, then you have to explore more to narrow down the topic as the research paper should be more topic-specific rather than being generic. You can consult with your mentor and guide regarding this.
3. Gather the Information
Here the most important part comes! You must have to dive into the world of research study. In today’s era, the Internet is the best source to get any information. Although, all the information provided on the Internet is not reliable so you have to explore more and more from various sources. It must be remembered that the research strategy should be in specific directions and meet the required objectives. There are various other sources from where you can get the relevant information as you can discuss it with your mentors, study the journals, etc.
4. Filtration and Drafting of Information
Once you have done with the information gathering process, now you have a lot of information about the topic. So what you have to do is deeply analyze the information and filter it down. You have to avoid all the unnecessary stuff for a genuine research paper. After filtration, there is a need to draft all the information in a structured way for final writing (it can be formal or informal) . In the drafting process, all the aspects are covered like information accuracy, no spelling error, no unnecessary information, etc. Also, proofread it once to check the relevancy of the content with the topic.
Now, you have to write all this gathered information in the Research Paper Outline which consists of:
Apart from the Research Paper, for any type of content, the title is the primary thing that grabs the attention of the readers. In numerous instances, the readers decide whether to read your article or not just by looking at the title. The title of the research paper should be very catchy and expressive. It must signify the main objective of the research paper in just a few words. A research paper generally has a title length of around 15-20 words. Also, try to avoid unnecessary phrases from the title such as ‘Research based on…’ or ‘Paper for…’ , etc.
The abstract is like a summary of your research paper. It helps the reader to understand what the research paper is all about by briefly explaining the key findings documented in the research paper. The word length of it should be around 200-250 words.
The ‘Introduction’ section must have adequate information about the topic which thoroughly depicts the purpose of your study. The topic should be clearly explained and the reason for the study of that particular topic can be described in this section. Also, try to explain the points that why your research paper is worth to study for your readers. Keep an eye on spelling and grammar mistakes and maintain the simplicity and accuracy of sentences and phrases.
4. Procedures and Methods
This section is the core of the Research Paper as your actual study work, research findings, methodologies, approaches and all are stated here. Be specific about your topic and try to avoid unnecessary information. You can use tables, flowcharts, pie charts, etc. for showing the statistics.
The ‘Result’ section consists of all the outcomes of your research. Here, all the outcomes of the research procedure are stated and noted down for further process. Analyze and filter the data obtained after performing research procedures and make it presentable in the form of tables, graphs or charts. The word length of this section can be varied as per the rest of the sections.
The ‘Conclusion’ section leads back to the introduction section as whatever you stated there, now you have to describe it evidently that how you achieved it. It will be based on the outcomes of the research study and methodologies (which you have already mentioned in the ‘Result’ section) . It is a summarization of the outcomes of your research work.
The ‘Recommendation’ section is not mandatory and it is created as per the requirement and relevancy with your research paper. But keep in mind that whatever you mention in this section, it must be logical and based on your research analysis. You just can’t throw random things, that you think might be useful, in this section.
In context of Research Paper , it will be beneficial to understand the scenario of ‘Scholarly Articles’ . Scholarly Articles refers to those journal articles which are written by scholars or someone who is an expert in a particular field. If you are looking for a research document for a specific topic, these articles prove to be very helpful and much more relevant. You can find these articles on Google Scholar .
Please Login to comment...
Please write us at contrib[email protected] to report any issue with the above content
Improve your Coding Skills with Practice
A Guide on How to Write a Manuscript for a Research Paper
This article teaches how to write a manuscript for a research paper and recommended practices to produce a well-written manuscript.
For scientists, publishing a research paper is a huge accomplishment; they typically spend a large amount of time researching the appropriate subject, the right material, and, most importantly, the right place to publish their hard work. To be successful in publishing a research paper, it must be well-written and meet all of the high standards.
Although there is no quick and easy method to get published, there are certain manuscript writing strategies that can help earn the awareness and visibility you need to get it published.
In this Mind The Graph step-by-step tutorial, we give practical directions on how to write a manuscript for a research paper, to increase your research as well as your chances of publishing.
What is the manuscript of a research paper?
A manuscript is a written, typed, or word-processed document submitted to a publisher by the researcher. Researchers meticulously create manuscripts to communicate their unique ideas and fresh findings to both the scientific community and the general public.
Overall, the manuscript must be outstanding and deeply represent your professional attitude towards work; it must be complete, rationally structured, and accurate. To convey the results to the scientific community while complying with ethical rules, scientific articles must use a specified language and structure.
Furthermore, the standards for title page information, abstract structure, reference style, font size, line spacing, margins, layout, and paragraph style must also be observed for effective publishing. This is a time-consuming and challenging technique, but it is worthwhile in the end.
How to structure a manuscript?
The first step in knowing how to write a manuscript for a research paper is understanding how the structure works.
Title or heading
A poorly chosen title may deter a potential reader from reading deeper into your manuscript. When an audience comes across your manuscript, the first thing they notice is the title, keep in mind that the title you choose might impact the success of your work.
Abstracts are brief summaries of your paper. The fundamental concept of your research and the issues you intend to answer should be contained within the framework of the abstract. The abstract is a concise summary of the research that should be considered a condensed version of the entire article.
The purpose of the research is disclosed in the body of the introduction. Background information is provided to explain why the study was conducted and the research’s development.
Methods and materials
The technical parts of the research have to be thoroughly detailed in this section. Transparency is required in this part of the research. Colleagues will learn about the methodology and materials you used to analyze your research, recreate it, and expand concepts further.
This is the most important portion of the paper. You should provide your findings and data once the results have been thoroughly discussed. Use an unbiased point of view here; but leave the evaluation for your final piece, the conclusion.
Finally, explain why your findings are meaningful. This section allows you to evaluate your results and reflect on your process. Remember that conclusions are expressed in a succinct way using words rather than figures. The content presented in this section should solely be based on the research conducted.
The reference list contains information that readers may use to find the sources you mentioned in your research. Your reference page is at the end of your piece. Keep in mind that each publication has different submission criteria. For effective reference authentication, journal requirements should be followed.
Steps on how to write a manuscript for a research paper
It is not only about the format while writing a successful manuscript, but also about the correct strategy to stand out above other researchers trying to be published. Consider the following steps to a well-written manuscript:
1. Read the author’s guide
Many journals offer a Guide for Authors kind of document, which is normally printed yearly and is available online. In this Guide for Authors, you will discover thorough information on the journal’s interests and scope, as well as information regarding manuscript types and more in-depth instructions on how to do the right formatting to submit your research.
2. Pay special attention to the methods and materials section
The section on methods and materials is the most important part of the research. It should explain precisely what you observed in the research. This section should normally be less than 1,000 words long. The methods and materials used should be detailed enough that a colleague could reproduce the study.
3. Identify and describe your findings
The second most crucial aspect of your manuscript is the findings. After you’ve stated what you observed (methods and materials), you should go through what you discovered. Make a note to organize your findings such that they make sense without further explanation.
4. The research’s face and body
In this part you need to produce the face and body of your manuscript, so do it carefully and thoroughly.
Ensure that the title page has all of the information required by the journal. The title page is the public face of your research and must be correctly structured to meet publication requirements.
Write an introduction that explains why you carried out the research and why anybody should be interested in the results (ask yourself “so what?”).
Concentrate on creating a clear and accurate reference page. As stated in step 1, you should read the author’s guide for the journal you intend to submit to thoroughly to ensure that your research reference page is correctly structured.
The abstract should be written just after the manuscript is finished. Follow the author’s guide and be sure to keep it under the word limit.
5. Rapid Rejection Criteria double-check
Now that you’ve completed the key aspects of your research, it’s time to double-check everything according to the Rapid Rejection Criteria. The “Rapid Rejection Criteria” are errors that lead to an instantaneous rejection. The criteria are:
- The answered question was not interesting enough
- The question has been satisfactorily answered before
- Wrong hypothesis
- The method cannot address the hypothesis
- Research is underpowered
- Contradictory manuscript
- The conclusion doesn’t support the data
Rewrite your manuscript now that you’ve finished it. Make yourself your fiercest critic. Consider reading the document loudly to yourself, keeping an ear out for any abrupt breaks in the logical flow or incorrect claims.
Your Creations, Ready within Minutes!
Aside from a step-by-step guide to writing a decent manuscript for your research, Mind The Graph includes a specialized tool for creating and providing templates for infographics that may maximize the potential and worth of your research. Check the website for more information.
Subscribe to our newsletter
Exclusive high quality content about effective visual communication in science.
About Jessica Abbadia
Jessica Abbadia is a lawyer that has been working in Digital Marketing since 2020, improving organic performance for apps and websites in various regions through ASO and SEO. Currently developing scientific and intellectual knowledge for the community's benefit. Jessica is an animal rights activist who enjoys reading and drinking strong coffee.
How to Write a Letter of Transmittal: Easy Steps (Examples)
By Status.net Editorial Team on November 15, 2023 — 11 minutes to read
- Key Components of a Letter of Transmittal Part 1
- How to Write a Letter of Transmittal: Step-By-Step Part 2
- Template: Letter of Transmittal Part 3
- Examples of Letters of Transmittal Part 4
- Example of a Transmittal Letter for an Engineering Report Part 5
- Sample Transmittal Letter Template for a Research Proposal Part 6
- Choosing the Appropriate Tone Part 7
- Frequently Asked Questions Part 8
A letter of transmittal is a document that often accompanies reports, proposals, or other work materials. Its primary purpose is to formally introduce the enclosed documents and provide context for the recipient. Think of it as a helpful guide or a brief overview of what’s included in the package. Writing a good letter of transmittal can set the stage for a positive experience with the materials that follow.
Part 1 Key Components of a Letter of Transmittal
A letter of transmittal serves as a cover letter for a document, report, or other material being submitted. It explains why you’re sending the document and provides context for the recipient. This helps them understand the value of what you’re sending and how it relates to their work or interests.
Address the letter to the appropriate person or people who will be receiving the material. This could be a single individual, a group, or even a department. Make sure you have the correct names and titles for each recipient. If you are unsure of who to address, it’s always safe to go with “Dear [Company_Name] Team.”
Briefly describe the document or materials you’re sending in the letter of transmittal. Give the reader a general idea of what they can expect to find when they dive in. Include the title of the document, the topic it covers, and any other pertinent details. This overview helps recipients understand the contents at a glance and gives them context for why it’s relevant to them.
If you’re sending a letter of transmittal as part of transitioning a project to a new team or department, outline any responsibilities that need to be handled by the recipients. Provide a clear list of tasks or duties they need to assume and any deadlines they should be aware of. This helps ensure nothing falls through the cracks during the transition.
Lastly, include your contact information in the letter of transmittal. This allows the recipient to get in touch with you if they have any questions, concerns, or need clarification on the material you’ve sent. Include your full name, job title, phone number, and email address, so they have multiple ways to reach you if needed.
Part 2 How to Write a Letter of Transmittal: Step-By-Step
- Begin by deciding on the main purpose of your letter of transmittal. This could be to convey important documents, share project details, or introduce a report. Remember the core message as you write.
- Next, gather all relevant information, such as contact details for both the sender and recipient, important dates, and any essential documents to be enclosed. Make sure your documents are accurate and up to date.
- Start off your letter by addressing the recipient formally. If you know their name, use it with a title like Mr., Mrs., or Dr. If you’re unsure, opt for a neutral greeting such as “To whom it may concern.”
- In your opening paragraph, briefly mention the purpose of the letter, and make a reference to any important documents or enclosed materials. For example: I am writing to provide you with the final report on Project X. Kindly find the attached documents, including the executive summary, budget sheets, and project timeline.
- Proceed by highlighting key points from the enclosed materials to help guide the recipient. Offer a concise overview without diving too deep into specifics. Example: This report details our project’s background, objectives, and strategies. We exceeded our initial goals and completed the project ahead of time and under budget. Your team’s collaboration was instrumental in this success.
- Always maintain a professional tone, but don’t forget to express gratitude. Acknowledge any support, assistance, or contributions from the recipient or their organization. For example: We’d like to extend our sincere appreciation for the expert advice and guidance provided by your team during Project X. Your input greatly influenced our strategies, contributing to the project’s success.
- As you wrap up the letter, offer assistance for any questions or clarification the recipient may need. Be accessible and provide multiple options for contacting you, such as email and phone. An example could be: Please do not hesitate to contact me should you have any questions or concerns about the enclosed documents. You can reach me via email at [email protected] or call me at (123) 456-7890.
- End your letter by reiterating your gratitude, signing off with a professional closing, and including your full name. Remember to proofread the letter for any errors or inconsistencies.
Part 3 Template: Letter of Transmittal
Dear [Recipient’s Name],
I hope this message finds you well. I am sending you the completed [Project Name] report as requested. Please find the report attached within this email.
The report outlines the findings for the key objectives we discussed, along with the recommended next steps. I kindly request that you share your feedback with me by [specific date] so we can finalize the report and move forward.
If you have any questions or need further clarification, please feel free to reach out to me via email or phone. I look forward to discussing the report with you in more detail.
[Your Name] [Your Title] [Your Contact Information]
Part 4 Examples of Letters of Transmittal
Now that you know how to write a letter of transmittal, let’s look at some examples to make the process even clearer. These examples will show you how to craft your letter, including the formatting and wording that you should use.
Please find enclosed our project proposal titled “…” which outlines our plan to improve the community’s infrastructure, green spaces, and overall quality of life.
The purpose of sending you this proposal is to seek your feedback and support as we strive to make this project a reality. We believe that your expertise and insights will greatly benefit our efforts, and we value your opinion. As you review the enclosed documents, please feel free to reach out to me with any questions or concerns you may have.
Thank you for your time and consideration. I look forward to discussing the proposal further with you.
[Your Typed Name]
Please find enclosed our report titled, “Improving Company Efficiency,” dated November 10, 2024. Our team has researched and analyzed various strategies for enhancing your company’s productivity and performance.
This report highlights several key findings and provides detailed recommendations for implementing changes. We have also included several case studies for your reference.
We would like to thank you and your team for your cooperation and assistance during our study. Your valuable input contributed significantly to the success of our analysis.
Please feel free to contact us if you have any questions or require further clarification. We look forward to discussing the report with you in more detail.
[Your Name] [Your Title] [Your Company]
Hey [Recipient’s Name],
We’re excited to share our latest analysis with you, “Maximizing Office Space Efficiency,” crafted on November 10, 2024. Our team dove deep into various space-saving tips and practices to help improve your office’s layout and functionality.
The report offers a solid foundation for adopting new approaches to your workspace. Plus, we’ve sprinkled in some fascinating real-life examples to show you these ideas in action.
A huge thanks to you and everyone involved for providing the resources and insights needed to make this report happen. We couldn’t have done it without you!
If anything catches your eye or leaves you wondering, don’t hesitate to give us a shout! We’re here for you and can’t wait to explore these recommendations together.
All the best,
Part 5 Example of a Transmittal Letter for an Engineering Report
Subject: Engineering Report – Project X
Dear Mr./Ms. [Recipient’s Last Name],
I am pleased to present the attached engineering report for Project X. The purpose of this report is to provide you with an analysis of the current design and recommendations for improvements. The report contains information on the project’s feasibility, design, and resources.
The main findings of the report include potential cost savings by using alternative materials and implementation of energy-efficient technologies. I kindly request you to review the report and provide feedback at your earliest convenience.
If you have any questions or require further clarification, please feel free to contact me. Thank you for your attention, and I look forward to discussing the report with you.
Part 6 Sample Transmittal Letter Template for a Research Proposal
To write a transmittal letter for a research proposal, consider these tips:
- Introduce the research proposal and mention its relevance to the recipient’s interests.
- Provide a brief overview of the key research questions and objectives.
- Mention any significant findings that may be of interest to the recipient.
- If appropriate, indicate your intention to request funding, collaboration, or support for the research.
- Offer to answer any questions and thank the recipient for their time.
Subject: Transmittal of Research Proposal on [Topic]
Dear [Recipient Name],
I am writing to transmit my research proposal titled “…” for your review and consideration.
This proposal examines [briefly state key research questions/objectives]. I believe the findings from this study could provide valuable insights into [explain relevance to recipient’s interests/organization].
Some preliminary results indicate [mention one significant finding of interest]. A full analysis is proposed in the attached research plan.
[If seeking funding/support:] I am requesting [amount/type of support] to conduct this [duration] study. Your support would help advance our understanding of [topic] and help [explain benefits].
Please let me know if you require any additional information. I am available to discuss the proposal further at your convenience. Thank you for your time and consideration.
[Your Name] [Your Title] [Your Organization]
Part 7 Choosing the Appropriate Tone
When writing a letter of transmittal, the tone you choose is a vital aspect to consider.
- First, think about the relationship between you and the recipient. Are you familiar with each other, or is this a new professional connection? Your relationship to the recipient will inform your tone, making it more formal or casual as required.
- For example, when sending a transmittal document to a new client or business partner, it’s appropriate to use a formal and polite tone. To do this, use professional language and avoid slang or overly casual phrases. Consider using phrases such as “I hereby attach the proposed contract” or “Enclosed, please find the financial report for your review.”
- On the other hand, if you’re writing to a well-established colleague, you can opt for a more casual yet respectful tone. Use words and phrases that are warm and friendly, like “I’ve attached the latest project update for you to check out” or “Here’s the design draft we discussed in our last meeting.”
- Maintaining a balance between being friendly and professional is important. Even if you’re using a casual tone, it’s important to retain a certain level of professionalism.
- In both scenarios, proper formatting and clear communication are essential. Use bulleted lists, numbered items, or bold text to emphasize important points and make your letter easy to follow. This way, your recipient can quickly locate the relevant information and easily understand the purpose of your letter.
Ensure you have a clear call-to-action so the reader knows what your expectations are. It could be as simple as requesting their approval of the enclosed documents or asking for feedback on the submitted proposal.
Part 8 Frequently Asked Questions
What are the main components of a letter of transmittal.
A letter of transmittal should include the following components:
- Contact details: Include your name, your recipient’s name, and both your addresses.
- Date: The date you are sending the letter.
- Project name or document title: Clearly state the title of the report or document that you’re transmitting.
- Purpose: Explain why you’re sending the document.
- Summary: Provide a brief description of the main points or findings of the document.
- Special instructions: If necessary, mention any particular steps or actions the recipient should take.
- Closing remarks: Include a salutation and close the letter with your name.
How do I create a clear and concise transmittal letter?
To create a clear and concise transmittal letter, follow these guidelines:
- Use short, simple sentences and avoid jargon.
- Clearly state the purpose of the document and your reason for sending it.
- Create a logical flow by organizing your thoughts in a structured manner.
- Check for grammatical errors and ensure your language is professional.
What’s the best way to format a letter of transmittal?
To format a letter of transmittal effectively, follow these steps:
- Align your text to the left side of the page.
- Use a 12-point, easy-to-read font.
- Add necessary line spaces between paragraphs.
- Include your contact details at the top of the letter, followed by the recipient’s details.
- Start with a friendly greeting and use formal language throughout.
How does a transmittal receipt differ from a letter of transmittal?
A transmittal receipt is a document that confirms the reception of materials, while a letter of transmittal introduces and accompanies the materials being sent. The transmittal receipt serves as proof that the materials have been received, while the letter of transmittal provides context and relevant information about those materials.
- How to Write an Effective Application Letter (Examples)
- How to Write a Letter of Employment (Templates, Examples)
- How to Ask for a Letter of Recommendation [Examples]
- How to Write Inspiring Core Values? 5 Steps with Examples
- How to Write a Perfect Apology Letter (Best Examples)
- How to Write a Perfect Proposal Letter: Step-by-Step (Examples)
How to Revise and Resubmit Rejected Manuscripts: A Step-by-Step Guide
Manuscript rejection can be hard, but it’s almost expected when you’re competing with thousands of other researchers trying to get their work published. While there are multiple options for researchers after manuscript rejection , most usually choose to prepare a revised manuscript and work to submit it either in the same or different journal. While it’s easy to feel overwhelmed and dejected, it’s essential to approach the revision and resubmission process with a constructive mindset. Here’s a step-by-step guide to help you revise and resubmit a rejected manuscript.
Table of Contents
Analyze and understand the feedback received, develop a manuscript revision plan, revise the content in your manuscript, enhance writing for clarity and coherence, address any ethical or technical concerns, do a final reformat and proofread, provide a comprehensive response letter, highlight changes in the manuscript, create a compelling cover letter, submit your revised manuscript, be prepared for possible reiteration.
Carefully review feedback and critique shared by peer reviewers and journal editors explaining why your manuscript didn’t make the cut . Be sure to keep your emotions in check and view the feedback objectively to identify constructive suggestions for improvement. Understanding the exact reasons for manuscript rejection will help you take the appropriate remedial measures.
The second step is to organize the feedback into priority levels, categorizing them into major concerns, medium-level issues, and minor problems. This will give you a clear picture of the amount of changes needed and allow you to address major concerns first before moving on to the minor issues. It helps to create a checklist based on the feedback so you don’t miss out on anything and can ensure that each point of concern is systematically addressed.
This is an opportunity for you to enhance your work, so pay special attention to areas that need improvement. Refine your introduction and research questions to clearly convey the significance of your work. Clarify your research methods, enhance data presentation, and address any statistical concerns. Strengthen the discussion section by addressing reviewer questions and incorporating additional relevant literature.
Once you’ve incorporated all the changes in the content, review the text and make edits to correct language and grammar, spelling, punctuation, and any wordy or complex sentences. Ensure the manuscript is well organized and written in a consistent style to improve overall clarity, coherence and readability.
If the feedback from the reviewers and editors raised any ethical or technical concerns, ensure that you take that into account. Resolve any technical problems such as formatting, referencing, or citation errors and do a check to ensure your revised manuscript complies with all the required ethical guidelines. Experts suggest seeking feedback from colleagues or mentors before finalizing the revised manuscript; this can help identify any issues that need to be addressed before resubmission.
One of the most important points is to ensure that your revised manuscript adheres to journal guidelines. If you plan to submit revised manuscripts to a new journal, your work may require substantial changes to align with the new journal’s formatting and submission guidelines. Do a final proofread to eliminate any grammatical errors, typos, and inconsistencies you may have overlooked.
It’s important to respond to feedback shared, so create a detailed response letter by acknowledging the suggestions for improvement received. Clearly outline how you have addressed each comment or concern raised by the reviewers or journal editors. If you choose not to implement a suggested change, provide a well-justified explanation in your response letter.
One of the most helpful things when resubmitting revised manuscripts is to highlight the changes made to allow for easy scan and checks by busy editors and reviewers. You can choose to use track changes in your word processing software to highlight revisions made to the manuscript based on the feedback shared and include a summary of major changes made in the response letter.
It’s important to have a cover letter when resubmitting your work after manuscript rejection. In the cover letter, succinctly communicate the significance of your work, mention the major revisions made in response to the feedback shared, and thank the reviewers and journal editors for the constructive suggestions and the opportunity to revise and enhance your work. These details can help convince the journal editor and reviewers that the revised manuscript is worth reconsidering.
Sometimes, journal editors provide you the option to revise and resubmit your manuscript, which means they are willing to re-consider your manuscript if you appropriately revise it based on reviewer comments. However, if the journal editor is not ready to reconsider your manuscript again, your next best option is to move on to submitting it to a new journal. In both cases, you will need to submit the revised manuscript through the journal’s submission system following their specific instructions. Ensure you submit all the required documents, including the revised manuscript, cover and response letters, and any other documents requested by the journal.
Despite submitting a revised manuscript, you need to recognize that there may be additional feedback in the review process. So keep your mind open to the possibility of future iterations and address additional revisions as needed to ensure your work is accepted for publication.
Approaching the revision and resubmission process methodically and professionally increases the likelihood of acceptance, whether you’re submitting to the same journal or a different one. Each round of revision brings your manuscript one step closer to publication. Revising and resubmitting a manuscript takes time and effort; by following these steps above, authors can increase their chances of acceptance and move closer to publication success.
Paperpal is an AI academic writing assistant that helps authors write better and faster with real-time writing suggestions and in-depth checks for language and grammar correction. Trained on millions of published scholarly articles and 20+ years of STM experience, Paperpal delivers human precision at machine speed.
Try it for free or upgrade to Paperpal Prime , which unlocks unlimited access to Paperpal Copilot and premium features like academic translation, paraphrasing, contextual synonyms, consistency checks, submission readiness and more. It’s like always having a professional academic editor by your side! Go beyond limitations and experience the future of academic writing. Get Paperpal Prime now at just US$19 a month!
What next after manuscript rejection 5 options for researchers, 5 reasons for rejection after peer review.
- How to Write a Conclusion for Research Papers (with Examples)
7 Ways to Improve Your Academic Writing Process
Paraphrasing in academic writing: answering top author queries, you may also like, what next after manuscript rejection 5 options for..., chemistry terms: 7 commonly confused words in chemistry..., how to write a conclusion for research papers..., paperpal copilot is live: experience the generative ai..., ethical research practices for research with human subjects, life sciences papers: 9 tips for authors writing..., how to write a research question: types and....
DeepMind and YouTube release Lyria, a gen-AI model for music, and Dream Track to build AI tunes
Back in January, Google made some waves — soundwaves, that is — when it quietly released some research on AI-based music creation software that built tunes based on word prompts. Today, its sister business Google DeepMind went several steps further — it has announced a new music generation model called Lyria that will work in conjunction with YouTube , and two new toolsets it’s describing as “experiments” built on Lyria: Dream Track lets you create music for YouTube Shorts, and Music AI is a set of tools that it says are aimed at helping with the creative process (for example, building a tune out of a snipped that a creator might hum). Alongside these, DeepMind said it’s adapting SynthID — used to mark AI images — to watermark AI music, too.
The new tools are being released at a time when AI continues to court controversy in the world of creative arts. It was a key subject at the heart of the Screen Actors Guild strike (which finally ended this month). And in music, while everyone knew Ghostwriter used AI to mimic Drake and The Weeknd, the question you have to ask is whether AI creation will become more of the norm in the future.
With the new tools getting announced today, the first priority for DeepMind and YouTube appears to be creating tech that helps AI music stay credible, both as a complement to creators today, but also just in the most aesthetic sense of sounding like music.
As Google’s past efforts have shown, one detail that often emerges is that the longer one listens to AI-generated music, the more distorted and surreal it starts to sound, moving further from the intended outcome. As DeepMind explained today, that’s in part because of the complexity of information that is going into music models, covering beats, notes, harmonies and more.
“When generating long sequences of sound, it’s difficult for AI models to maintain musical continuity across phrases, verses or extended passages,” DeepMind noted today. “Since music often includes multiple voices and instruments at the same time, it’s much harder to create than speech.”
It’s notable, then, that some of the first applications of the model are appearing in shorter pieces.
Dream Track is initially rolling out to a limited set of creators to build 30-second AI-generated soundtracks in the “voice and musical style of artists including Alec Benjamin, Charlie Puth, Charli XCX, Demi Lovato, John Legend, Sia, T-Pain, Troye Sivan, and Papoose.”
The creator enters a topic, choosing an artist; a track with lyrics, backing tracks and the voice of the selected musician are used to create the 30-second piece, which is intended to be used with Shorts. Here’s an example of a Charlie Puth track:
YouTube and DeepMind are clear to point out that these artists are involved in the project, helping test the models and giving other input.
Lyor Cohen and Toni Reed, respectively head of music for YouTube and its VP of emerging experiences and community projects, note that the set of Music AI tools that are getting released are coming out of the company’s Music AI Incubator, a group of artists, songwriters and producers working on testing and giving feedback on projects.
“It was clear early on that this initial group of participants were intensely curious about AI tools that could push the limits of what they thought possible,” they note. “They also sought out tools that could bolster their creative process.”
While Dream Track is getting a limited release today, the Music AI tools are only going to get rolled out later this year, they said. DeepMind teased three areas that they will cover: creating music in a specified instrument, or creating a whole set of instrumentation, based on humming a tune; using chords that you build on a simple MIDI keyboard to create a whole choir or other ensemble; and building backing and instrumental tracks for a vocal line that you might already have. (Or, in fact, a combination using all three of those, starting just with a simple hum.)
In music, Google and Ghostwriter are, of course, not alone. Among others that are rolling out tools, Meta open sourced an AI music generator in June; Stability AI launched one in September; and startups like Riffusion are also raising money for their efforts in the genre. The music industry is scrambling to prepare, too .