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Exploring Advanced Settings on Your Router Admin Panel at 192.168.1.1
The admin panel of your router is a powerful tool that allows you to configure and customize various settings to enhance your network experience. One commonly used IP address to access the router admin panel is 192.168.1.1, which provides access to a wide range of advanced settings for your router. In this article, we will explore some of the key features and functionalities available on the admin panel at 192.168.1.1.
Accessing the Admin Panel at 192.168.1.1
To access the admin panel of your router, open a web browser and type “http://192.168.1.1” in the address bar, then press enter or click go. This will take you to the login page where you need to enter your username and password.
If you haven’t changed these credentials before, try using “admin” as both the username and password, as it is commonly used as default login information for many routers.
Once logged in, you will be able to explore various sections and options available on the admin panel.
The wireless settings section allows you to configure your Wi-Fi network according to your specific requirements.
Here, you can change your network name (SSID) to something more personalized or easily identifiable for yourself and other users connecting to your network.
You can also set up security protocols such as WPA2-PSK (Wi-Fi Protected Access II with Pre-Shared Key), which provides strong encryption for securing your wireless network from unauthorized access.
Additionally, in this section, you can adjust channel settings to reduce interference from neighboring networks or optimize signal strength by selecting an appropriate channel width.
In the network settings section, you have control over various aspects related to IP addresses and internet connectivity.
One important feature available here is DHCP (Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol), which automatically assigns IP addresses to devices connected to your network. You can enable or disable DHCP, as well as set a specific IP address range for your network.
If you have multiple routers in your network, the admin panel at 192.168.1.1 also allows you to configure them as access points or repeaters to extend the coverage of your Wi-Fi signal.
Furthermore, this section provides options for configuring DNS (Domain Name System) settings, enabling port forwarding, and setting up virtual private networks (VPNs) for secure remote access to your home or office network.
Parental Controls and Security
The admin panel at 192.168.1.1 also offers a wide range of parental controls and security features to ensure a safe and secure internet experience.
Parental controls allow you to restrict access to certain websites or set specific time limits for internet usage for individual devices connected to your network. This feature is particularly useful for parents who want to monitor and control their children’s online activities.
In terms of security, the admin panel provides options for setting up firewalls, enabling MAC address filtering, and configuring virtual local area networks (VLANs) to isolate devices on your network from each other.
Additionally, you can enable intrusion detection systems (IDS) or intrusion prevention systems (IPS) that help protect your network from malicious attacks and unauthorized access attempts.
Exploring the advanced settings available on the admin panel at 192.168.1.1 can greatly enhance your router’s performance and security while providing more control over your network environment.
From wireless settings that optimize signal strength and protect against unauthorized access to parental controls that ensure a safe browsing experience for children, the admin panel offers an array of features that cater to various needs and preferences.
Take some time to familiarize yourself with these advanced settings on the admin panel at 192.168.1.1, and make the most out of your router’s capabilities for a seamless and secure network experience.
This text was generated using a large language model, and select text has been reviewed and moderated for purposes such as readability.
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Table of Contents
IPv6 is the new version of the most important Network Layer Protocol IP. With this new IP version, IPv6, beside different features, some configuration differencies are also coming. In this lesson, we will focus on these IPv6 Configuration Steps, IPv6 Configuration on Cisco devices . We will use the below Packet Tracer topology for our IPv6 Config .
You can download Packet Tracer IPv6 Lab , in Packet Tracer Labs page.
In this configuration lesson, we will follow the below IPv6 Configuration steps :
Enable IPv6 Globally
Enable ipv6 on interface, configure eui-64 format global unicast address, configure manual global unicast address, manual link local address configuration, auto ipv6 address configuration, enable dhcpv6 client, ipv6 verification commands.
So, let’s go to the IPv6 Configuration steps and configure IPv6 for Cisco routers .
After going to the configuration mode with “ configure terminal ” command, to enable IPv6 on a Cisco router, “ ipv6 unicast-routing ” command is used. With this Cisco command, IPv6 is enabled globally on the router. This can be used before both interface configurations and IPv6 Routing Protocol configurations.
Router 1# configure terminal Router 1(config)# ipv6 unicast-routing Router 2# configure terminal Router 2(config)# ipv6 unicast-routing
After enabling IPv6 globally, we should enable IPv6 under the Interfaces. To enable IPv6 under an interface, we will use “ ipv6 enable ” command. Let’s enable IPv6 on two interfaces of each router.
Router 1 (config)# interface FastEthernet0/0 Router 1 (config-if)# ipv6 enable Router 1 (config-if)# no shutdown Router 1 (config)# interface FastEthernet0/1 Router 1 (config-if)# ipv6 enable Router 1 (config-if)# no shutdown
Router 2 (config)# interface FastEthernet0/0 Router 2 (config-if)# ipv6 enable Router 2 (config-if)# no shutdown Router 2 (config)# interface FastEthernet0/1 Router 2 (config-if)# ipv6 enable Router 2 (config-if)# no shutdown
EUI-64 format is the IPv6 format used to create IPv6 Global Unicast Addresses . It is a specific format that we have also talked about before. With this format, basically, interface id of the whole IPv6 adderess is ceated with the help of the MAC address. After that, this created interface id is appended to the network id.
To configure an interface with EUI-64 format (Extended Unique Identifier), firstly we will go under the interface, then we will use “ ip address ipv6-address/prefix-length eui-64 ” command. Here, our IPv6 address and prefix-length are 2001:AAAA:BBBB:CCCC::/64. The real EUI-64 Global Unicast Address will be created with this address and MAC address after IPv6 configuration.
Router 1 (config)# interface FastEthernet0/0 Router 1(config-if)# ipv6 address 2001:AAAA:BBBB:CCCC::/64 eui-64 Router 1(config-if)# end
Let’s check the IPv6 address that is created with EUI-64 format with “ show ipv6 interface brief ” command.
Router 1# show ipv6 interface brief FastEthernet0/0 [up/up] FE80::2E0:B0FF:FE0E:7701 2001:AAAA:BBBB:CCCC:2E0:B0FF:FE0E:7701 FastEthernet0/1 [up/up] FE80::2E0:B0FF:FE0E:7702 Vlan1 [administratively down/down] unassigned
If we do not use EUI-64 format address, we have to write the whole IPv6 Address to the configuration line. Let’s configure Gigabit Ethernet 0/0 interface of Router 2 manually .
Router 2 (config)# interface FastEthernet0/0 Router 2 (config-if)# ipv6 address 2001:AAAA:BBBB:CCCC:1234:1234:1234:1234/64 Router 2(config-if)# end
Here, both of these directly connected interfaces are in the same subnet, the Network ID is same (2001:AAAA:BBBB:CCCC::/64).
Let’s check the IPv6 address that we have manually assigned with “ show ipv6 interface brief ” command.
Router 2# show ipv6 interface brief FastEthernet0/0 [up/up] FE80::206:2AFF:FE15:BD01 2001:AAAA:BBBB:CCCC:1234:1234:1234:1234 FastEthernet0/1 [administratively up/up] FE80::206:2AFF:FE15:BD02 Vlan1 [administratively down/down] unassigned
To check the connectivity between two node, we use ping. As IPv4, with IPv6, we also use ping, but this time it is called IPv6 Ping . The format of IPv6 Ping is a little difference than IPv4 Ping. These differences are the format of the used IP address and the used keywords. With IPv6 Ping , “ ping ipv6 ” keywords are used before the destination IPv6 address.
Here, we will ping from Router 1 GigabitEthernet0/0 interface to Router 2 GigabitEthernet0/0 interface.
Router 1# ping ipv6 2001:AAAA:BBBB:CCCC:1234:1234:1234:1234 Type escape sequence to abort. Sending 5, 100-byte ICMP Echos to 2001:AAAA:BBBB:CCCC:1234:1234:1234:1234, timeout is 2 seconds: !!!!! Success rate is 100 percent (5/5), round-trip min/avg/max = 0/0/1 ms
To check the configured IPv6 Address, we can use “ show ipv6 interface interface-name ” command.
Router 1# show ipv6 interface FastEthernet0/0 FastEthernet0/0 is up, line protocol is up IPv6 is enabled, link-local address is FE80::2E0:B0FF:FE0E:7701 No Virtual link-local address(es): Global unicast address(es): 2001:AAAA:BBBB:CCCC:2E0:B0FF:FE0E:7701 , subnet is 2001:AAAA:BBBB:CCCC::/64 [EUI] Joined group address(es): FF02::1 FF02::2 FF02::1:FF0E:7701 MTU is 1500 bytes ICMP error messages limited to one every 100 milliseconds ICMP redirects are enabled ICMP unreachables are sent ND DAD is enabled, number of DAD attempts: 1 ND reachable time is 30000 milliseconds ND advertised reachable time is 0 (unspecified) ND advertised retransmit interval is 0 (unspecified) ND router advertisements are sent every 200 seconds ND router advertisements live for 1800 seconds ND advertised default router preference is Medium Hosts use stateless autoconfig for addresses.
Router 2# show ipv6 interface FastEthernet0/0 FastEthernet0/0 is up, line protocol is up IPv6 is enabled, link-local address is FE80::206:2AFF:FE15:BD01 No Virtual link-local address(es): Global unicast address(es): 2001:AAAA:BBBB:CCCC:1234:1234:1234:1234 , subnet is 2001:AAAA:BBBB:CCCC::/64 Joined group address(es): FF02::1 FF02::2 FF02::1:FF15:BD01 FF02::1:FF34:1234 MTU is 1500 bytes ICMP error messages limited to one every 100 milliseconds ICMP redirects are enabled ICMP unreachables are sent ND DAD is enabled, number of DAD attempts: 1 ND reachable time is 30000 milliseconds ND advertised reachable time is 0 (unspecified) ND advertised retransmit interval is 0 (unspecified) ND router advertisements are sent every 200 seconds ND router advertisements live for 1800 seconds ND advertised default router preference is Medium Hosts use stateless autoconfig for addresses.
Here, with ipv6 ping, there are some options that we can use. These are given below:
ping ipv6 [hostname | ip_address] [repeat repeat-count | size datagram-size | source [ interface-name | source-address ]
- repeat : Ping packet count. The default ping repeat value is 5.
- size : Datagram size. The default value ping size is 56 bytes.
- source : Source Address of the ping. Default value is None.
So if we would like to send 10 IPv6 ping packet with 200 byte datagrams from 2001:AAAA:BBBB:CCCC:1234:1234:1234:1234 to 2001:AAAA:BBBB:CCCC:1111:2222:3333:4444, we will use the below command:
Router 2 # ping ipv6 2001:AAAA:BBBB:CCCC:1111:2222:3333:4444 repeat 10 size 200 source 2001:AAAA:BBBB:CCCC:1234:1234:1234:1234
To configure a Link Locak address manually, we use “ ipv6 address link-local ipv6-address ” command. Here, we should write an IPv6 address in the range of Link Local addresses. If you would like to learn more about a Link Local Address, you can check Link Local Address lesson.
Let’s configure GigabitEthernet0/1 interface of Router 1 with Link Local Address FE80::AAAA:BBBB:CCCC:DDDD. Here, there is no need to write a prefix length but we will add link-local keyword at the end of the command.
Router 1 (config)# interface FastEthernet0/1 Router 1 (config-if)# ipv6 address FE80::AAAA:BBBB:CCCC:DDDD link-local Router 1 (config-if)# end
Let’s check the manually configure ipv6 Link-Local address with “ show ipv6 interface brief ” command.
Router 1# show ipv6 interface brief FastEthernet0/0 [up/up] FE80::2E0:B0FF:FE0E:7701 2001:AAAA:BBBB:CCCC:2E0:B0FF:FE0E:7701 FastEthernet0/1 [administratively down/down] FE80::AAAA:BBBB:CCCC:DDDD Vlan1 [administratively down/down] unassigned
IPv6 Addresses can be configured automatically. This is one of the most important characteristics coming with IPv6. For IPv6 Auto configuration , we will use “ ipv6 address autoconfig ” command. Let’s use it on Router 2 on GigabitEthernet0/1.
Router 2 (config)# interface FastEthernet0/1 Router 2 (config-if)# ipv6 address autoconfig Router 2 (config-if)# end
This type of IPv6 address configuration is Sateless Auto Configuration .
Let’s check the Autoconfigured Link-Local ipv6 address with “ show ipv6 interface brief ” command.
Router 2# show ipv6 interface brief FastEthernet0/0 [up/up] FE80::206:2AFF:FE15:BD01 2001:AAAA:BBBB:CCCC:1234:1234:1234:1234 FastEthernet0/1 [up/down] FE80::206:2AFF:FE15:BD02 Vlan1 [administratively down/down] unassigned
Let’s ping from Router 2 to Router 1 to test this second interfaces’ ipv6 connection.
Router 2# ping ipv6 FE80::AAAA:BBBB:CCCC:DDDD Output Interface: FastEthernet0/1 Type escape sequence to abort. Sending 5, 100-byte ICMP Echos to FE80::AAAA:BBBB:CCCC:DDDD, timeout is 2 seconds: !!!!! Success rate is 100 percent (5/5), round-trip min/avg/max = 0/0/1 ms
To enable DHCPv6 Client function on an interface, we use “ ipv6 address dhcp ” command under this interface. With this command, interface gets its IPv6 address form the DHCPv6 server . Let’s enable DHCPv6 on GigabitEthernet0/2 of Router 2.
Router 1 (config)# interface FastEthernet0/1 Router 1 (config-if)# ipv6 address dhcp Router 1 (config)# end
To verify DHCPv6 enabled interfaces, we can use “ show ipv6 dhcp interface ” command.
Router 1 # show ipv6 dhcp interface
To verify IPv6 Configuration, we can use different show commands. These IPv6 show commands are given below
- To check IPv6 interface configuration and status we use “ show ipv6 interface interface-id ”.
Router 1# show ipv6 interface FastEthernet0/0 FastEthernet0/0 is up, line protocol is up IPv6 is enabled, link-local address is FE80::2E0:B0FF:FE0E:7701 No Virtual link-local address(es): Global unicast address(es): 2001:AAAA:BBBB:CCCC:2E0:B0FF:FE0E:7701, subnet is 2001:AAAA:BBBB:CCCC::/64 [EUI] Joined group address(es): FF02::1 FF02::2 FF02::1:FF0E:7701 MTU is 1500 bytes ICMP error messages limited to one every 100 milliseconds ICMP redirects are enabled ICMP unreachables are sent ND DAD is enabled, number of DAD attempts: 1 ND reachable time is 30000 milliseconds ND advertised reachable time is 0 (unspecified) ND advertised retransmit interval is 0 (unspecified) ND router advertisements are sent every 200 seconds ND router advertisements live for 1800 seconds ND advertised default router preference is Medium Hosts use stateless autoconfig for addresses.
- To check IPv6 neighbor cache entries we use “ show ipv6 neighbors ”.
Router 1# show ipv6 neighbors IPv6 Address Age Link-layer Addr State Interface 2001:AAAA:BBBB:CCCC:1234:1234:1234:1234 23 0006.2A15.BD01 REACH Fa0/0 FE80::206:2AFF:FE15:BD02 7 0006.2A15.BD02 REACH Fa0/1
- To check IPv6 Routing Table we use “ show ipv6 route ”.
Router 1# show ipv6 route IPv6 Routing Table – 3 entries Codes: C – Connected, L – Local, S – Static, R – RIP, B – BGP U – Per-user Static route, M – MIPv6 I1 – ISIS L1, I2 – ISIS L2, IA – ISIS interarea, IS – ISIS summary O – OSPF intra, OI – OSPF inter, OE1 – OSPF ext 1, OE2 – OSPF ext 2 ON1 – OSPF NSSA ext 1, ON2 – OSPF NSSA ext 2 D – EIGRP, EX – EIGRP external C 2001:AAAA:BBBB:CCCC::/64 [0/0] via ::, FastEthernet0/0 L 2001:AAAA:BBBB:CCCC:2E0:B0FF:FE0E:7701/128 [0/0] via ::, FastEthernet0/0 L FF00::/8 [0/0] via ::, Null0
- To check IPv6 DHCP we use “ show ipv6 dhcp ”.
Router 1# show ipv6 dhcp This device’s DHCPv6 unique identifier (DUID): 0003000100E0B00E7701
- To check IPv6 Protocols we use “ show ipv6 protocols ”.
Router 1# show ipv6 protocols IPv6 Routing Protocol is “connected” IPv6 Routing Protocol is “static
Questions For IPv6 Configuration
Question 1: with which command do we enable ipv6 globally for ipv6 configuration.
a) ipv6 enable
b) ipv6 unicast-routing
c) ipv6 no shutdown
d) ipv6 run
Question 2: Which command enables IPv6 under an interface?
Question 3: which command enables auto ipv6 addressing under an interface .
a) ipv6 auto
d) ipv6 address autoconfig
e) ipv6 run
Question 4: Which command enables DHCPv6 under an interface?
a) ipv6 auto dhcp
b) ipv6 address dhcp
c) ipv6 address autoconfig
d) ipv6 dhcp run
e) ipv6 dhcp on
Question 5: How to send 20 ping packet to 001:AAAA:BBBB:CCCC:1111:2222:3333:4444 address?
a) ping ipv6 2001:AAAA:BBBB:CCCC:1111:2222:3333:4444 source 20
b) ping ipv6 2001:AAAA:BBBB:CCCC:1111:2222:3333:4444 size 20
c) ping ipv6 2001:AAAA:BBBB:CCCC:1111:2222:3333:4444 repeat 20
Answers: 1) b 2) a 3) d 4) b 5) c
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7. Configuring an IPv6 Network (Tasks)
Configuring an IPv6 Interface
Enabling IPv6 on an Interface (Task Map)
How to Enable an IPv6 Interface for the Current Session
How to Enable Persistent IPv6 Interfaces
How to Turn Off IPv6 Address Autoconfiguration
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- Infra Status
IPv6 router guide
This guide provides details on setting up IPv6 routing on a Gentoo Linux system.
- 1.2.1 Additional software
- 1.3 Confirming IPv6 status
- 2.1 Obtaining an address and prefix
- 2.2 Enable forwarding
- 2.3 Stateless configuration
- 2.4 Stateful configuration
- 2.5.1 OpenRC
- 3.1 IPv6 and DNS
- 3.2 BIND configuration
- 3.3 DJBDNS configuration
- 4.1 Using radvd
- 5.1 Package is missing IPv6 support
- 7 External resources
Any kernels version v2.6.0 or higher can support IPv6 .
There are a few packages which specifically deal with IPv6 items. Most of these are located in the net-misc category.
Confirming IPv6 status
If IPv6 is enabled, the loopback device should show an IPv6 address:
Obtaining an address and prefix.
dhcpcd can be used to obtain a single /128 address for the WAN interface, and a /64 prefix for the LAN interface:
IPv6 packet forwarding must be enabled in kernel before a system can function as a router, this can be done using sysctl :
To assign IPv6 addresses to clients, the IPv6 specification allows for both stateless and stateful IP assignment. Stateless assignment uses a process called Router Advertisement and allows clients to obtain an IP and a default route by simply bringing an interface up. It is called "stateless" because there is no record of IPs assigned and the host they are assigned to. Stateful assignment is handled by DHCPv6. It is "stateful" because the server keeps a state of the clients who have requested IPs and received them.
Stateless configuration is easily accomplished using the Router Advertisement Daemon, or radvd :
/etc/radvd.conf is used to configure radvd , and is not created by default. If the prefix is left empty, the prefix assigned to the interface will be used:
To have a stateful configuration, install and configure net-misc/dibbler .
Configure the dibbler client by editing /etc/dibbler/client.conf .
Now start the dibbler client, and configure it to start at boot:
To start radvd and start it on boot:
IPv6 and DNS
Just as DNS for IPv4 uses A records, DNS for IPv6 uses AAAA records. (This is because IPv4 is an address space of 2^32 while IPv6 is an address space of 2^128). For reverse DNS, the INT standard is deprecated but still widely supported. ARPA is the latest standard. Support for the ARPA format will be described here.
Recent versions of BIND include excellent IPv6 support. This section will assume at least minimal knowledge about the configuration and use of BIND. We will assume that bind is not running in a chroot. If this assumption is wrong, simply append the chroot prefix to most of the paths in the following section.
First add entries for both forward and reverse DNS zone files in /etc/bind/named.conf .
Now zone files and entries will need added for all hosts:
There are currently some third-party patches available to the net-dns/djbdns package that allow it to do IPv6 name serving. DJBDNS can be installed with these patches by emerging it with ipv6 in the USE variable.
After djbdns is installed, it can be setup by running tinydns-setup and answering a few questions about which IP addresses to bind to, where to install tinydns, etc.
Assuming tinydns has been installed into /var/tinydns , edit /var/tinydns/root/data . This file will contain all the data needed to get tinydns handling DNS for the IPv6 delegation.
Lines prefixed with a 6 will have both an AAAA and a PTR record created. Those prefixed with a 3 will only have an AAAA record created. Besides manually editing the data file, it is possible to use the scripts add-host6 and add-alias6 to add new entries. After changes are made to the data file, simply run make from /var/tinydns/root . This will create /var/tinydns/root/data.cfb , which tinydns will use as its source of information for DNS requests.
Clients behind this router should now be able to connect to the rest of the net via IPv6. If using radvd, configuring hosts should be as easy as bringing the interface up. (This is probably already done by the net.ethX init scripts).
Should this not work ensure that the IPv6 firewall is allowing ICMPv6 packets through:
Package is missing ipv6 support.
Packages will typically emerge with the ipv6 USE flag, but if IPv6 is not working on a specific program, checking that it is built with that is a good first step.
There are many excellent resources online pertaining to IPv6.
- www.ipv6.org - General IPv6 information
- www.linux-ipv6.org/ - USAGI project
- www.deepspace6.net - Linux/IPv6 site
- www.kame.net - *BSD implementation
On IRC, try the #ipv6 ( webchat ) channel on Libera.Chat . Connect to the Libera.Chat servers using an IPv6 enabled client by connecting to irc.ipv6.libera.chat.
This page is based on a document formerly found on our main website gentoo.org . The following people contributed to the original document: Peter Johanson, Jorge Paulo, Camille Huot, Pasi Valminen, , Markos Chandras (Hwoarang) They are listed here because wiki history does not allow for any external attribution. If you edit the wiki article, please do not add yourself here; your contributions are recorded on each article's associated history page.
- Network management
How to enable IPv6 Routing protocol in Cisco Router
This tutorial explains how to configure IPv6 routing in Cisco router through EIGRPv6 and OSPFv3 protocol including how to configure dual stacking and IPv4 to IPv6 tunneling in detail with packet tracer example.
This is the most common type of migration strategy because, it's the easiest on us—it allows our devices to communicate using either IPv4 or IPv6. Dual stacking lets you upgrade your devices and applications on the network one at a time. As more and more hosts and devices on the network are upgraded, more of your communication will happen over IPv6, and after you've arrived—everything's running on IPv6, and you get to remove all the old IPv4 protocol stacks you no longer need.
Plus, configuring dual stacking on a Cisco router is amazingly easy—all you have to do is enable IPv6 forwarding and apply an address to the interfaces already configured with IPv4. It will look something like this:
6to4 tunneling is really useful for carrying IPv6 data over a network that's still IPv4. It's quite possible that you'll have IPv6 subnets or other portions of your network that are all IPv6, and those networks will have to communicate with each other. Not so complicated, but when you consider that you might find this happening over a WAN or some other network that you don't control, well, that could be a bit ugly.
So what do we do about this if we don't control the whole network? Create a tunnel that will carry the IPv6 traffic for us across the IPv4 network, that's what.
The whole idea of tunneling isn't a difficult concept, and creating tunnels really isn't as hard as you might think. All it really comes down to is snatching the IPv6 packet that's happily traveling across the network and sticking an IPv4 header onto the front of it.
configure the tunnel on each router:
To use IPv6 on your router, you must, at a minimum, enable the protocol and assign IPv6 addresses to your interfaces, like this:
The ipv6 unicast-routing command globally enables IPv6 and must be the first IPv6 command executed on the router. The ipv6 address command assigns the prefix, the length, and the use of EUI-64 to assign the interface ID. Optionally, you can omit the eui-64 parameter and configure the entire IPv6 address. You can use the show ipv6 interface command to verify an interface’s configuration. Here’s an example configuration, with its verification:
By default, IPv6 traffic forwarding is disabled, so using this command enables it. Also, as you’ve probably guessed, IPv6 isn’t enabled by default on any interfaces either, so we have to go to each interface individually and enable it. There are a few different ways to do this, but a really easy way is to just add an address to the interface. You use the interface configuration command ipv6 address <ipv6prefix>/ <prefix-length > [eui-64] to get this done.
To set up a static DNS resolution table on the router, use the ipv6 host command; you can also specify a DNS server with the ip name-server command:
The ip name-server command can be used to assign both IPv4 and IPv6 DNS servers.
Routing and IPv6
As in IPv4, routers in IPv6 find best paths to destinations based on metrics and administrative distances; and like IPv4, IPv6 routers look for the longest matching prefix in the IPv6 routing table to forward a packet to its destination. The main difference is that the IPv6 router is looking at 128 bits when making a routing decision instead of 32 bits.
Routing Information Protocol next generation (RIPng) is actually similar to RIP for IPv4, with these characteristics:
- It's a distance vector protocol.
- The hop-count limit is 15.
- Split horizon and poison reverse are used to prevent routing loops.
- It is based on RIPv2.
- Cisco routers running 12.2(2) T and later support RIPng.
These are the enhancements in RIPng:
- An IPv6 packet is used to transport the routing update.
- The ALL-RIP routers multicast address (FF02::9) is used as the destination address in routing
advertisements and is delivered to UDP port 521.
- Routing updates contain the IPv6 prefix of the router and the next-hop IPv6 address.
Enabling RIPng is a little bit different than enabling RIP for IPv4. First, you use the ipv6 router rip tag command to enable RIPng globally:
This takes you into a subcommand mode, where you can change some of the global values for RIPng, such as disabling split horizon, the administrative distance, and timers. The tag is a locally significant identifier used to differentiate between multiple RIP processes running on the router. Unlike RIP for IPv6, there is no network command to include interfaces in RIPng. Instead, you must enable RIPng on a per-interface basis with the ipv6 rip tag enable command:
The tag parameter associates the interface with the correct RIPng routing process. To view the routing protocol configuration, use the show ipv6 rip command:
In this example, the tag is RIPPROC1 for the name of the RIPng routing process and RIPng is enabled on FastEthernet0/0. To view the IPv6 routing table for RIPng, use the show ipv6 route rip command.
The 12 in the interface command again references the AS number that was enabled in the configuration mode. Last to check out in our group is what OSPF looks like in the IPv6 routing protocol.
As with RIPng, EIGRPv6 works much the same as its IPv4 predecessor does—most of the features that EIGRP provided before EIGRPv6 will still be available.
EIGRPv6 is still an advanced distance-vector protocol that has some link-state features. The neighbor discovery process using hellos still happens, and it still provides reliable communication with reliable transport protocol that gives us loop-free fast convergence using the Diffusing Update Algorithm (DUAL) .
Hello packets and updates are sent using multicast transmission, and as with RIPng, EIGRPv6’s multicast address stayed almost the same.
In IPv4 it was 22.214.171.124; in IPv6, it’s FF02::A (A = 10 in hexadecimal notation). But obviously, there are differences between the two versions. Most notably, and just as with RIPng, the use of the network command is gone, and the network and interface to be advertised must be enabled from interface configuration mode.
But you still have to use the router configuration mode to enable the routing protocol in EIGRPv6 because the routing process must be literally turned on like an interface with the no shutdown command The configuration for EIGRPv6 is going to look like this:
The 12 in this case is still the autonomous system (AS) number. The prompt changes to (config-rtr), and from here you must perform a no shutdown:
Other options also can be configured in this mode, like redistribution. So now, let's go to the interface and enable IPv6:
The new version of OSPF continues the trend of the routing protocols having many similarities with their IPv4 versions. The foundation of OSPF remains the same—it is still a link-state routing protocol that divides an entire internetworks or autonomous system into areas, making a hierarchy. In OSPF version 2, the router ID (RID) is determined by the highest IP addresses assigned to the router (or you could assign it).
In version 3, you assign the RID, area ID, and link-state ID, which are all still 32-bit values but are not found using the IP address anymore because an IPv6 address is 128 bits. Changes regarding how these values are assigned, along with the removal of the IP address information from OSPF packet headers, makes the new version of OSPF capable of being routed over almost any Network layer protocol!
Adjacencies and next-hop attributes now use link-local addresses, and OSPFv3 still uses multicast traffic to send its updates and acknowledgments, with the addresses FF02::5 for OSPF routers and FF02::6 for OSPF-designated routers. These new addresses are the replacements for 126.96.36.199 and 188.8.131.52, respectively.
Other, less flexible IPv4 protocols don’t give us the ability that OSPFv2 does to assign specific networks and interfaces into the OSPF process—however, this is something that is still configured under the router configuration process. And with OSPFv3, just as with the other IPv6 routing protocols we have talked about, the interfaces and therefore the networks attached to them are configured directly on the interface in interface configuration mode.
The configuration of OSPFv3 is going to look like this:
You get to perform some configurations from router configuration mode like summarization and redistribution, but we don’t even need to configure OSPFv3 from this prompt if we configure OSPFv3 from the interface.
When the interface configuration is completed, the router configuration process is added automatically and the interface configuration looks like this:
So, if we just go to each interface and assign a process ID and area—poof, we are done.
By ComputerNetworkingNotes Updated on 2023-07-07 05:30:01 IST
ComputerNetworkingNotes CCNA Study Guide How to enable IPv6 Routing protocol in Cisco Router
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