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122 The Best Genetics Research Topics For Projects
The study of genetics takes place across different levels of the education system in academic facilities all around the world. It is an academic discipline that seeks to explain the mechanism of heredity and genes in living organisms. First discovered back in the 1850s, the study of genetics has come a pretty long way, and it plays such an immense role in our everyday lives. Therefore, when you are assigned a genetics research paper, you should pick a topic that is not only interesting to you but one that you understand well.
Choosing Research Topics in Genetics
Even for the most knowledgeable person in the room, choosing a genetics topic for research papers can be, at times, a hectic experience. So we put together a list of some of the most exciting top in genetics to make the endeavor easier for you. However, note, while all the topics we’ve listed below will enable you to write a unique genetic project, remember what you choose can make or break your paper. So again, select a topic that you are both interested and knowledgeable on, and that has plenty of research materials to use. Without further ado, check out the topics below.
Interesting Genetics Topics for your Next Research Paper
- Genes and DNA: write a beginners’ guide to genetics and its applications
- Factors that contribute or/and cause genetic mutations
- Genetics and obesity, what do you need to know?
- Describe RNA information
- Is there a possibility of the genetic code being confidential?
- Are there any living cells present in the gene?
- Cancer and genetics
- Describe the role of genetics in the fight against Alzheimer’s disease
- What is the gene
- Is there a link between genetics and Parkinson’s disease? Explain your answer.
- Replacement of genes and artificial chromosomes
- Explain genetic grounds for obesity
- Development and disease; how can genetics dissect the developing process
- Analyzing gene expression – RNA
- Gene interaction; eye development
- Advances and developments in nanotechnology to enable therapeutic methods for the treatment of HIV and AIDS.
- Isolating and identifying the cancer treatment activity of special organic metal compounds.
- Analyzing the characteristics in certain human genes that can withstand heavy metals.
- A detailed analysis of genotypes that is both sensitive and able to endure heavy metals.
- Isolating special growth-inducing bacteria that can assist crops during heavy metal damage and identifying lipid directing molecules for escalating heavy metal endurance in plants.
Hot and Controversial Topics in Genetics
- Is there a link between genetics and homosexuality? Explain your answer
- Is it ethical and morally upright to grow human organs
- Can DNA changes beat aging
- The history and development of human cloning science
- How addictive substances alter our genes
- Are genetically modified foods safe for human and animal consumption?
- Is depression a genetically based condition?
- Genetic diagnosis of the fetus
- Genetic analysis of the DNA structure
- What impact does cloning have on future generations?
- What is the link between genetics and autism?
- Can artificial insemination have any sort of genetic impact on a person?
- The advancements in genetic research and the bioethics that come with them.
- Is human organ farming a possibility today?
- Can genetics allow us to design and build a human to our specifications?
- Is it ethical to try and tamper with human genetics in any way?
Molecular Genetics Topics
- Molecular techniques: How to analyze DNA(including genomes), RNA as well as proteins
- Stem cells describe their potential and shortcomings
- Describe molecular and genome evolution
- Describe DNA as the agent of heredity
- Explain the power of targeted mutagenesis
- Bacteria as a genetic system
- Explain how genetic factors increase cancer susceptibility
- Outline and describe recent advances in molecular cancer genetics
- Does our DNA sequencing have space for more?
- Terminal illness and DNA.
- Does our DNA determine our body structure?
- What more can we possibly discover about DNA?
Genetic Engineering Topics
- Define gene editing, and outline key gene-editing technologies, explaining their impact on genetic engineering
- The essential role the human microbiome plays in preventing diseases
- The principles of genetic engineering
- Project on different types of cloning
- What is whole genome sequencing
- Explain existing studies on DNA-modified organisms
- How cloning can impact medicine
- Does our genetics hold the key to disease prevention?
- Can our genetics make us resistant to certain bacteria and viruses?
- Why our genetics plays a role in chronic degenerative diseases.
- Is it possible to create an organism in a controlled environment with genetic engineering?
- Would cloning lead to new advancements in genetic research?
- Is there a possibility to enhance human DNA?
- Why do we share DNA with so many other animals on the planet?
- Is our DNA still evolving or have reached our biological limit?
- Can human DNA be manipulated on a molecular or atomic level?
- Do we know everything there is to know about our DNA, or is there more?
Controversial Human Genetic Topics
- Who owns the rights to the human genome
- Is it legal for parents to order genetically perfect children
- is genetic testing necessary
- What is your stand on artificial insemination vs. ordinary pregnancy
- Do biotech companies have the right to patent human genes
- Define the scope of the accuracy of genetic testing
- Perks of human genetic engineering
- Write about gene replacement and its relationship to artificial chromosomes.
- Analyzing DNA and cloning
- DNA isolation and nanotechnology methods to achieve it.
- Genotyping of African citizens.
- Greatly mutating Y-STRs and the isolated study of their genetic variation.
- The analytical finding of indels and their genetic diversity.
DNA Research Paper Topics
The role and research of DNA are so impactful today that it has a significant effect on our daily lives today. From health care to medication and ethics, over the last few decades, our knowledge of DNA has experienced a lot of growth. A lot has been discovered from the research of DNA and genetics.
Therefore, writing a good research paper on DNA is quite the task today. Choosing the right topic can make things a lot easier and interesting for writing your paper. Also, make sure that you have reliable resources before you begin with your paper.
- Can we possibly identify and extract dinosaur DNA?
- Is the possibility of cloning just around the corner?
- Is there a connection between the way we behave and our genetic sequence?
- DNA research and the environment we live in.
- Does our DNA sequencing have something to do with our allergies?
- The connection between hereditary diseases and our DNA.
- The new perspectives and complications that DNA can give us.
- Is DNA the reason all don’t have similar looks?
- How complex human DNA is.
- Is there any sort of connection between our DNA and cancer susceptibility and resistance?
- What components of our DNA affect our decision-making and personality?
- Is it possible to create DNA from scratch under the right conditions?
- Why is carbon such a big factor in DNA composition?
- Why is RNA something to consider in viral research and its impact on human DNA?
- Can we detect defects in a person’s DNA before they are born?
Genetics Topics For Presentation
The subject of genetics can be quite broad and complex. However, choosing a topic that you are familiar with and is unique can be beneficial to your presentation. Genetics plays an important part in biology and has an effect on everyone, from our personal lives to our professional careers.
Below are some topics you can use to set up a great genetics presentation. It helps to pick a topic that you find engaging and have a good understanding of. This helps by making your presentation clear and concise.
- Can we create an artificial gene that’s made up of synthetic chromosomes?
- Is cloning the next step in genetic research and engineering?
- The complexity and significance of genetic mutation.
- The unlimited potential and advantages of human genetics.
- What can the analysis of an individual’s DNA tell us about their genetics?
- Is it necessary to conduct any form of genetic testing?
- Is it ethical to possibly own a patent to patent genes?
- How accurate are the results of a genetics test?
- Can hereditary conditions be isolated and eliminated with genetic research?
- Can genetically modified food have an impact on our genetics?
- Can genetics have a role to play in an individual’s sexuality?
- The advantages of further genetic research.
- The pros and cons of genetic engineering.
- The genetic impact of terminal and neurological diseases.
Biotechnology Topics For Research Papers
As we all know, the combination of biology and technology is a great subject. Biotechnology still offers many opportunities for eager minds to make innovations. Biotechnology has a significant role in the development of modern technology.
Below you can find some interesting topics to use in your next biotechnology research paper. Make sure that your sources are reliable and engage both you and the reader.
- Settlements that promote sustainable energy technology maintenance.
- Producing ethanol through molasses emission treatment.
- Evapotranspiration and its different processes.
- Circular biotechnology and its widespread framework.
- Understanding the genes responsible for flora response to harsh conditions.
- Molecule signaling in plants responding to dehydration and increased sodium.
- The genetic improvement of plant capabilities in major crop yielding.
- Pharmacogenomics on cancer treatment medication.
- Pharmacogenomics on hypertension treating medication.
- The uses of nanotechnology in genotyping.
- How we can quickly detect and identify food-connected pathogens using molecular-based technology.
- The impact of processing technology both new and traditional on bacteria cultures linked to Aspalathus linearis.
- A detailed analysis of adequate and renewable sorghum sources for bioethanol manufacturing in South Africa.
- A detailed analysis of cancer treatment agents represented as special quinone compounds.
- Understanding the targeted administering of embelin to cancerous cells.
Tips for Writing an Interesting Genetics Research Paper
All the genetics research topics above are excellent, and if utilized well, could help you come up with a killer research paper. However, a good genetics research paper goes beyond the topic. Therefore, besides choosing a topic, you are most interested in, and one with sufficient research materials ensure you
Fully Understand the Research Paper Format
You may write on the most interesting genetics topics and have a well-thought-out set of ideas, but if your work is not arranged in an engaging and readable manner, your professor is likely to dismiss it, without looking at what you’ve written. That is the last thing you need as a person seeking to score excellent grades. Therefore, before you even put pen to paper, understand what research format is required.
Keep in mind that part of understanding the paper’s format is knowing what words to use and not to use. You can contact our trustful masters to get qualified assistance.
Research Thoroughly and Create an Outline
Whichever genetics research paper topics you decide to go with, the key to having excellent results is appropriately researching it. Therefore, embark on a journey to understand your genetics research paper topic by thoroughly studying it using resources from your school’s library and the internet.
Ensure you create an outline so that you can note all the useful genetic project ideas down. A research paper outline will help ensure that you don’t forget even one important point. It also enables you to organize your thoughts. That way, writing them down in the actual genetics research paper becomes smooth sailing. In other words, a genetics project outline is more like a sketch of the paper.
Other than the outline, it pays to have an excellent research strategy. In other words, instead of looking for information on any random source you come across, it would be wise to have a step-by-step process of looking for the research information.
For instance, you could start by reading your notes to see what they have to say about the topic you’ve chosen. Next, visit your school’s library, go through any books related to your genetics research paper topic to see whether the information on your notes is correct and for additional information on the topic. Note, you can visit the library either physically or via your school’s website. Lastly, browse educational sites such as Google Scholar, for additional information. This way, you’ll start your work with a bunch of excellent genetics project ideas, and at the same time, you’ll have enjoyed every step of the research process.
Get Down to Work
Now turn the genetics project ideas on your outline into a genetics research paper full of useful and factual information.
There is no denying writing a genetics research paper is one of the hardest parts of your studies. But with the above genetics topics and writing tips to guide you, it should be a tad easier. Good luck!
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60 Interesting Genetic Engineering Topics for Your Next Research Paper
Genetics engineering is one of the popular areas of study today. The discipline was discovered back in 1850 and seeks to analyze the systems of heredity and genes in different species. Therefore, when your professor gives you assignments prompts, it is important to start by picking the right genetics topics for research papers.
However, many students find selecting the best genetics project ideas difficult. So, if you find yourself staring at a blank page for hours, you are not alone. But we are here to help!
To get you started on the right path, we have listed 60 hot genetic engineering topics for your research paper. Furthermore, we have provided you with pro tips for crafting A-rated research papers.
The Best Molecular Genetics Topic Ideas
- Stem cells: What are their potential and shortcomings?
- A closer look at the genome evolution.
- The molecular techniques of analyzing DNA and RNA.
- Evaluating the power of mutagenesis.
- DNA as an agent of heredity: A comprehensive analysis.
- Bacteria and genetics.
- Genetics: How does it increase the risk of cancer?
- Contemporary issues in genetic engineering public policy.
- Molecular cancer genetics: What are the latest advances?
Interesting Genetics Topics
- What are the main applications of genetics today?
- Discuss the main causes of genetic mutations.
- What is the link between genetics and obesity?
- RNA information.
- Do we have living cells in genes? Explain.
- Explain the role of genetics in the fight against Alhzeimer’s disease.
- An evaluation of genes replacement with artificial chromosomes.
- Genetics and depression: Are they linked?
- What are the impacts of genetics on future generations?
- What is the link between Parkinson’s disease and genetics?
- Can DNA changes help to beat aging?
- Discuss the morality of growing human organs.
- Genetics and homosexuality: Are they linked?
- A closer look at the history of human cloning.
- How do addictive substances impact our genes?
Top Genetics Topics for Presentation
- Should genetic engineering be legalized?
- What are the principles of genetic engineering?
- Analyzing the impact of cloning on modern medicine.
- A review of the latest studies on genetically modified organisms.
- Do we really need genetics testing?
- Artificial inseminations vs normal conception: What are your thoughts?
- Should parents be allowed to order genetically perfect children?
- A close look at the accuracy in genetic engineering.
- Should biotech firms be allowed to patent human genes?
- What are the pros and cons of genetic engineering?
- How does genetic engineering impact our relationships?
- Genetic engineering and the sale of human organisms.
- Ethics of genetic engineering: Should we support cloning of dead people?
- How is genetic engineering presented in the media today?
- Should researchers be obliged to share the benefits and burden of their work on genetic engineering?
Hot Topics on Genetics Engineering
- Are genetically modified foods safe for human consumption?
- Analyzing the philosophical issues of genetic engineering.
- Should the US government invest in genetic engineering?
- Impact of social media on genetically modified organisms discussions.
- Should using genetically modified foods to fight hunger be allowed?
- Comparing the genetic engineering policies of the US and UK.
- Cloning pets: Is it ethically right?
- Does cloning increase or limit biological diversity?
- The comprehensive analysis of the 2001 George W. Bush speech on cloning.
- Discuss the five main ethical dilemmas of genetic cloning.
- Whole-genome sequencing.
- Evaluating the top three gene-editing technologies.
- How does human microbiome work in preventing diseases?
- Genomic hybridization for enhanced fruits production.
- A closer look at CCR5 Delta 32 Genetic Mutation.
- The pros and cons of studies on biological dark matter.
- Biotic mutation for enhanced bone density.
- Using genetic mutation to eliminate sickle cell anemia.
- How does IVF help to prevent babies from inheriting genetic defects?
- Using genetic engineering to address the problem of genetic engineering.
- What is the future of cloning?
Special Tips for Writing a Great Research Paper
Once you have selected the preferred genetics topic for research papers, your journey to creating an A-rated paper has just started. Here are some useful tips to help you craft the best research paper on genetic engineering.
- Research on your selected topic comprehensively. This will help you to develop the right research questions and identify key points to discuss on the paper. Make sure to also capture the counter-arguments on the selected topic.
- Develop a good paper structure. Once you have picked the best research ideas, you need to craft a good structure so that the paper looks coherent and enjoyable to read. The format will help you to know what point to discuss at any part of the paper.
- Make sure to read other genetic engineering research papers to understand how experts did it. Here, you can borrow the structure and enrich your arguments from the discussions by other scholars.
- Proofread your work well. Even if you have the best genetics research topics and a good paper, but fail to proofread it well, there is a danger of scoring poor grade. So, make sure to proofread your work well to identify and correct errors, incomplete sentences, and flow. You can ask a professional to proofread and edit your paper , to ensure that your work is mistake-free.
When you are faced with a genetic engineering assignment, it is important to look at it holistically. So, start by identifying the most interesting genetic topics and use a good structure to craft the best paper.
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129 Genetic Engineering Essay Topic Ideas & Examples
Welcome to our list of genetic engineering essay topics! Here, you will find everything from trending research titles to the most interesting genetic engineering topics for presentation. Get inspired with our writing ideas and bonus samples!
🔝 Top 10 Genetic Engineering Topics for 2023
🏆 best genetic engineering topic ideas & essay examples, ⭐ good genetic engineering research topics, 👍 simple & easy genetic engineering essay topics, ❓ genetic engineering discussion questions, 🔎 genetic engineering research topics, ✅ genetic engineering project ideas, 💯 free genetic engineering essay topic generator.
- Ethical Issues of Synthetic Biology
- CRISPR-Cas9 and Its Applications
- Progress and Challenges in Gene Therapy
- Applications of Gene Editing in Animals
- The Process of Genetic Engineering in Plants
- Genetic Engineering for Human Enhancement
- Genetic Engineering for Improving Crop Yield
- Regulatory Issues of Genetic Editing of Embryos
- Gene Silencing in Humans through RNA Interference
- Gene Drive Technology for Controlling Invasive Species
- Benefits of Genetic Engineering as a Huge Part of People’s Lives Genetic Engineering is said to question whether man has the right to manipulate the course and laws of nature and thus is in constant collision with religion and the beliefs held by it regarding life.
- Is Genetically Engineered Food the Solution to the World’s Hunger Problems? However, the acceptance of GMO’s as the solution to the world’s food problem is not unanimously and there is still a multitude of opposition and suspicion of their use.
- Proposition 37 and Genetically Engineered Foods The discussion of Proposition 37 by the public is based on the obvious gap between the “law on the books” and the “law in action” because Food Safety Law which is associated with the Proposition […]
- Ecological Effects of the Release of Genetically Engineered Organisms Beneficial soil organisms such as earthworms, mites, nematodes, woodlice among others are some of the soil living organisms that are adversely affected by introduction of genetically engineered organisms in the ecosystem since they introduce toxins […]
- The Ethical Issues of Genetic Engineering Many people have questioned the health risks that arise from genetically modified crops, thus it is the politicians who have to ensure that the interests of the people are met and their safety is assured. […]
- Future of Genetic Engineering and the Concept of “Franken-Foods” This is not limited to cows alone but extends to pigs, sheep, and poultry, the justification for the development of genetically modified food is based on the need to feed an ever growing population which […]
- The Film “Gattaca” and Genetic Engineering In the film, it is convincing that in the near future, science and technology at the back of genetic engineering shall be developed up to the level which makes the film a reality.
- Changing the world: Genetic Engineering Effects Genes used in genetic engineering have a high impact on health and disease, therefore the inclusion of the genetic process alters the genes that influence human behavior and traits.
- Genetic Engineering and Eugenics Comparison The main idea in genetic engineering is to manipulate the genetic make-up of human beings in order to shackle their inferior traits. The concept of socially independent reproduction is replicated in both eugenics and genetic […]
- Designer Babies Creation in Genetic Engineering The creation of designer babies is an outcome of advancements in technology hence the debate should be on the extent to which technology can be applied in changing the way human beings live and the […]
- Genetic Engineering in the Workplace The main purpose of the paper is to evaluate and critically discuss the ethical concerns regarding the implementation of genetic testing in the workplace and to provide potential resolutions to the dilemmas.
- Genetic Engineering in Food: Development and Risks Genetic engineering refers to the manipulation of the gene composition of organisms, to come up with organisms, which have different characteristics from the organic ones.
- Genetically Engineered Food Against World Hunger I support the production of GMFs in large quality; I hold the opinion that they can offer a lasting solution to food problems facing the world.
- The Dangers of Genetic Engineering and the Issue of Human Genes’ Modification In this case, the ethics of human cloning and human genes’ alteration are at the center of the most heated debates. The first reason to oppose the idea of manipulation of human genes lies in […]
- A Technique for Controlling Plant Characteristics: Genetic Engineering in the Agriculture A cautious investigation of genetic engineering is required to make sure it is safe for humans and the environment. The benefit credited to genetic manipulation is influenced through the utilization of herbicide-tolerant and pest-safe traits.
- Designer Genes: Different Types and Use of Genetic Engineering McKibben speaks of Somatic Gene Therapy as it is used to modify the gene and cell structure of human beings so that the cells are able to produce certain chemicals that would help the body […]
- Genetic Engineering Is Ethically Unacceptable However, the current application of genetic engineering is in the field of medicine particularly to treat various genetic conditions. However, this method of treatment has various consequences to the individual and the society in general.
- A Major Milestone in the Field of Science and Technology: Should Genetic Engineering Be Allowed? The most controversial and complicated aspect of this expertise is Human Genetic Engineering- whereby the genotype of a fetus can be altered to produce desired results.
- Gattaca: Ethical Issues of Genetic Engineering Although the world he lives in has determined that the only measure of a man is his genetic profile, Vincent discovers another element of man that science and society have forgotten.
- Is Genetic Engineering an Environmentally Sound Way to Increase Food Production? According to Thomas & Earl and Barry, genetic engineering is environmentally unsound method of increasing food production because it threatens the indigenous species.
- Genome: Bioethics and Genetic Engineering Additionally, towards the end of the documentary, the narrator and some of the interviewed individuals explain the problem of anonymity that is also related to genetic manipulations.
- Is the World Ready for Genetic Engineering? The process of manipulating genes has brought scientists to important discoveries, among which is the technology of the production of new kinds of crops and plants with selected characteristics. The problem of the advantages and […]
- Significance of Human Genetic Engineering The gene alteration strategy enables replacing the specific unwanted genes with the new ones, which are more resistant and freer of the particular ailment, hence an essential assurance of a healthy generation in the future.
- The Role of Plant Genetic Engineering in Global Security Although it can be conveniently stated that the adequacy, abundance and reliability of the global food supply has a major role to play in the enhancement of human life, in the long run, they influence […]
- Managing Diabetes Through Genetic Engineering Genetic engineering refers to the alteration of genetic make-up of an organism through the use of techniques to introduce a new DNA or eliminate a given hereditable material. What is the role of genetic engineering […]
- Genetic Engineering Using a Pglo Plasmid The objective of this experiment is to understand the process and importance of the genetic transformation of bacteria in real time with the aid of extrachromosomal DNA, alternatively referred to as plasmids.
- Religious vs Scientific Views on Genetic Engineering With the need to increase the global economy, the field of agriculture is one among the many that have been used to improve the commercial production to take care of the global needs for food […]
- Genetic Engineering in the Movie “Gattaca” by Niccol This would not be right at all since a person should be responsible for their own life and not have it dictated to them as a result of a societal construct created on the basis […]
- Biotechnology and Genetic Engineering Apart from that, there are some experiments that cannot be ethically justified, at least in my opinion, for example, the cloning of human being or the attempts to find the gene for genius.
- Perfect Society: The Effects of Human Genetic Engineering
- Genetic Engineering and Forensic Criminal Investigations
- Biotechnology Assignment and Genetic Engineering
- Genetic Engineering and Genetically Modified Organisms
- Bio-Ethics and the Controversy of Genetic Engineering
- Health and Environmental Risks of Genetic Engineering in Food
- Genetic Engineering and the Risks of Enforcing Changes on Organisms
- Genetic Engineering and How It Affects Globel Warming
- Cloning and Genetic Engineering in the Food Animal Industry
- Genetic Engineering and Its Impact on Society
- Embryonic Research, Genetic Engineering, & Cloning
- Genetic Engineering: Associated Risks and Possibilities
- Issues Concerning Genetic Engineering in Food Production
- Genetic Engineering, DNA Fingerprinting, Gene Therapy
- Cloning: The Benefits and Dangers of Genetic Engineering
- Genetic Engineering, History, and Future: Altering the Face of Science
- Islamic and Catholic Views on Genetic Engineering
- Gene Therapy and Genetic Engineering: Should It Be Approved in the US
- Exploring the Real Benefits of Genetic Engineering in the Modern World
- Genetic Engineering and Food Security: A Welfare Economics Perspective
- Identify the Potential Impact of Genetic Engineering on the Future Course of Human Immunodeficiency Virus
- Genetic Engineering and DNA Technology in Agricultural Productivity
- Human Genetic Engineering: Designing the Future
- Genetic Engineering and the Politics Behind It
- The Potential and Consequences of Genetic Engineering
- Genetic Engineering and Its Effect on Human Health
- The Moral and Ethical Controversies, Benefits, and Future of Genetic Engineering
- Gene Therapy and Genetic Engineering for Curing Disorders
- Genetic Engineering and the Human Genome Project
- Ethical Standards for Genetic Engineering
- Genetic Engineering and Cryonic Freezing: A Modern Frankenstein
- The Perfect Child: Genetic Engineering
- Genetic Engineering and Its Effects on Future Generations
- Agricultural Genetic Engineering: Genetically Modified Foods
- Genetic Engineering: The Manipulation or Alteration of the Genetic Structure of a Single Cell or Organism
- Analysing Genetic Engineering Regarding Plato Philosophy
- The Dangers and Benefits of Human Cloning and Genetic Engineering
- Genetic Engineering: Arguments of Both Proponents and Opponents and a Mediated Solution
- Genetic and How Genetic Engineering Is Diffusing Individualism
- Finding Genetic Harmony With Genetic Engineering
- What Is Genetic Engineering?
- Do You Think Genetically Modified Food Could Harm the Ecosystems of the Areas in Which They Grow?
- How Agricultural Research Systems Shape a Technological Regime That Develops Genetic Engineering?
- Can Genetic Engineering for the Poor Pay Off?
- How Does Genetic Engineering Affect Agriculture?
- Do You Think It’s Essential to Modify Genes to Create New Medicines?
- How Can Genetic Engineering Stop Human Suffering?
- Can Genetic Engineering Cure HIV/AIDS in Humans?
- How Has Genetic Engineering Revolutionized Science and the World?
- Do You Think Genetic Engineering Is Playing God and That We Should Leave Life as It Was Created?
- What Are Some Advantages and Disadvantages of Genetic Engineering?
- How Will Genetic Engineering Affect the Human Race?
- When Does Genetic Engineering Go Bad?
- What Are the Benefits of Human Genetic Engineering?
- Does Genetic Engineering Affect the Entire World?
- How Does the Christian Faith Contend With Genetic Engineering?
- What Are the Ethical and Social Implications of Genetic Engineering?
- How Will Genetic Engineering Impact Our Lives?
- Why Should Genetic Engineering Be Extended?
- Will Genetic Engineering Permanently Change Our Society?
- What Are People Worried About Who Oppose Genetic Engineering?
- Do You Worry About Eating GM (Genetically Modified) Food?
- What Do You Think of the Idea of Genetically Engineering New Bodily Organs to Replace Yours When You Are Old?
- Should Genetic Engineering Go Ahead to Eliminate Human Flaws, Such as Violence, Jealousy, Hate, Etc?
- Does the Government Have the Right to Limit How Far We Modify Ourselves?
- Why Is Genetic Food Not Well Accepted?
- What Is the Best in the Genetic Modification of Plants, Plant Cell, or Chloroplasts and Why?
- How Do You Feel About Human Gene Editing?
- Does Climate Change Make the Genetic Engineering of Crops Inevitable?
- What Do You Think About Plant Genetic Modification?
- Gene Drives and Pest Control
- The Benefits of Genetically Modified Organisms
- Challenges of Gene Editing for Rare Genetic Diseases
- The Use of Genetic Engineering to Treat Human Diseases
- Ethical Considerations and Possibilities of Designer Babies
- How Genetic Engineering Can Help Restore Ecosystems
- Basic Techniques and Tools for Gene Manipulation
- Latest Advancements in Genetic Engineering and Genome Editing
- Will Engineering Resilient Organisms Help Mitigate Climate Change?
- Creation of Renewable Resources through Genetic Engineering
- Genetic Engineering Approach to Drought and Pest Resistance
- Genetic Engineering Use in DNA Analysis and Identification
- Synthetic Microorganisms and Biofactories for Sustainable Bioproduction
- Stem Cells’ Potential for Regenerative Medicine
- The Role of Genetic Modification in Vaccine Development
- Can Genetic Engineering Help Eradicate Invasive Species Responsibly?
- Genetic Engineering for Enhancing the Body’s Defense Mechanisms
- Advancements in Transplantation Medicine and Creating Bioengineered Organs
- Genetic Editing of Microbes for Environmental Cleanup
- Is It Possible to Develop Living Detection Systems?
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IvyPanda . "129 Genetic Engineering Essay Topic Ideas & Examples." November 9, 2023. https://ivypanda.com/essays/topic/genetic-engineering-essay-topics/.
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200 Genetics Research Topics & Essay Questions for College and High School
Genetics is the study of heredity, that is, how genes and traits pass from one generation to another. It has practical applications in many areas, such as genetic engineering, gene therapy, gene editing, and genetic testing. This branch of biology tackles various important problems, like the molecular basis of genetic diseases or the influence of genes on human behavior.
If you’re looking for interesting topics in genetics for your essay or research paper, you’re at the right place! StudyCorgi has compiled a list of genetics research paper topics and ideas for different high school assignments and college projects. Read on to get inspired!
🏆 Best Genetics Essay Topics
👍 good genetics research topics & essay examples, 🌶️ hot genetics topics to write about, 🎓 most interesting genetics topics, ❓ genetics research questions, 🌟 cool genetics topics for presentation, 🔎 current genetic research topics.
- Genetic Engineering: Dangers and Opportunities Genetic engineering can be defined as: “An artificial modification of the genetic code of an organism. It changes radically the physical nature of the being in question.
- The Potential Benefits of Genetic Engineering Genetic engineering is a new step in the development of the humans’ knowledge about the nature that has a lot of advantages for people in spite of its controversial character.
- Genetically Modified Foods and Their Impact on Human Health Genetically modified food has become the subject of discussion. There are numerous benefits and risks tied to consumption of genetically modified foods.
- Genetic Engineering: Gene Therapy The purpose of the present study is to discover just what benefits gene therapy might have to offer present and future generations.
- How Much can We Control Our Genetics, at What Point do We Cease to be Human? The branch of biology that deals with variation, heredity, and their transmission in both animals and the plant is called genetics.
- Genetic and Environmental Factors Causing Alcoholism and Effects of Alcohol Abuse The term alcoholism may be used to refer to a wide range of issues associated with alcohol. Simply put, it is a situation whereby an individual cannot stay without alcohol.
- Food Science and Technology of Genetic Modification Genetically modified foods have elicited different reactions all over the world with some countries banning its use while others like the United States allowing its consumption.
- Genetically Modified Organisms and Their Benefits Scientists believe GMOs can feed everyone in the world. This can be achieved if governments embrace the use of this new technology to create genetically modified foods.
- Genetically Modified Organisms: Pros and Cons Genetically modified organisms are organisms that are created after combining DNA from a different species into an organism to come up with a transgenic organism.
- Genetically Modified Organisms: Position Against Genetically modified organisms are organisms that are created after combining DNAs of different species to come up with a transgenic organism.
- Advantages and Disadvantages of Genetic Testing There are many serious disorders and diseases that have genetics as one of the main causes, including Parkinson’s disease or cancer.
- Genetics Seminar: The Importance of Dna Roles DNA has to be stable. In general, its stability becomes possible due to a large number of hydrogen bonds which make DNA strands more stable.
- Value of the Epigenetics Epigenetics is a quickly developing field of science that has proven to be practical in medicine. It focuses on changes in gene activity that are not a result of DNA sequence mutations.
- Link Between Obesity and Genetics Obesity affects the lives through limitations implemented on the physical activity, associated disorders, and even emotional pressure.
- Eugenics, Human Genetics and Public Policy Debates Ethical issues associated with human genetics and eugenics have been recently brought to public attention, resulting in the creation of peculiar public policy.
- Residence and Genetic Predisposition to Diseases The study on the genetic predisposition of people to certain diseases based on their residence places emphasizes the influence of heredity.
- Diabetes Genetic Risks in Diagnostics The introduction of the generic risks score in the diagnosis of diabetes has a high potential for use in the correct classification based on a particular type of diabetes.
- Labeling Food With Genetically Modified Organisms The wide public has been concerned about the issue of whether food products with genetically modified organisms should be labeled since the beginning of arguments on implications.
- The Perspectives of Genetic Engineering in Various Fields Genetic engineering can be discussed as having such potential benefits for the mankind as improvement of agricultural processes, environmental protection, resolution of the food problem.
- Genetic Counseling and Hypertension Risks This paper dwells upon the peculiarities of genetic counseling provided to people who are at risk of developing hypertension.
- Mitosis, Meiosis, and Genetic Variation According to Mendel’s law of independent assortment, alleles for different characteristics are passed independently from each other.
- GMO: Some Peculiarities and Associated Concerns Genetically modified organisms are created through the insertion of genes of other species into their genetic codes.
- Genetically Modified Organisms and Future Farming There are many debates about benefits and limitations of GMOs, but so far, scientists fail to prove that the advantages of these organisms are more numerous than the disadvantages.
- Genetic Testing, Its Background and Policy Issues This paper will explore the societal impacts of genetic research and its perceptions in mass media, providing argumentation for support and opposition to the topic.
- Patent on Genetic Discoveries and Supreme Court Decision Supreme Court did not recognize the eligibility of patenting Myriad Genetics discoveries due to the natural existence of the phenomenon.
- Medical and Psychological Genetic Counseling Genetic counseling is defined as the process of helping people understand and adapt to the medical, psychological, and familial implications of genetic contributions to disease.
- Genetic and Genomic Healthcare: Nurses Ethical Issues Genomic medicine is one of the most significant ways of tailoring healthcare at a personal level. This paper will explore nursing ethics concerning genetic information.
- Genetic Counseling for Cystic Fibrosis Some of the inherited genes may predispose individuals to specific health conditions like cystic fibrosis, among other inheritable diseases.
- Genomics, Genetics, and Nursing Involvement The terms genomics and genetics refer to the study of genetic material. In many cases, the words are erroneously used interchangeably.
- Epigenetics and Its Effect on Physical and Mental Health This paper reviews a research article and two videos on epigenetics to developing an understanding of the phenomenon and how it affects individuals’ physical and mental health.
- Why Is the Concept of Epigenetics So Fascinating? Epigenetics has come forward to play a significant role in the modern vision of the origin of illnesses and methods of their treatment, which results in proving to be fascinating.
- Autism Spectrum Disorder in Twins: Genetics Study Autism spectrum disorder is a behavioral condition caused by genetic and environmental factors. Twin studies have been used to explain the hereditary nature of this condition.
- Homosexuality as a Genetic Characteristic The debate about whether homosexuality is an inherent or social parameter can be deemed as one of the most thoroughly discussed issues in the contemporary society.
- Genetics of Developmental Disabilities The aim of the essay is to explore the genetic causes of DDs, especially dyslexia, and the effectiveness of DNA modification in the treatment of these disorders.
- Community Health Status: Development, Gender, Genetics Stage of development, gender and genetics appear to be the chief factors that influence the health status of the community.
- Start Up Company: Genetically Modified Foods in China The aim of establishing the start up company is to develop the scientific idea of increasing food production using scientific methods.
- Genetically Modified Food Safety and Benefits Today’s world faces a problem of the shortage of food supplies to feed its growing population. The adoption of GM foods can solve the problem of food shortage in several ways.
- Genetics and Autism Development Autism is associated with a person’s genetic makeup. This paper gives a detailed analysis of this condition and the role of genetics in its development.
- Genetic Interference in Caenorhabditis Elegans The researchers found out that the double-stranded RNA’s impact was not only the cells, it was also on the offspring of the infected animals.
- Eugenics, Human Genetics and Their Societal Impact Ever since the discovery of DNA and the ability to manipulate it, genetics research has remained one of the most controversial scientific topics of the 21st century.
- Genetic Variants Influencing Effectiveness of Exercise Training Programmes “Genetic Variants Influencing Effectiveness of Exercise Training Programmes” studies the influence of most common genetic markers that indicate a predisposition towards obesity.
- Genetically-Modified Fruits, Pesticides, or Biocontrol? The main criticism of GMO foods is the lack of complete control and understanding behind GMO processes in relation to human consumption and long-term effects on human DNA.
- Genetic Predisposition to Alcohol Dependence and Alcohol-Related Diseases The subject of genetics in alcohol dependence deserves additional research in order to provide accurate results.
- Personal Genetics and Risks of Diseases Concerning genetics, biographical information includes data such as ethnicity. Some diseases are more frequent in specific populations as compared to others.
- Family Genetic History and Planning for Future Wellness The patient has a family genetic history of cardiac arrhythmia, allergy, and obesity. These diseases might lead to heart attacks, destroy the cartilage and tissue around the joint.
- Concerns Regarding Genetically Modified Food It is evident that genetically modified food and crops are potentially harmful. Both humans and the environment are affected by consequences as a result of their introduction.
- Genetics Impact on Health Care in the Aging Population This paper briefly assesses the impact that genetics and genomics can have on health care costs and services for geriatric patients.
- Biotechnology: Methodology in Basic Genetics The material illustrates the possibilities of ecological genetics, the development of eco-genetical models, based on the usage of species linked by food chain as consumers and producers.
- Genetic Engineering and Cloning Controversy Genetic engineering and cloning are the most controversial issues in modern science. The benefits of cloning are the possibility to treat incurable diseases and increase longevity.
- All About the Role of Genetic Engineering and Biopiracy The argument whether genetically engineered seeds have monopolized the market in place of the contemporary seeds has been going on for some time now.
- Genetically Modified Food as a Current Issue GM foods are those kinds of food items that have had their DNA changed by usual breeding; this process is also referred to as Genetic Engineering.
- Op-ED Genetic Engineering: The Viewpoint The debate about genetic engineering was started more than twenty years ago and since that time it has not been resolved
- Genetic Engineering and Religion: Designer Babies The current Pope has opposed any scientific procedure, including genetic engineering, in vitro fertilization, and diagnostic tests to see if babies have disabilities.
- Genetic Engineering in Food and Freshwater Issues The technology of bioengineered foods, genetically modified, genetically engineered, or transgenic crops, will be an essential element in meeting the challenging population needs.
- The Effects of Genetic Modification of Agricultural Products Discussion of the threat to the health of the global population of genetically modified food in the works of Such authors as Jane Brody and David Ehrenfeld.
- Impacts of Genetic Engineering of Agricultural Crops In present days the importance of genetic engineering grew due to the innovations in biotechnologies and Sciences.
- Literature Review: Acceptability of Genetic Engineering The risks and benefits of genetic engineering must be objectively evaluated so that modern community could have a better understanding of this problem
- Genetic and Social Behavioral Learning Theories Learning and behavioral habits in human beings can be influenced by social, environmental and genetic factors. Genetic theory describes how genes help in shaping human behaviors.
- Personality Is Inherited Principles of Genetics The present articles discusses the principles of genetics, and how is human temperament and personality formed.
- GMO Use in Brazil and Other Countries The introduction of biotechnology into food production was a milestone. Brazil is one of the countries that are increasingly using GMOs for food production.
- Bioethical Issues in Genetic Analysis and Manipulations We are currently far from a point where we can claim that we should be providing interventions to some and not others due to their genetic makeup.
- Genetic Factors as the Cause of Anorexia Nervosa Genetic predisposition currently seems the most plausible explanation among all the proposed etiologies of anorexia.
- Advantages of Using Genetically Modified Foods Genetic modifications of traditional crops have allowed the expansion of agricultural land in areas with adverse conditions.
- A Career in Genetics: Required Skills and Knowledge A few decades ago, genetics was mostly a science-related sphere of employment. People with a degree in genetics can have solid career prospects in medicine and even agriculture.
- Technology of Synthesis of Genetically Modified Insulin The work summarizes the technology for obtaining genetically modified insulin by manipulating the E. coli genome.
- PiggyBac Transposon System in Genetics Ideal delivery systems for gene therapy should be safe and efficient. PB has a high transposition efficiency, stability, and mutagenic potential in most mammalian cell lines.
- The Concept of Epigenetics Epigenetics is a study of heritable phenotypic changes or gene expression in cells that are caused by mechanisms other than DNA sequence.
- Genetic Association and the Prognosis of Phenotypic Characters The article understudy is devoted to the topic of genetic association and the prognosis of phenotypic characters. The study focuses on such a topic as human iris pigmentation.
- Isolated by Genetics but Longing to Belong The objective of this paper is to argue for people with genetic illnesses to be recognized and appreciated as personages in all institutions.
- Genetic Mechanism of Colorectal Cancer Colorectal Cancer (CRC) occurrence is connected to environmental factors, hereditary factors, and individual ones.
- Research of Genetic Disorders Types This essay describes different genetic disorders such as hemophilia, turner syndrome and sickle cell disease (SCD).
- Genetic Disorders: Diagnosis, Screening, and Treatment Chorionic villus is a test of sampling done especially at the early stages of pregnancy and is used to identify some problems which might occur to the fetus.
- Genetics or New Pharmaceutical Article Within the Last Year Copy number variations (CNVs) have more impacts on DNA sequence within the human genome than single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs).
- Genetic Testing and Privacy & Discrimination Issues Genetic testing is fraught with the violation of privacy and may result in discrimination in employment, poor access to healthcare services, and social censure.
- Cystic Fibrosis: Genetic Disorder Cystic fibrosis, also referred to as CF, is a genetic disorder that can affect the respiratory and digestive systems.
- Simulating the Natural Selection and Genetic Drift This lab was aimed at simulating the natural selection and genetic drift as well as predicting their frequency of evolution change.
- What Is Silencer Rna in Genetics RNA silencing is an evolutionary conserved intracellular surveillance system based on recognition. RNA silencing is induced by double-stranded RNA sensed by the enzyme Dicer.
- Benefits of Genetic Engineering The potential increase of people’s physical characteristics and lifespan may be regarded as another advantage of genetic engineering.
- Genetic Science Learning Center This paper shall seek to present an analysis of sorts of the website Learn Genetics by the University of Utah.
- Genetics: Gaucher Disease Type 1 The Gaucher disease type 1 category is a genetically related complication in which there is an automatic recession in the way lysosomes store some important gene enzymes.
- Genetic Diseases: Hemophilia This article focuses on a genetic disorder such as hemophilia: causes, symptoms, history, diagnosis, and treatment.
- DNA Profiling: Genetic Variation in DNA Sequences The paper aims to determine the importance of genetic variation in sequences in DNA profiling using specific techniques.
- Genetics: A Frameshift Mutation in Human mc4r This article reviews the article “A Frameshift Mutation in Human mc4r Is Associated With Dominant Form of Obesity” published by C. Vaisse, K. Clement, B. Guy-Grand & P. Froguel.
- Huntington’s Chorea Disease: Genetics, Symptoms, and Treatment Huntington’s chorea disease is a neurodegenerative heritable disease of the central nervous system that is eventually leading to uncontrollable body movements and dementia.
- Race: Genetic or Social Construction One of the most challenging questions the community faces today is the following: whether races were created by nature or society or not.
- Case on Preserving Genetic Mutations in IVF In the case, a couple of a man and women want to be referred to an infertility specialist to have a procedure of in vitro fertilization (IVF).
- Genetic Tests: Pros and Cons Genetic testing is still undergoing transformations and further improvements, so it may be safer to avoid such procedures under certain circumstances.
- Darwin’s Theory of Evolution: Impact of Genetics New research proved that genetics are the driving force of evolution which causes the revision of some of Darwin’s discoveries.
- Family Pedigree, Human Traits, and Genetic Testing Genetic testing allows couples to define any severe genes in eight-cell embryos and might avoid implanting the highest risk-rated ones.
- Genetic (Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms) Analysis of Genome The advancement of the SNP technology in genomic analysis has made it possible to achieve cheap, effective, and fast methods for analyzing personal genomes.
- Neurobiology: Epigenetics in Cocaine Addiction Studies have shown that the addiction process is the interplay of many factors that result in structural modifications of neuronal pathways.
- Genetic Screening and Testing The provided descriptive report explains how genetic screening and testing assists clinicians in determining cognitive disabilities in babies.
- Should Parents Have the Right to Choose Their Children Based on Genetics? The right to intervene in the human genome must be reviewed from multiple perspectives, as the future of parenthood and social institutions will depend highly on agreements.
- Ban on Genetically Modified Foods Genetically modified (GM) foods are those that are produced with the help of genetic engineering. Such foods are created from organisms with changed DNA.
- Decision Tree Analysis and Genetic Algorithm Methods Application in Healthcare The paper investigates the application of such methods of data mining as decision tree analysis and genetic algorithm in the healthcare setting.
- What Makes Humans Mortal Genetically? The causes of aging have been studied and debated about by various experts for centuries, there multiple views and ideas about the reasons of aging and.
- Saudi Classic Aniridia Genetic and Genomic Analysis This research was conducted in Saudi Arabia to determine the genetic and genomic alterations that underlie classic anirida.
- Human Genetics: Multifactorial Traits This essay states that multifactorial traits in human beings are essential for distinguishing individual characteristics in a population.
- Genetic Alterations and Cancer The paper will discuss cancer symptoms, causes, diagnosis, treatment, side-effects of treatment, and also its link with a genetic alteration.
- Human Genome and Application of Genetic Variations Human genome refers to the information contained in human genes. The Human Genome Project (HGP) focused on understanding genomic information stored in the human DNA.
- The Study of the Epigenetic Variation in Monozygotic Twins The growth and development of an organism result in the activation and deactivation of different parts due to chemical reactions at strategic periods and locations
- Genetic Disorder Cystic Fibrosis Cystic fibrosis is a genetic disorder. The clinical presentation of the disease is evident in various organs of the body as discussed in this paper.
- Genetics and Public Health: Disease Control and Prevention Public health genomics may be defined as the field of study where gene sequences can be used to benefit society.
- Genetically Modified Organisms in Human Food This article focuses on Genetically Modified Organisms as they are used to produce human food in the contemporary world.
- The Genetic Material Sequencing This experiment is aimed at understanding the real mechanism involved in genetic material sequencing through nucleic acid hybridization.
- Genetically Modified Foods: How Safe are they? This paper seeks to address the question of whether genetically modified plants meant for food production confer a threat to human health and the environment.
- Natural Selection and Genetic Variation The difference in the genetic content of organisms is indicative that certain group of organisms will stay alive, and effectively reproduce than other organisms residing in the same environment.
- Genetic Linkage Disorders: An Overview A receptor gene in the human chromosome 9 is the causative agent of most blood vessel disorders. Moreover, blood vessel disorders are the major cause of heart ailments.
- DNA and the Birth of Molecular Genetics Molecular genetics is critical in studying traits that are passed through generations. The paper analyzes the role of DNA to provide an ample understanding of molecular genetics.
- Genetically Modified Fish: The Threats and Benefits This article’s purpose is to evaluate possible harm and advantages of genetically modified fish. For example, the GM fish can increase farms’ yield.
- Genetic and Environmental Impacts on Teaching Work If students do not adopt learning materials and the fundamentals of the curriculum well, this is a reason for reviewing the current educational regimen.
- Plant Genetic Engineering: Genetic Modification Genetic engineering is the manipulation of the genes of an organism by completely altering the structure of the organism.
- Genetically Modified Pineapples and Their Benefits The paper covers the existing benefits of GM pineapples, as well as examples of what could be achieved with this technology.
- Overview of African Americans’ Genetic Diseases African Americans are more likely to suffer from certain diseases than white Americans, according to numerous studies.
- Genetically Modified Products: Positive and Negative Sides This paper considers GMOs a positive trend in human development due to their innovativeness and helpfulness in many areas of life, even though GMOs are fatal for many insects.
- Genetic Testing and Bill of Rights and Responsibilities Comparing the Patient Bill of Rights or Patient Rights and Responsibilities of UNMC and the Nebraska Methodist, I find that the latter is much broader.
- Mendelian Genetics and Chlorophyll in Plants This paper investigates Mendelian genetics. This lab report will examine the importance of chlorophyll in plants using fast plants’ leaves and stems.
- Discussion of Epigenetics Meanings and Aspects The paper discusses epigenetics – the study of how gene expression takes place without changing the sequence of DNA.
- Genetic Modification of Organisms to Meet Human Needs Genetic modification of plants and animals for food has increased crop yields as the modified plants and animals have more desirable features such as better production.
- Genetically Modified Organisms in Aquaculture Genetically Modified Organisms are increasingly being used in aquaculture. They possess a unique genetic combination that makes them uniquely suited to their environment.
- Epigenetics: Definition and Family History Epigenetics refers to the learning of fluctuations in creatures induced by gene expression alteration instead of modification of the ‘genetic code itself.
- Medicine Is Not a Genetic Supermarket Together with the development of society, medicine also develops, but some people are not ready to accept everything that science creates.
- Defending People’s Rights Through GMO Labels Having achieved mandatory labeling of GMOs, the state and other official structures signal manufacturers of goods about the need to respect customers’ rights.
- The Normal Aging Process and Its Genetic Basis Various factors can cause some genetic disorders linked to premature aging. The purpose of this paper is to talk about the genetic basis of the normal aging process.
- Ethical Concerns on Genetic Engineering The paper discusses Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats technology. It is a biological system for modifying DNA.
- Discussion of Genetic Testing Aspects The primary aim of the adoption process is to ensure that the children move into a safe and loving environment.
- Type 1 Diabetes in Children: Genetic and Environmental Factors The prevalence rate of type 1 diabetes in children raises the question of the role of genetic and environmental factors in the increasing cases of this illness.
- Are Genetically Modified Organisms Really That Bad? Almost any food can be genetically modified: meat, fruits, vegetables, etc. Many people argue that consuming products, which have GMOs may cause severe health issues.
- Genetic Technologies in the Healthcare One area where genetic technology using DNA works for the benefit of society is medicine, as it will improve the treatment and management of genetic diseases.
- Convergent Evolution, Genetics and Related Structures This paper discusses the concept of convergent evolution and related structures. Convergent evolution describes the emergence of analogous or similar traits in different species.
- Labeling of Genetically Modified Products Regardless of the reasoning behind the labeling issue, it is ethical and good to label the food as obtained from genetically modified ingredients for the sake of the consumers.
- Genetics of Personality Disorders The genetics of different psychological disorders can vary immensely; for example, the genetic architecture of schizophrenia is quite perplexing and complex.
- Genetic Modifications: Advantages and Disadvantages Genetic modifications of fruits and vegetables played an important role in the improvement process of crops and their disease resistance, yields, eating quality and shelf life.
- Down Syndrome: The Genetic Disorder Down syndrome is the result of a glandular or chemical disbalance in the mother at the time of gestation and of nothing else whatsoever.
- Genetic Engineering Biomedical Ethics Perspectives Diverse perspectives ensure vivisection, bio, and genetic engineering activities, trying to deduce their significance in evolution, medicine, and society.
- Genetically Modified Crops: Impact on Human Health The aim of this paper is to provide some information about genetically modified crops as well as highlight the negative impacts of genetically modified soybeans on human health.
- Researching of Genetic Engineering DNA technology entails the sequencing, evaluation and cut-and-paste of DNA. The following paper analyzes the historical developments, techniques, applications, and controversies.
- Restricting the Volume of Sale of Fast Foods and Genetically Modified Foods The effects of fast foods and genetically modified foods on the health of Arizona citizens are catastrophic. The control of such outlets and businesses is crucial.
- Genetic Engineering: Cloning With Pet-28A Embedding genes into plasmid vectors is an integral part of molecular cloning as part of genetic engineering. An example is the cloning of the pectate lyase gene.
- The Importance of Heredity and Genetics The study of heredity and genetics is a diverse and multi-dimensional area of research that has allowed for the detailed exploration of disease development.
- Genetically Modified Organisms Solution to Global Hunger It is time for the nations to work together and solve the great challenge of feeding the population by producing sufficient food and using fewer inputs.
- Detection of Genetically Modified Products Today, people are becoming more concerned about the need to protect themselves from the effects of harmful factors and to buy quality food.
- Cause and Effect of Genetically Modified Food The paper states that better testing should be done on GMOs. It would lead to avoiding catastrophic health issues caused by these foods.
- Does Genetic Predisposition Affect Learning in Other Disciplines? This paper aims to examine each person’s ability to study a discipline for which there is no genetic ability and to understand how effective it is.
- Environmental Ethics in Genetically Modified Organisms The paper discusses genetically modified organisms. Environmental ethics is centered on the ethical dilemmas arising from human interaction with the nonhuman domain.
- The Morality of Selective Abortion and Genetic Screening The paper states that the morality of selective abortion and genetic screening is relative. This technology should be made available and legal.
- Genetics in Diagnosis of Diseases Medical genetics aims to study the role of genetic factors in the etiology and pathogenesis of various human diseases.
- Relation Between Genetics and Intelligence Intelligence is a mental ability to learn from experience, tackle issues and use knowledge to adapt to new situations and the factor g may access intelligence of a person.
- Nutrition: Obesity Pandemic and Genetic Code The environment in which we access the food we consume has changed. Unhealthy foods are cheaper, and there is no motivation to eat healthily.
- Gene Transfer and Genetic Engineering Mechanisms This paper discusses gene transfer mechanisms and the different genetic engineering mechanisms. Gene transfer, a natural process, can cause variation in biological features.
- How Much Do Genetics Affect Us?
- What Can Livestock Breeders Learn From Conservation Genetics and Vice Versa?
- How Do Genetics Affect Caffeine Tolerance?
- How Dolly Sheep Changed Genetics Forever?
- What Is the Nature and Function of Genetics?
- What Are the Five Branches of Genetics?
- How Does Genetics Affect the Achievement of Food Security?
- Are Owls and Larks Different in Genetics When It Comes to Aggression?
- How Do Neuroscience and Behavioral Genetics Improve Psychiatric Assessment?
- How Does Genetics Influence Human Behavior?
- What Are Three Common Genetics Disorders?
- Can Genetics Cause Crime or Are We Presupposed?
- What Are Examples of Genetics Influences?
- How Do Genetics Influence Psychology?
- What Traits Are Influenced by Genetics?
- Why Tampering With Our Genetics Will Be Beneficial?
- How Genetics and Environment Affect a Child’s Behaviors?
- Which Country Is Best for Genetics Studies?
- How Does the Environment Change Genetics?
- Can Crop Models Identify Critical Gaps in Genetics, Environment, and Management Interactions?
- How Can Drug Metabolism and Transporter Genetics Inform Psychotropic Prescribing?
- Can You Change Your Genetics?
- How Old Are European Genetics?
- Will Benchtop Sequencers Resolve the Sequencing Trade-off in Plant Genetics?
- What Can You Study in Genetics?
- What Are Some Genetic Issues?
- Does Genetics Matter for Disease-Related Stigma?
- How Did the Drosophila Melanogaster Impact Genetics?
- What Is a Genetics Specialist?
- Will Genetics Destroy Sports?
- The role of genes in our food preferences.
- The molecular mechanisms of aging and longevity.
- Genomic privacy: ways to protect genetic information.
- The effects of genes on athletic performance.
- CRISPR-Cas9 gene editing: current applications and future perspectives.
- Genetic underpinnings of human intelligence.
- The genetic foundations of human behavior.
- The role of DNA analysis in criminal justice.
- The influence of genetic diversity on a species’ fate.
- Genetic ancestry testing: the process and importance.
- Genetic foundations of rare diseases.
- Genetic risk factors for neurodegenerative disorders.
- Inherited cancer genes and their impact on tumor development.
- Genetic variability in drug metabolism and its consequences.
- The role of genetic and environmental factors in disease development.
- Genomic cancer medicine: therapies based on tumor DNA sequencing.
- Non-invasive prenatal testing: benefits and challenges.
- Genetic basis of addiction.
- The origins of domestication genes in animals.
- How can genetics affect a person’s injury susceptibility?
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StudyCorgi . 2023. "200 Genetics Research Topics & Essay Questions for College and High School." November 8, 2023. https://studycorgi.com/ideas/genetics-essay-topics/.
StudyCorgi . (2023) '200 Genetics Research Topics & Essay Questions for College and High School'. 8 November.
These essay examples and topics on Genetics were carefully selected by the StudyCorgi editorial team. They meet our highest standards in terms of grammar, punctuation, style, and fact accuracy. Please ensure you properly reference the materials if you’re using them to write your assignment.
The essay topic collection was published on January 16, 2022 . Last updated on November 8, 2023 .
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Genetic engineering articles from across Nature Portfolio
Genetic engineering is the act of modifying the genetic makeup of an organism. Modifications can be generated by methods such as gene targeting, nuclear transplantation, transfection of synthetic chromosomes or viral insertion. Selective breeding is not considered a form of genetic engineering.
Intrinsic RNA-targeting activity limits the applicability of CRISPR–Cas13
We revealed that the RNA-targeting activity of the Cas13 family of nucleases allows them to directly target endogenous RNA in mammalian cells. Such activity limits the usage of lentiviral Cas13 systems, and suggests a need for caution when applying Cas13-based systems.
Latest Research and Reviews
Towards affordable CRISPR genomic therapies: a task force convened by the Innovative Genomics Institute
- Lea Witkowsky
- Matthew Norstad
- Melinda Kliegman
Genomic disturbance of vitellogenin 2 ( vtg2 ) leads to vitellin membrane deficiencies and significant mortalities at early stages of embryonic development in zebrafish ( Danio rerio )
- Ozlem Yilmaz
- Emmanuelle Com
- Julien Bobe
Intrinsic targeting of host RNA by Cas13 constrains its utility
Cas13 can intrinsically target host RNA in mammalian cells through previously unrecognized mechanisms without the involvement of a CRISPR RNA, and host genes involved in viral processes can constrain the lentiviral delivery and expression of Cas13.
Developing mitochondrial base editors with diverse context compatibility and high fidelity via saturated spacer library
Ddd-Aderived cytosine base editors (DdCBEs) are important for research of mitochondrial DNA mutation diseases. Here the authors report a strategy for screening and characterising dsDNA cytidine deaminases, and identify 7 DddA homologs which they optimise to minimise nuclear and mitochondrial off-target editing.
- Haifeng Sun
- Zhaojun Wang
Sonogenetic control of multiplexed genome regulation and base editing
Exogenous control of genes in vivo is important. Here the authors report a system that can be inducibly activated through thermal energy produced by ultrasound absorption and use this to control induction of gene activation and base editing: they apply this in cell lines and in a mouse model.
- Josquin Foiret
Mitigating a TDP-43 proteinopathy by targeting ataxin-2 using RNA-targeting CRISPR effector proteins
TDP43 proteinopathies are a devastating group of neurodegenerative disorders. Here the authors show that RNA-targeting CRISPR effector proteins can be used to mitigate TDP-43 pathology when targeting ataxin-2, a modifier of TDP-43-associated toxicity, and apply this to a mouse model.
- M. Alejandra Zeballos C.
- Hayden J. Moore
News and Comment
Base editing: a novel cure for severe combined immunodeficiency
- Teng-Cheong Ha
- Michael Morgan
- Axel Schambach
A new chance for genome editing in Europe
- Hervé Vanderschuren
- Patience Chatukuta
- Devang Mehta
In vivo editing of blood stem cells
Breda et al. developed a method for gene editing bone marrow cells in vivo, circumventing the need for toxic conditioning regimens such as chemotherapy or radiation.
- Michael Attwaters
Efficient A-to-C base editing with high specificity
Generating A-to-C transversions in specific targets via base editing technology has been challenging. By fusing an evolved alkyladenine DNA glycosylase with an engineered adenine deaminase TadA-8e variant and nickase Cas9, we have developed A-to-C base editors that generate precise and efficient A-to-C transversions in cells and in mouse embryos, expanding the possible applications of base editing.
Transfection reflections: fit-for-purpose delivery of nucleic acids
Elfick and Wells-Holland promote a concerted effort to quantitatively characterize transfection methodologies.
- Chris Wells-Holland
- Alistair Elfick
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- Eur J Hum Genet
- v.26(1); 2018 Jan
One small edit for humans, one giant edit for humankind? Points and questions to consider for a responsible way forward for gene editing in humans
Heidi c. howard.
1 Centre for Research Ethics and Bioethics, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden
Carla G. van El
2 Department of Clinical Genetics, Section Community Genetics and EMGO Institute for Health and Care Research, VU University Medical Center, Amsterdam, The Netherlands
3 Department of Clinical Genetics, Great Ormond Street Hospital, London, UK
4 Laboratory for Molecular Genetics, Institute of Molecular Genetics and Genetic Engineering, University of Belgrade, Belgrade, Serbia
5 UMR 1027, Inserm, Faculté de médecine Université Toulouse 3, Paul Sabatier, Toulouse France
Guido de Wert
7 Department of Health, Ethics and Society, Research Schools CAPHRI and GROW, Maastricht University, Maastricht, The Netherlands
6 Centre for Biomedical Ethics and Law, Department of Public Health and Primary Care, Leuven Institute for Genomics and Society, KU Leuven, Kapucijnenvoer 35 Box 7001, 3000 Leuven, Belgium
Martina C. Cornel
Gene editing, which allows for specific location(s) in the genome to be targeted and altered by deleting, adding or substituting nucleotides, is currently the subject of important academic and policy discussions. With the advent of efficient tools, such as CRISPR-Cas9, the plausibility of using gene editing safely in humans for either somatic or germ line gene editing is being considered seriously. Beyond safety issues, somatic gene editing in humans does raise ethical, legal and social issues (ELSI), however, it is suggested to be less challenging to existing ethical and legal frameworks; indeed somatic gene editing is already applied in (pre-) clinical trials. In contrast, the notion of altering the germ line or embryo such that alterations could be heritable in humans raises a large number of ELSI; it is currently debated whether it should even be allowed in the context of basic research. Even greater ELSI debates address the potential use of germ line or embryo gene editing for clinical purposes, which, at the moment is not being conducted and is prohibited in several jurisdictions. In the context of these ongoing debates surrounding gene editing, we present herein guidance to further discussion and investigation by highlighting three crucial areas that merit the most attention, time and resources at this stage in the responsible development and use of gene editing technologies: (1) conducting careful scientific research and disseminating results to build a solid evidence base; (2) conducting ethical, legal and social issues research; and (3) conducting meaningful stakeholder engagement, education and dialogue.
Gene editing, which allows for specific location(s) in the genome to be targeted and changed by deleting, adding or substituting nucleotides, is currently the subject of much academic, industry and policy discussions. While not new per se, gene editing has become a particularly salient topic primarily due to a relatively novel tool called CRISPR-Cas9. This specific tool distinguishes itself from its counterparts, (e.g., zinc-finger nucleases and TAL effector nucleases (TALENs)) due to a mixture of increased efficiency (number of sites altered), specificity (at the exact location targeted), ease of use and accessibility for researchers (e.g., commercially available kits), as well as a relatively affordable price [ 1 ]. These attributes make CRISPR-Cas9 an extremely useful and powerful tool that can (and has) been used in research in order to alter the genes in cells from a large range of different organisms, including plants, non-human animals and microorganisms, as well as in human cells [ 2 ]. Ultimately, CRISPR-Cas9 is becoming increasingly available to a larger number of scientists, who have used it, or intend to use it for a myriad of reasons in many different research domains. When such powerful and potentially disruptive technologies or tools (begin to) show a tendency to become widely used, it is common for debate and discussion to erupt. Germane to this debate is the fact that with the advent of CRISPR-Cas9 and other similar tools (e.g., CRISPR Cpf1), the possibility of using the technique of gene editing in a potentially safe and effective manner in humans—whether for somatic or germ line/heritable 1 gene editing—has become feasible in the near to medium future.
With some clinical trials underway, somatic genetic editing for therapeutic purposes is certainly much closer to being offered in the clinic. For example, several clinical trials on HIV are ongoing [ 3 , 4 ]; in 2015 an infant with leukaemia was treated with modified immunes cells (using TALENs) from a healthy donor [ 5 ]. Moreover, in the autumn of 2016, a Chinese group became 'the first to inject a person with cells that contain genes edited using the CRISPR-Cas9 technique' within the context of a clinical trial for aggressive lung cancer [ 6 ]. With such tools, gene editing is being touted as a feasible approach to treat or even cure certain single-gene diseases such as beta-thalassaemia and sickle-cell disease through somatic gene editing [ 3 ].
Beyond somatic cell gene editing, there is also discussion that through the manipulation of germ line cells or embryos, gene editing could be used to trans-generationally 'correct' or avoid single-gene disorders entirely. Notably, (ethical) concerns about heritable gene editing in humans were heightened when in April 2015, a group at Sun Yat-sen University in Guangzhou, China, led by Dr. Junjiu Huang reported they had successfully used gene editing in human embryos [ 7 ]. They used CRISPR-Cas9 to modify the beta-globin gene in non-viable (triplonuclear) spare embryos from in vitro fertility treatments. The authors concluded that while the experiments were successful overall, it is difficult to predict all the intended and unintended outcomes of gene editing in embryos (e.g., mosaicism, off-target events) and that 'clinical applications of the CRISPR-Cas9 system may be premature at this stage' [ 7 ]. Partly in anticipation/response to these experiments and to the increasing use of CRISPR-Cas9 in many different areas, a number of articles were published [ 2 , 8 – 14 ] and meetings were organized [ 9 , 10 , 15 – 17 ] in order to further discuss the scientific, ethical, legal, policy and social issues of gene editing, particularly regarding heritable human gene editing and the responsible way forward.
Internationally, some first position papers on human gene editing were published in 2015 and 2016. Interestingly, these different recommendations and statements do not entirely concur with one another. The United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organisation (UNESCO) called for a temporary ban on any use of germ line gene editing [ 18 ]. The Society for Developmental Biology 'supports a voluntary moratorium by members of the scientific community on all manipulation of pre- implantation human embryos by genome editing ' [ 19 ]. The Washington Summit (2015) organizers (National Academy of Sciences, the U.S. National Academy of Medicine, the Chinese Academy of Sciences and the U.K.’s Royal Society) recommended against any use of it in the clinic at present [ 17 ] and specified that with increasing scientific knowledge and advances, this stance 'should be revisited on regular basis' [ 17 ]. Indeed, this was done, to some extent, in a follow-up report by the US National Academy of Sciences and National Academy of Medicine, in which the tone of the recommendations appear much more open towards allowing germ line modifications in the clinic [ 20 , 21 ]. Meanwhile, the 'Hinxton group' also stated that gene editing 'is not sufficiently developed to consider human genome editing for clinical reproductive purposes at this time' [ 22 ] and they proposed a set of general recommendations to move the science of gene editing ahead in an established and accepted regulatory framework. Despite these differences, at least two arguments are consistent throughout these guidance documents: (1) the recognition of the need for further research regarding the risks and benefits; and (2) the recognition of the need for on-going discussion and/or education involving a wide range of stakeholders (including lay publics) regarding the potential clinical use and ethical and societal issues and impacts of heritable gene editing. It should be noted, however, that in the 2017 National Academies of Science, and of Medicine Report, the role of public engagement (PE) and dialogue was presented within the context of having to discuss the use of gene editing for enhancement vs. therapy (rather than somatic vs. heritable gene editing, which was the case in the 2015 summit report) [ 20 , 21 ].
Although many stakeholders, including scientists, clinicians and patients are enthusiastic about the present and potential future applications of these more efficient tools in both the research and clinical contexts, there are also important concerns about moving forward with gene editing technologies for clinical use in humans, and to some extent, for use in the laboratory as well. As we have learned from other ethically sensitive areas in the field of genetics and genomics, such as newborn screening, reproductive genetics or return of results, normative positions held by different stakeholders may be dissimilar and even completely incompatible. This might be influenced by various factors, such as commercial pressure, a technological imperative, ideological or political views, or personal values. Furthermore, it is clear that associated values often differ between different stakeholder groups, different cultures and countries (e.g., where some may be more/less liberal), making widespread or global agreement on such criteria very difficult, if not impossible to reach [ 23 , 24 ].
From this perspective, it was important to study the opportunities and challenges created by the use of gene editing (with CRISPR-Cas9 and other similar tools) within the Public and Professional Policy Committee (PPPC) 2 of the European Society of Human Genetics (ESHG; https://www.eshg.org/pppc.0.html ). Our committee advances that ESHG members and related stakeholders should be aware of, and if possible, take part in the current debates surrounding gene editing. Although not all genetics researchers will necessarily use gene editing in their research, and while gene editing as a potential treatment strategy, may appear, initially, somewhat separate from the diagnostics-focused present day Genetics Clinic, we believe that these stakeholders have an important role to play in the discussions around the development of these tools. For one, their expertise in the science of genetics and in dealing with patients with genetic diseases makes them a rare set of stakeholders who are particularly well placed to not only understand the molecular aspects and critically assess the scientific discourse, but also understand current clinic/hospital/health system resources, as well as human/patient needs. Furthermore, in more practical terms, one could consider that clinical genetics laboratories could be involved in the genome sequencing needed to verify for off-target events in somatic gene editing; and that clinical geneticists and/or genetic counsellors could be involved in some way in the offer of such treatment, especially in any counselling related to the genetic condition for which treatment is sought.
The PPPC is an interdisciplinary group of clinicians and researchers with backgrounds in different fields of expertise including Genetics, Health Law, Bioethics, Philosophy, Sociology, Health Policy, Psychology, as well as Health Economics. As a first step, a sub-committee was assigned the task to specifically study the subject of gene editing (including attending international meetings on the subject) and report back to the remaining members. Subsequently, all PPPC members contributed to a collective discussion during the January 2016 PPPC meeting in Zaandam, The Netherlands (15–16 January 2016). At this meeting, a decision was reached to develop an article outlining the main areas that need to be addressed in order to proceed responsibly with human gene editing, including a review of the critical issues for a multidisciplinary audience and the formulation of crucial questions that require answers as we move forward. A first draft of the article was developed by the sub-committee. This draft was further discussed during the 2016 ESHG annual meeting in Barcelona (21–24 May 2016). A second draft was developed and sent out for comments by all PPPC members and a final draft of the article was concluded based on these comments. Although the work herein acts as guidance for further discussion, reflection and research, the ESHG will be publishing separate recommendations on germ line gene editing (accepted during the 2017 annual meeting in Copenhagen, Denmark).
In the context of the ongoing discussion and debate surrounding gene editing, we present herein three crucial areas that merit the most attention at this stage in the responsible development and use of these gene editing technologies, particularly for uses that directly or indirectly affect humans:
- Conducting careful scientific research to build an evidence base.
- Conducting ethical, legal and social issues (ELSI) research.
- Conducting meaningful stakeholder engagement, education, and dialogue (SEED).
Although the main focus of this discussion article is on the use of gene editing in humans (or in human cells) in research and in the clinic for both somatic and heritable gene editing, we also briefly mention the use of gene editing in non-humans as this will also affect humans indirectly.
Conduct ongoing responsible scientific research to build a solid evidence base
The benefits, as well as risks and negative impacts encountered when conducting gene editing in any research context should be adequately monitored and information about these should be made readily available. Particular attention should be paid to the dissemination of the information by reporting and/or publishing both the 'successful' and 'unsuccessful' experiments including the benefits and risks involved in experiments using gene editing in both human and non-human cells and organisms (Table 1 ).
Example of questions that should be addressed regarding building a scientific evidence base for gene editing
An evidence base regarding actual (and potential) health risks and benefits relevant to the use of gene editing in the human context still needs to be built. Therefore, a discussion needs to be held regarding what type of monitoring, reporting and potential proactive search for any physically based risks and benefits should be conducted by researchers using gene editing. Hereby, various questions emerge: are the current expectations and practices of sharing the results of academic and commercial research adequate for the current and future field of gene editing? Should there be a specific system established for the (systematic) monitoring of some types of basic and (pre-) clinical research? If so, which stakeholders/agencies should or could be responsible for this? How could or should an informative long-term medical surveillance of human patients be organized? Following treatment, would patients be obliged to commit to lifelong follow-up? And, if relevant, how could long-term consequences be monitored for future generations? For example, if heritable gene editing was allowed, from logistical and ELSI perspectives, there would be many challenges in attempting to ensure that the initial patients (in whom gene editing was conducted), as well as their offspring would report for some form of follow-up medical check-ups to assess the full impact of gene editing on future generations while still respecting these individuals’ autonomy.
Although the availability of results and potential monitoring are especially important in a biomedical context for all experiments and assays conducted in human cells, and especially in any ex vivo or in vivo trials with humans, relevant and useful information (to the human context and/or affecting humans) can also be gleaned from the results of experiments with non-human animals and even plants. Furthermore, as clearly explained by Caplan et al. [ 2 ], gene editing in insects, plants and non-human animals are currently taking place and may have very concrete and important impacts on human health long before any gene editing experiments are used in any regular way in the health-care setting. As such, while keeping a focus on human use, there should also be monitoring of the results in non-human and non-model organism experiments and potential applications [ 2 ]. Effects might include change of the ecosystem, of microbial environment, (including the microbiome, of parasites and zoonosis, which can involve new combinations with some disappearing, and/or new unexpected ones appearing), change to vegetation, which has a reflection on our vegetal food and on animals’ food and natural niche [ 25 ]. All this will have an impact on the environment, and consequently on organisms (including humans) who are exposed to this altered environment, hence the monitoring of risks and benefits is very important. Especially with gene editing of organisms for human consumption (in essence, genetically modified organisms), it will be important to note that the absence of obvious harms does not mean that there are no harms. Proper studies must be conducted and information regarding these should be made readily available.
Ongoing reflection, research and dialogue on the ELSI of gene editing as it pertains to humans
Research on the ELSI and impacts of human gene editing should be conducted in tandem with the basic scientific research, as well as with any implementations of gene editing in the clinic. Appropriate resources and priority should be granted to support and promote ELSI research; it should be performed unabated, in a meaningful way and by individuals from a diverse range of disciplines (Table 2 ).
Example of questions needed to be addressed for the ethical, legal, and social issues research (ELSI) of gene editing
Ongoing research, reflection and dialogue should address all ELSI 3 salient to gene editing. With respect to gene editing in humans, both somatic and germ line/heritable embryonic gene editing contexts should be addressed. As stated above, we should also study the ELSI of gene editing in non-human and non experimental/model organisms, including issues surrounding the potential (legal and logistical related to implementation) confusions surrounding the use of the terms genetically modified organisms vs. the term gene-edited organisms.
Somatic gene editing
Although somatic gene editing is not free from ethical, legal and social implications—it is, in many respects, similar to more traditional 'gene therapy' approaches in humans—it has been suggested that in many cases, the use of somatic gene editing does not challenge existing ethical, legal and social frameworks as much as heritable gene editing. However, as with any new experimental therapeutic, the unknowns still outweigh what is known and issues of risk assessment and safety, risk/benefit calculation, patient monitoring (potentially for long periods), reimbursement, equity in access to new therapies and the potential for the unjustified draining of resources from more pressing (albeit less novel) therapies, particular protection for vulnerable populations (e.g., fetuses, children (lacking competencies)), and informed consent remain important to study further [ 26 ].
Furthermore, as with any new (disruptive) technology or application, there often remains a gap to be filled between the setting of abstract principles or guidelines and how to apply these in practice. Indeed, important questions and uncertainties surrounding somatic gene editing both in research and in the clinic remain, including, but not limited to: do the established (national and international) legal and regulatory frameworks (e.g., Regulation (EC) no. 1394/2007 on advanced therapy medicinal products) need further shaping/revisions to appropriately address somatic gene editing (including not just issues with the products per se but also for issues related to potential health tourism)? And if so, how would this best be accomplished? Do present clinical trial principles and protocols suffice? How exactly will trials in somatic gene editing be conducted and evaluated? Do we need particular protection or status for patients in such trials? What procedures will be instilled for patients receiving such treatments (e.g., consent, genetic counselling, follow-up monitoring)? Furthermore, to what extent will commercial companies be able to, or be allowed to offer, potentially upon consumer request, treatments based on techniques where so much uncertainty regarding harms remains? Importantly, which health-care professionals will be involved in the provision of somatic gene therapy and the care of patients who undergo such treatments? Who will decide on roles and responsibilities in this novel context? And, based on what criteria will the eligible diseases/populations to be treated be chosen? Indeed, these questions can also all be applied to the context of heritable gene editing, which is discussed below.
Germ line/heritable gene editing
With respect to germ line or heritable gene editing in humans, the ELSI are more challenging than for somatic gene editing, yet they are not all new per se either. Some of these previously discussed concerns include, but are not limited to: issues addressing sanctity of human life, and respect for human dignity, the moral status of the human embryo, individual autonomy, respect and protection for vulnerable persons, respect for cultural and biological diversity and pluralism, disability rights, protection of future generations, equitable access to new technologies and health care, the potential reduction of human genetic variation, stakeholder roles and responsibilities in decision making, as well as how to conduct 'globally responsible' science [ 16 , 2 , 11 , 18 ]. Discussions and debates over some of these topics have been held numerous times in the last three decades, especially within the context of in vitro fertilization, transgenic animals, cloning, pre-implantation genetic diagnosis (PGD), research with stem cells and induced pluripotent stem cells, as well as related to the large scope of discussion around 'enhancement' [ 13 ]. Although it is important to identify and reflect on more general ELSI linked with heritable gene editing and these different contexts, it is also vital to reflect on the ELSI that may be (more) specific to this novel approach. For example, would the fact that for the first time a human (scientist or clinician) would be directly editing the nuclear DNA of another human in a heritable way cause some form of segregation of types of humans? Creators and the created? [ 27 ] Clearly, we need time for additional reflection and discussion on such topics. Distinguishing the ELSI between different yet related contexts will allow for a deeper understanding of the issues and the rationale behind their (un)acceptability by different stakeholders.
A major contextual difference in the current discussions regarding germ line/heritable gene editing is that we have never been so close to having the technology to perform it in humans in a potentially safe and effective manner. Hence, as we move closer to this technical possibility and as we work out the scientific issues of efficiency and safety, the discussions orient themselves increasingly towards the ELSI regarding whether or not we want to even use heritable gene editing in a laboratory or clinical setting, and if so, how we want it to be used, by whom and based on which criteria? This includes, but is not limited to the following questions: should gene editing of human germ line cells, gametes and embryos be allowed in basic research—for the further understanding of human biology (e.g., human development) and without the intention of being used for creating modified human life? Some jurisdictions, such as the UK, have already answered this question, and are allowing this technique in the research setting in human cells in vitro (they will not be placed in a human body, the research will only involve studying the human embryos outside of the body) whereby researchers need to apply for permission to conduct such research. Some believe that allowing this will inevitably lead to the technology being used in the clinic (the so-called 'slippery slope' argument). This, then, brings us to the question at the centre of the debate: should gene editing of germ line cells, gametes or embryos or any other cell that results in a heritable alteration be allowed in humans in a clinical setting? Germane to this issue is another vital question: what, if any, principles or reasoning would justify the use of hereditary gene editing in humans in a clinical context given the current ban on such techniques in many jurisdictions? The new EU clinical trial Regulation (536/2014 Art 90 al.2.) does not allow germ line modification in humans. Should there be leeway for reconsidering this ban in the future in view of the possible benefits of therapeutic germ line gene editing? Should we first understand the risks and benefits of somatic gene editing before even seriously considering heritable gene editing? If we consider that it could be used in some situations, should we only consider using germ line gene editing in the clinic if there are absolutely no other alternatives? Should already established and potentially safer 4 reproductive alternatives, like PGD, be the approaches of choice before even considering germ line gene editing? If we do entertain its use, what, if any criteria, will be safe enough according to different stakeholders (scientists, ethicists, clinicians, policy makers, patients, general public) for it to be legitimate to consider using gene editing for reproductive use? Who will set this safety threshold and based on what risk/benefit calculations? Furthermore, if ever allowed, should heritable human gene editing be permitted only for specific medical purposes with a particular high chance of developing a disease (e.g., only when parents have a-near-100% risk of having a child affected with a serious disorder), and if so, would it matter if the risk is not 100%, but (much) lower? In addition, how can we, or should we define/demarcate medical reasons from enhancement? And, as was posed above for the use in somatic cells, for what medical conditions will gene editing be considered appropriate for use? What will the criteria be and who will decide?
Taking a step back and looking at the issues from a more general perspective, such ELSI research and reflection will need to address, among others, questions that fall under the following themes:
- the balance of risks and benefits for individual patients and also for the larger community and ecosystem as a whole;
- the ethical, governance and legislative frameworks;
- the motivations and interests 'pushing' gene editing to be used;
- the roles and responsibilities of different stakeholders in ensuring the ethically acceptable use of gene editing, including making sure that every stakeholder voice is heard;
- the commercial presence, influence, and impact on (the use of) gene editing;
- the rationale behind the allocation of resources for health care and research and if and which kind of shift might be expected with the new technologies on the rise.
Additional overarching issues relating to ELSI include the need to take a historical perspective and consider previous attempts to deal with genetic technologies and what or how we can learn from these; the need to consider how group actors could or should accept a shared global responsibility when it comes to the governance of gene editing; the potential eugenic tendencies related to new technologies used to eliminate disease phenotypes; the responsibility of current society for future generations; the way different stakeholders may perceive and desire to eliminate (genetic) risk and/or uncertainty by using new technologies such as gene editing; and the potential role(s) different stakeholders, including 'experts', may inadvertently play in propagating a false sense of control over human health.
Although the human context is where much of the attention currently resides, and is indeed, the focus of this article, as mentioned above, we also stress that many concerns and ELSI also stem from the use of gene editing in non-human organisms (plants, insects and microorganisms), the study of which, could inform the human context. More importantly, given that the use of gene editing in these organisms is currently taking place in laboratories and, if released, some of these gene-edited organisms could have a large impact on the environment and society [ 2 ], the ELSI of gene editing in non-human organisms should also be seriously addressed. In this respect, the current debates over definitions and whether plants and non-human animals in which gene editing is performed are considered (legally) genetically modified organisms (GMOs) are particularly important to consider; indeed, this legal stance may be a misleading way to describe the scientific differences in practice. Moreover, the manipulation of definitions may also be used to circumvent the negative press and opinions surrounding GMOs in Europe. Last, but not least, the use of gene editing for the creation of biologic weapons is a possibility that must be discussed and adequately managed [ 2 ].
In order to ensure that the appropriate ELSI research is conducted to answer these myriad questions, ELSI researchers must ensure adequate understanding of scientific facts and possibilities of gene editing, ensure appropriate use of robust methods [ 29 ] to answer specific ELSI questions, as well as learn from previous research on related themes such as (traditional) gene therapy, reproductive technologies, and GMOs. Furthermore, funding will have to be prioritized for ELSI research. National and European funding agencies should ensure that ELSI funding is given in certain proportion to how much gene editing research is being conducted in the laboratory and (pre) clinical domain. In practice, this will mean ensuring that there are adequate review panels for stand-alone ELSI grants, which do not usually fall within any one traditional academic field (e.g., philosophy, law or social sciences). The requirement of including ELSI work packages within science grants may also be useful if such work packages are conducted by ELSI experts (and this is verified by the funding agencies), that they are given enough budget to conduct research and not only offer services, and that the ELSI work package is not co-opted by the science agenda. Spending money on ELSI research has already allowed for the information to be used in more applied ways. Among others, ELSI research has contributed to helping individual researchers understand what kind of research they are (not) allowed to do in certain countries or regions; helped to design appropriate consent forms for research and clinic; and has helped inform policy decisions.
As ELSI are identified, studied and discussed, it will be of utmost importance to communicate these with as many publics as relevant and possible in a clear and comprehensive way so that the largest number of different stakeholders can understand and engage in a discussion about these issues. With respect to engaging non-academic and non-expert audiences in meaningful dialogue, the challenges are greater. Yet, as this is a vital element of conducting science and preparing clinical applications in a responsible manner and stretches beyond the academic focus of ELSI we propose to distinguish a third domain dedicated to such stakeholder engagement, education and dialogue (SEED) described below.
Stakeholder engagement, education and dialogue (SEED)
To deliver socially responsible research (and health care), an ongoing robust and meaningful multidisciplinary dialogue among a diverse group of stakeholders, including lay publics, should be initiated and maintained to discuss scientific and ethically relevant issues related to gene editing. Publics must not only be asked to engage in the discussion, but they should also be given proper information and education regarding the known facts, as well as the uncertainties regarding the use of gene editing in research and in the clinic. In this way, the two focal areas described above will feed into these SEED goals. Stakeholders should also be given the tools to be able to reflect on the ethically relevant issues in order to help informed decision making. Appropriate resources and prioritization should be granted to support and promote SEED (Table 3 ).
Examples of questions to be answered regarding stakeholder, engagement, education and dialogue (SEED) for gene editing
As mentioned in the introduction, the statements addressing gene editing published by different groups and organizations have highlighted the need for an ongoing discussion about human gene editing among all stakeholders, including experts, and the general public(s) [ 8 , 9 , 17 ], In calling for an 'ongoing international forum to discuss the potential clinical uses of gene editing', the organizing committee of the International Summit on Human Gene Editing stated that
'The forum should be inclusive among nations and engage a wide range of perspectives and expertise – including from biomedical scientists, social scientists, ethicists, health care providers, patients and their families, people with disabilities, policymakers, regulators, research funders, faith leaders, public interest advocates, industry representatives, and members of the general public' [ 17 ].
Hence, this implies that not only should different expertise be represented in this ongoing discussion, but lay publics should also be included. For this to be a meaningful and impactful endeavour, all stakeholders involved should be appropriately informed and educated about the basic science and possibilities of gene editing. Academic/professional silos, differences in language, definitions, approaches and general lack of experience with multi- and inter-disciplinary work are all barriers to involving different expert stakeholders in meaningful exchange and dialogue. Some first constructive steps have included the posting online of meeting and conference presentations on gene editing (e.g., the 3 days of the Washington Summit ( http://www.nationalacademies.org/gene-editing/Gene-Edit-Summit/index.htm .), Eurordis webinars and meetings aimed at informing patients, http://www.eurordis.org/tv ). Beyond this, one important barrier to having a truly meaningful and inclusive multidisciplinary discussion about new technologies is the (potential) lack of knowledge and/or understanding of different publics [ 30 ]. Indeed, it is not reasonable for experts to expect that all concerned stakeholders are properly informed about the science and/or the social and ethical issues, which are important requisites for having meaningful and productive conversations about responsible gene editing. Furthermore, a pitfall we must avoid is using PE with the aim of persuading or gaining acceptance of technologies instead of 'true participation' [ 31 ] and as a means to allow for supporting informed opinions.
Another critical issue is the role and influence of different stakeholders, including the media, in educating and informing the public. What are the roles and responsibilities of different stakeholders in setting up and maintaining responsible engagement and dialogue? What will, and what should be the role of scientists in popular media communications and other SEED activities? Where will the funding for these activities come from? Financial and temporal resources will have to be reserved for such SEED regarding gene editing. Resources will also be needed to conduct further research on the best way to engage different publics and to study whether engagement strategies are successful.
Moreover, before engaging different publics and asking for their feedback, whichever stakeholders take on this task must seriously reflect on the precise reasons for which lay publics are being engaged. What is the goal? And, what method of engagement will best meet these goals? There is also a need for honest evaluation of engagement efforts to report on their impacts and outcomes. Indeed, the purposes of PE in science can vary widely, including, among others, informing, consulting and/or collaborating; [ 32 ] clearly each of these implies different levels of participation by publics, and by extension, different levels of influence on a topic. Importantly, there are a long list of questions that also need to be answered for PE (Table 3 ), including but not limited to how different voices will be weighed and if or how they will be used in any policy or decision making.
The value of PE in the form of public dialogue in a democratic society, (and we would specify its contribution to responsible science) is very well summarized by Mohr and Raman (2012) in a perspective piece on the UK Stem Cell Dialogue: [ 31 ]
'The value of public dialogue in a democratic society is twofold. From a normative perspective, the process of PE is in itself a good thing in that the public should be consulted on decisions in which they have a stake. From a substantive standpoint, PE generates manifold perspectives, visions, and values that are relevant to the science and technologies in question, and could potentially lead to more socially robust outcomes (which may differ from the outcomes envisaged by sponsors or scientists)' [ 31 ].
Particularly for the purposes of gene editing, we consider SEED a way to try to ensure that decisions on a subject that is filled with uncertainties, and could have important implications for society for generations to come, is not left in the hands of a few. We want to underline the need for: lay publics to be informed to support transparency; lay publics to be educated to support autonomy and informed opinion/decision making; different voices and concerns to be heard and considered through ongoing dialogue to help ensure that no one stakeholder group pursue their interests unchecked. Although it is beyond the scope of this article to go into any detail, it is important to take the time to learn from past and ongoing engagement efforts in science in general [ 32 ], as well as in biomedicine, including areas like stem cell research [ 31 ] and genetics [ 30 , 33 ]. For example, we can learn about: how PE can generate value and impact for a society, as well as how to conceive of and evaluate a PE programme [ 32 ]; the nuances around 'representative samples' and if they really are representative [ 31 ]; how letting citizens be the 'architects' rather than just participants of engagement (activities) could help to ward against the generation of 'predetermined outcomes' [ 31 ]; the utility of deliberative PE to 'offer useful information to policy makers [ 30 ]. Given all the different reasons for PE, and given the higher standards expected for PE in recent years [ 34 ] it is to be expected that each PE activity will have to be adjusted for the specific context. There are, also, useful tools for PE from a European funded project called 'PE2020, Public Engagement Innovations for Horizon 2020' [ 35 ], which has as an aim to 'to identify, analyse and refine innovative public engagement (PE) tools and instruments for dynamic governance in the field of Science in Society (SiS)' [ 35 ].
As already mentioned above for ELSI research, funding agencies will have to prioritize resources for these SEED activities, and the strategies we outlined for ELSI, could also apply for SEED.
In the midst of a plethora of debate over gene editing, different stakeholder views, preferences, agendas and messages, it is crucial to focus our limited resources, including human resources, time and finances on the most important areas that will enable and support the responsible use of gene editing. We have identified the following three areas that merit an equitable distribution of attention and resources in the immediate and medium-term future:
- Conducting ELSI research.
Indeed, one way to ensure that each of these three important areas receive adequate financial support to conduct the necessary work would be for international and national funding agencies to announce specific funding calls on gene editing. They could also encourage or require that scientific projects focused on gene editing include ELSI and SEED along with the scientific work packages. Furthermore, understandably, priorities need to be made with respect to resource allocation in the biomedical sciences, especially in such uncertain financial contexts, however, as expressed at the World Science Forum in Budapest in November 2011, we must ward against scarce funding being funnelled to single disciplines since it is common knowledge that much of the most valuable work is now multidisciplinary [ 36 ]. Moreover, at such a time funding entities must not 'expel' the social sciences 'from the temple' but rather, the hard sciences should 'invite them in to help public engagement' [ 36 ].
We thank all members of the Public and Professional Policy Committee of the ESHG for their valuable feedback and generosity in discussions. Members of PPPC in 2015–2017 were Caroline Benjamin, Pascal Borry, Angus Clarke, Martina Cornel, Carla van El, Florence Fellmann, Francesca Forzano, Heidi Carmen Howard, Hulya Kayserili, Bela Melegh, Alvaro Mendes, Markus Perola, Dragica Radijkovic, Maria Soller, Emmanuelle Rial-Sebbag and Guido de Wert. We also thank the anonymous reviewers for their constructive comments, which have helped to improve the article. Part of this work has been supported by the Swedish Foundation for Humanities and Social Science under grant M13-0260:1, and the CHIP ME COST Action IS1303.
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest.
The authors declare that they have no competing interests.
1 In this category, we include the editing of germ line cells, or embryonic cells, or even somatic cells that are edited and promoted to then become germ line cells in such a way that the alterations would be heritable.
2 This group studies salient ethical, legal, social, policy and economic aspects relating to genetics and genomics.
3 Herein, the terms 'ethical', 'legal' and 'social' are used in a broad sense, where, for example, issues such as economic evaluations, public health prioritization and other related areas would also be included. Indeed the first goal of 'SEED' (see below) is also, to some extent, part of ELSI research, however, given the paucity of meaningful PE in the past, combined with strong consensus regarding the current need and importance of such activities, we have chosen to highlight it separately. We also wish to stress the difference between academic ELSI research and the work of ethics review committees. Although both deal with ethical and legal issues, the former has as a main goal to advance research and does not act as a policing body, nor does it have an agenda per se. Furthemore, ELSI research does not only identify issues to be addressed but also works with scientists and policy makers to address the issues responsibly.
4 It is important to note that despite attempts at addressing these issues, even for technologies such as PGD [ 28 ].
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150 Fantastic Genetics Research Topics To Write Best Thesis
Studies on aging, cancer, genetics, clinical research, or disease have a thing to do with genetics. Every medical student needs this, and it doesn’t matter if you just got admission to college, are in a postgraduate study, or you’re graduating from a medical school. Genetics paper topics or topics for your essays guide you in deciding which area to focus on for your paper.
You can’t write a paper or essay out of context, which is why a custom and reliable genetics topic list can help you understand what to write about to impress your professors and get the best grades. This blog post is all about that, with recommendations on how to write an excellent paper.
What Is Genetics?
On the other hand, genes are the basic unit of inheritance. They are a transportation medium that passes features and characteristics down from ancestors to offspring. For instance, eye and hair color is a solid example of gene inheritance. If your parents are redheads, there’s a higher chance that you’ll be too.
How To Write A Good Research Paper
A good research paper heavily depends on how effectively you do your research. Research helps you understand your topic, making it easier to convey your information to the necessary audience. These are some of the essential steps to writing your paper:
Understand your topic to be able to research and express your thoughts well. Do your research and write an outline Draw up your first draft after thorough research. Remember, first drafts aren’t always perfect. Revisit your introduction, body of text, and conclusion Revise and edit Create a checklist, and see if you cross-checked all aspects Refine your paper
These steps are necessary to create an excellent paper. You also need a creative topic to whip out a fantastic paper. These are 140 genetics paper topics you can consider.
Topics In Genetics
There are hundreds of genetics topics to explore and build on to develop a well-written paper. Here are 25 of them:
- Discuss the effects of genetics on human life.
- How does conservation genetics affect livestock breeding?
- Discuss the three general genetic disorders
- Can gene mutation aid clinical malaria treatment?
- Can genetics tests combat Alzheimer’s disease?
- Discuss the relationship between genes and living cells.
- Can human genetic formation be predetermined before birth?
- Combating HIV with genetic mutation; discuss the possibility and consequences.
- Can genetics help in treating intellectually disabled children?
- Discuss the examples of genetic influences on human.
- How does the environment influence human genes?
- Analyze the characteristics and traits that are solely caused by genetic inheritance
- Discuss the ethical implications of tampering with genetic imprints
- Is genetic build a prerequisite for sports players?
- How do genes affect mental health?
- Discuss the influence of genetics on obesity
- Is genetic mutation the anticipated cure for cancer?
- Examine the influence of genes on human behavior
- Thoroughly examine and discuss the importance of the five branches of genetics to the human body
- Discuss the relationship between food security and genetics in the world economy.
- Do genes determine a child’s character development?
- How do scientists decipher the genetic code?
- Examine the process of gene crossing in animals
- Discuss gene regulation in animals and plants
- Could genetics be the cure for numerous diseases?
- Discuss the influence of cloning on cancer treatment.
- Critically examine the structural syndrome and genetic influence of the long QT syndrome.
- Discuss the possibility of using genetic mutation to strengthen bone density and avoid bone fragility.
- Discuss the aftereffects of prenatal testing using diagnostic procedures
- Discuss the impact of sexual dimorphisms in biomarkers; address both the metabolic and the genetic biomarkers.
Interesting Genetics Topics
There are controversial genetics topics that are interesting in nature. If you want to write engaging research papers, here are 20 interesting topics you can consider:
- Discuss the relationship between DNA and Alzheimer
- The benefits of genetic tests; do they save lives?
- Analyze the impact of genetics on human aging
- Discuss the effect of genetics on human-like longevity.
- Analyze the unique characteristics that differentiate each human from the others.
- Discuss the percentage of parental genes transmission to offspring; which parent passes down more genes?
- Analyze the possibility of mental illness inheritance in relation to genetics
- Discuss the relationship between diets and genetics
- Examine the possibility of DNA modification
- What is the basis of mutation?
- Discuss the history of DNA change during human evolution
- Is it possible to change human genes?
- Discuss the nature of genetic influence on female
- Examine the possibility of successful cloning in the future
- Analyze the relationship between human genetics and allergies.
- Discuss the ethical perspectives of genetics regarding research processes.
- What are the current human genetics research methods?
- Discuss the possible discovery of Dinosaur DNA in modern science.
- Why do humans look different?
- Does genetics influence human behavior?
- Healthy living and genetics: discuss the better way to ensure long life-expectancy rate in humans
- Discuss the animals that match human DNA closely, and examine why the resemblance exists.
- Obesity in humans; can genetics be blamed?
- Is the male gender more immune to obesity?
- Discuss the preventive methods against general mental illnesses.
Genetics Topics For Research Papers
You need excellent genetics research paper topics to write great essays. You can find topics on molecular genetics, transmission, and population genetics for your papers here:
- Discuss the futuristic possibility of genetic cloning.
- Discuss the research extent and success of the biological dark matter of the human genome.
- Does gene inheritance influence human behavior in any way?
- Discuss the relationship between pediatric mental research and genetics
- Do gene characteristics affect your investing capabilities?
- Discuss the gorilla genome; how it helped rare apes escape extinction
- Does gene inheritance include asthma?
- Can genetic testing help patients with bone diseases?
- Can In-Vitro disrupt the genetic reproduction chain?
- The influence of genomic hybridization on fruits
- Examine the future of genetic coding
- Discuss the methods behind genetic engineering
- Discuss how genetics can improve an individual’s personality
- RNA — Give an analysis of the expression and its use during the creation of the COVID-19 vaccine
- What’s the role of clathrin function in developing new tricks for an old protein
- Complex challenges in genetics and public health
- Lender’s congenital amaurosis: what are the long-term consequences of gene therapy?
- Which framework is used to create a relative estimate of pathogenicity in human genetic variants?
- Osteoporosis: assess how genetic mutations help in the severe bone disease
- Human placentae: how is mosaicism distributed?
- Genetics engineering: what are the foremost principles to adhere to?
- How should doctors navigate using gene therapy in altering germline traits?
- Hyperechogenic kidneys: Explain the expected outcome of prenatally diagnosed kidneys
- Cancer vaccine: assess their efficacy based on quantitative data
- DNA modules: What’s the role of 3D printing?
Genetics Topics For Presentation
If you’re writing a class presentation, and are skeptical about the best topic to choose. These are ten superb genetics topics up for grabs:
- Discuss the science behind gene replacement
- Examine the impact of genetics on diseases
- Can genes form an immunity barrier against certain germs in humans?
- Examine the development of transgenic organisms in genetic research laboratories
- Can genetics be used to fight against Parkinson’s disease?
- Analyze and compare the animal DNA to humans, using high compatibility animals like cows in the process
- Is cloning the next genetic trend?
- Discuss the influence of epigenetics on cocaine addiction
- Are genetics the driving force of evolution?
- Discuss Cystic fibrosis as a genetic disorder
Controversial Topics In Genetics
Genetics holds several disputations among scientists. If you want a debatable paper that’ll introduce and solve controversies. Here are 15 controversial topics genetics branches offer you:
- Discuss the ethical beliefs surrounding gene therapy.
- Will cloning produce a negative outcome in the future?
- Examine the debate regarding artificial insemination and natural pregnancy
- Are genetic tests 100% accurate?
- Would you consider parent changing their children’s DNA before their birth an ethical practice?
- Should human organs be grown?
- Should genetic testing be conducted, or deemed unethical due to processes and outcomes?
- Discuss the controversy surrounding a bioethics revolution
- Discuss the religious beliefs on creating a perfect child
- Are patients’ data at stake during human genetics research?
- Explain the risk of discrimination that might come with genetics science
- Examine the hospital’s right to patent human genetics, with or without patients’ discretion.
- Discuss the advantages and disadvantages of human genome research
- Discuss the ethical implications of gene editing
- Can cloning cause lethal defects in humans and animals?
Hot Topics In Genetics
Numerous interesting topics in genetics are bound to tickle your fancy. If you want to write about the current medical situation in genetics, you can pick from any of these 15 topics:
- Are genetically modified foods safe for consumption?
- Discuss the genetic structure and symptoms of Huntington’s Chorea disease
- What are the implications of DNA research?
- Discuss the process of DNA alterations in plants
- What factors determine mutation in animals’ and plants’ DNA
- Can mental intelligence be genetically implanted?
- Discuss the unproven superstition about genetics
- Does genetics have any influence on homosexuality?
- What differentiates the genetic build of men and women?
- Why do women live longer than men?
- Is foundational genetics knowledge necessary in the high school curriculum?
- Will the human genome project do humanity good or bad?
- Discuss the process of RNA formation
- Can offspring inherit mutated genes?
- Discuss the science between blood groups.
Human Genetics Topics
Human genetics studies gene inheritance in humans. You can find research titles in areas like cytogenetics, genomics, clinical genetics, and genetics counseling here, as well as appropriate biology topics to write about . These topics will give you solid research ideas and a perfectly formulated paper:
- Discuss the kinds of genetically transmitted diseases
- Discuss the effects of myostatin deficiency in humans
- Discuss the predetermined characteristics of humans compared to those that can be changed.
- How to program with DNA
- Discuss the social and legal issues regarding genetic testing in your country
- Analyze the pharmacogenetics of alcohol abuse
- Provide insights into diseases that are discovered from family-based genomic studies.
- Discuss the implications of transmission genetics
- Explain the science behind the carpal tunnel syndrome
- Does genetic mutation affect reproduction in humans?
- Can you determine a person’s state of origin through genes?
- Discuss the prevention of genetically transmitted diseases
- Can DNA restructuring extend life expectancy?
- Discuss the controversy between human metabolism and genetics
- Do incestual relationships create malfunctioning genes?
- Discuss several genetic issues that plague the human body.
- Critically examine and explain the effect of Drosophila Melanogaster in genetics.
- Does genetic inheritance affect crime rates in a country?
- Discuss the negative impact of genetics on the human race
- Why are humans mortal?
Molecular Genetics Topics
Molecular genetics studies the structure of the DNA, its expression, and its replication, including its influence on the human body. You can choose any of these current topics in genetics to write a fantastic paper on molecular genetics;
- Discuss the experimental process of molecular genetics
- Examine the process involved in gene information storage
- Discuss the genetic formation and mutation in bacteria based on practical samples from any accessible laboratories
- Identify the differentiation factors at molecular and structural levels.
- Examine the simple and complex learning process of molecular genetics and how it contributes to the broader spectrum of the subject
- Examine the process of gene mutation
- Examine the study of the viral DNA
- Analyze the process of predicting potential prostate cancer with a polygenic score
- Discuss the possibility of paternal transmission of congenital myotonic dystrophy to an offspring.
- Discuss the gene mutation processes in breast cancer
Get Help With Genetics Research
The magic to writing well-constructed essays is thorough research, good expression skills, going through examples online, following the required format, and, most importantly, choosing the best topic. We’ve made that easy with 150 genetics topics you can choose to create exceptional essays in return.
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Optimal molecular binding data and pharmacokinetic profiles of novel potential triple-action inhibitors of chymase, spleen tyrosine kinase, and prostaglandin D2 receptor in the treatment of asthma
Asthma is a chronic and complex pulmonary condition that affects the airways. A total of 250,000 asthma-related deaths are recorded annually and several proteins including chymase, spleen tyrosine kinase, and ...
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Biochemical diagnosis of Sanfilippo disorder types A and B
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Comparative analysis of physiological traits and gene expression patterns in nitrogen deficiency among barley cultivars
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Significant role of some miRNAs as biomarkers for the degree of obesity
Obesity is one of the most serious problems over the world. MicroRNAs have developed as main mediators of metabolic processes, playing significant roles in physiological processes. Thus, the present study aime...
Immunoinformatic-guided designing and evaluating protein and mRNA-based vaccines against Cryptococcus neoformans for immunocompromised patients
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Exploring virus presence in field-collected potato leaf samples using RNA sequencing
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Genome-wide in silico characterization, validation, and cross-species transferability of microsatellite markers in Mallard and Muscovy ducks
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Assessing sequence heterogeneity in Chlorellaceae DNA barcode markers for phylogenetic inference
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Functional activity of E. coli RNase R in the Antarctic Pseudomonas syringae Lz4W
In Antarctic P. syringae RNase R play an essential role in the processing of 16S and 5S rRNA, thereby playing an important role in cold-adapted growth of the bacterium. This study is focused on deciphering the in...
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Phylogenetic analysis of prospective M. bovis antigens with the aim of developing candidate vaccines for bovine tuberculosis
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Protein-protein interaction (PPI) network analysis reveals important hub proteins and sub-network modules for root development in rice ( Oryza sativa )
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The Basics Of Choosing Genetic Research Paper Topics
Table of Contents
Genetics is an academic discipline that studies the genes and heredity in living organisms. The study of genetics takes place in many universities in the world today. Over the years, we’ve reached unprecedented levels of knowledge in genetics. From the discovery of DNA structure to gene sequencing that is behind human life, tremendous progress has been achieved.
The role of genetics is so great today that it influences almost all aspects of our lives, including medicine, pharmaceuticals, and ethics. Over the past half century, knowledge of genetics has grown significantly. It’s been a long journey from the discovery of DNA and up to the sequence of genes. Therefore, writing a decent research paper on genetics is quite an adventure today.
Note that choosing the right topic will reduce the difficulty of writing your research. Also, make sure that the topic has sufficient reliable resources before you start writing.
Specifics of choosing a topic for a research paper in genetics
Thinking of a topic, keep in mind the rationale for studying genetics. It must consider a combination of basic concepts of genes, gene expression, and DNA structure. A great topic will also incorporate methods used in genetic analysis and touch on the social and political impacts of genetics.
A well-chosen topic leaves the reader with an in-depth understanding of a specified aspect of genetics, communicating complex scientific information and explaining it to a reader.
Choosing the right topic will also reduce the difficulty of writing a good research paper by ensuring that the topic has enough credible resources to research.
List of popular genetics topics
With any of the topic we list below, you will be able to write a good research paper on genetics.
Remember that a topic choice can make or break your research paper.
Choosing a topic of your genuine interest means joyful writing process and coming up with high-quality content.
Interesting genetics research topics
- Can dinosaur DNA be recovered?
- The possibility of cloning.
- Is there a correlation between human behavior and genetics?
- Genetics research and the environment.
- Is there a connection between allergies and human genetics?
- Hereditary diseases and genetics.
- Genetics: problems and perspectives.
- Why don’t we all look alike?
- Latest methods of human genetics research.
- Genetic fund of the nation.
Genetics topics for research papers
Genetics became quite popular in the 21st century. Loads of projects have led to significant achievements in the health sector by providing the know-how to the medical sector.
Check out examples of topics for your research papers on genetics:
- What factors in human genetics affecting behavior?
- Is it somehow possible to improve human personality through genetics?
- Malaria treatment with the help of gene mutation.
- The help of genetic tests in a fight against Alzheimer’s disease.
- Genetics and its role in cancer studies.
- Can genetic code be confidential?
- Is it possible to choose the sex of a person before birth?
- Genetics as a ray of hope for children who have an intellectual disability.
- Are there any living cells in the gene?
- Fighting HIV with gene mutations.
Genetics topics for presentation
Need some topics for a stunning presentation, that would cut through like a lightning strike?
Try out one of those:
- Replacement of genes and artificial chromosomes.
- Gene mutations.
- Human genetics.
- Genetics and its impact on human diseases.
- Germ Immunization.
- Genetics and Parkinson’s disease.
- Creation of transgenic organisms.
- People cloning.
- Genetic analysis of DNA structure.
Most controversial genetics topics
With the new genetic and diagnostic achievements, there is a lot of controversy about how they should be implemented. For example, there are concerns that genetic information may be used to discriminate particular groups of people (like, in cases of health insurance refusal, etc.).
Controversial issues also include the issue of human genetic information confidentiality and whether genetic testing should be mandatory.
Also, various disputes arise from religious beliefs, ethics, and so on. We pay close attention to examples of controversial topics in genetics:
- Cloning: positive or negative outcome for future generations?
- Do companies have the right to patent human genes?
- Genetic testing: is it necessary?
- Is it ethical to grow human organs?
- Is it legal for parents to order genetically perfect children?
- Artificial insemination vs. ordinary pregnancy.
- How accurate can a genetic test be?
- Growing up a perfect person or playing God?
- Are we ready for bioethics revolution?
- Who owns the right to the human genome?
What are the hottest topics in genetics?
The latest research states that most discussed topics in the genetic field are the following ones:
- Blood group.
- Genes mutation.
- Human Genome Project.
- Nucleic acids.
- What is the gene?
- RNA Information.
Challenging genetics paper topics
Are you into difficult tasks and challenges? Coll! We’ve got several ideas for you!
- Pros and cons of genetic engineering.
- Advantages of human genetic engineering.
- Genetic databases.
- Does genetics have an impact on homosexuality?
- Genetics and obesity.
- Genetics and Autism.
- Genetics and Schizophrenia.
- Pros and cons of GMO.
- Genetic diagnosis of the fetus.
- Genetics and cancer.
Today’s genetics studies still have more questions than answers. A rightly chosen topic for your paper won’t only result in a good grade, but also make an exceptional contribution to science.
No time to write your top-notch genetics research paper? Here’s an idea! Choose any topic from our list and hand it to a professional writer. Zero plagiarism, complete confidentiality, and on-time delivery guarantee!
How to Choose a Strong Compare and Contrast Essay Topic: Ideas for Writing by Grademiners
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Writing a Research Paper on Abortion
FREE K-12 standards-aligned STEM
curriculum for educators everywhere!
Find more at TeachEngineering.org .
- Introduction to Genetic Engineering and Its Applications
Lesson Introduction to Genetic Engineering and Its Applications
Grade Level: 9 (9-12)
(Consider adding 30 minutes for a thorough ethics discussion.)
Lesson Dependency: None
Subject Areas: Biology
NGSS Performance Expectations:
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Genetic engineers have developed genetic recombination techniques to manipulate gene sequences in plants, animals and other organisms to express specific traits. Applications for genetic engineering are increasing as engineers and scientists work together to identify the locations and functions of specific genes in the DNA sequence of various organisms. Once each gene is classified, engineers develop ways to alter them to create organisms that provide benefits such as cows that produce larger volumes of meat, fuel- and plastics-generating bacteria, and pest-resistant crops.
After this lesson, students should be able to:
- List several present day applications of genetic engineering.
- Describe general techniques used by genetic engineers to modify DNA.
- Analyze the benefits and drawbacks of manipulating an organism's DNA.
Educational Standards Each TeachEngineering lesson or activity is correlated to one or more K-12 science, technology, engineering or math (STEM) educational standards. All 100,000+ K-12 STEM standards covered in TeachEngineering are collected, maintained and packaged by the Achievement Standards Network (ASN) , a project of D2L (www.achievementstandards.org). In the ASN, standards are hierarchically structured: first by source; e.g. , by state; within source by type; e.g. , science or mathematics; within type by subtype, then by grade, etc .
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A basic understanding of protein synthesis and DNA's role in the cell/body is helpful so students can follow how changes in DNA result in major changes in the characteristics of organisms.
(Make copies of the Genetic Engineering Flow Chart , one per student. Hand out the blank flow charts for students to fill in during the presentation and lecture. Then show the class the 16-slide Genetic Engineering Presentation , a PowerPoint® file. Open with two images of the same organism: one that has been genetically engineered and one that has not. Examples: two ears of corn in which the non-modified one is diseased; two cows in which the modified one is larger; or, since students really respond to bioluminescent organisms, show two mice in which one has been modified to glow green. Slide 2 shows two examples of modified versus non-modified mice. Another idea is to show two organisms that look the same even though one has been modified as an example of how most modifications are not visible.)
What is the difference between these two organisms? (Answers will vary, depending on the image shown.) Even though they are the same organism, why are they are different? (Answer: Genetic engineering. Some students may not come to this answer on their own. Expect some to suggest mutations.) The difference is due to genetic engineering. The animal (or plant) that has been changed is called a genetically modified organism, or GMO.
How do engineers change the traits of organisms? (Listen to student ideas.) DNA contains all of the genetic information to determine an organism's traits or characteristics. By modifying the DNA, engineers are able to determine which traits an organism will possess.
(Continue through the presentation: What is genetic engineering? History of GMO Development, What is the GMO process? Then starting with slide 6 , go through the provided examples of GMO bacteria, plants and animals. Emphasize the reasons for modifying each organism [ slide 10 ].)
(Show the slide 14 picture of a man and spider.) Can anyone guess what would happen if we combined the DNA from these two creatures? (Expect students to enthusiastically answer "spiderman.") Could engineers create a "spiderman" in the lab today? (Expect some yes responses, while most students answer no.) Not quite. However, in 2000, engineers created the first goat able to produce spider silk proteins (an amazingly strong and elastic fiber with futuristic benefits in construction [bridge suspension cables, airbags that are gentler for passengers], medicine [artificial skin to heal burns, artificial ligaments, thread for stitching wounds] and the military [body armor] if sufficient quantities could be generated), so maybe it is not too far away.
(Show slide 15 .) Genetic engineering is so new and astonishing that people are still trying to figure out the pros and cons. We saw some examples of the benefits from genetically modified organisms, what about the disadvantages and harm caused by genetic engineering? (After listening to student ideas, go through the concerns listed on the slide. Alternatively, go through the contents of this slide and background information as a class discussion during the Lesson Closure, extending the lesson time as necessary.)
(Continue on to present students with the content in the Lesson Background section, and then a class review of the completed flow charts.)
Lesson Background and Concepts for Teachers
What is DNA?
Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is a large biomolecule that contains the complete genetic information for an organism. Every cell of living organisms and many viruses, contains DNA. The basic building block of a DNA molecule is called a nucleotide , and a single strand of DNA may contain billions of nucleotides. (Refer to Figure 1 to see the DNA structure with labeled parts.) Although each DNA molecule contains many of these building blocks, only four unique nucleotides are used to create the entire DNA sequence; these are written as A, G, C and T. Analogous to how the 26 letters of the alphabet can be arranged to create words with different meanings, these four nucleotides can be arranged in sequences to "spell" the genetic instructions to create all of the different proteins organisms need to live.
Why are proteins important?
Proteins perform all of the work in organisms. Some functions of proteins include:
- Serving as catalysts for reactions
- Performing cell signaling
- Transporting molecules across membranes
- Creating structures
When a protein is created by its gene, it is said that the gene is "expressed," or used. Most gene expressions do not produce results visible to the unaided eye. However some genes, such as those that code for proteins responsible for pigment, do have visual expression. The expression of a gene in an observable manner is called a phenotypic trait ; one example is an organism's hair color. In fact, everything you can see in an organism is a result of proteins or protein actions.
How is DNA used in genetic engineering?
By definition, genetic engineering is the direct altering of an organism's genome. This is achieved through manipulation of the DNA. Doing this is possible because DNA is like a universal language; all DNA for all organisms is made up of the same nucleotide building blocks. Thus, it is possible for genes from one organism to be read by another organism. In the cookbook analogy, this equates to taking a recipe from one organism's cookbook and putting into another cookbook. Now imagine that all cookbooks are written in the same language; thus, any recipe can be inserted and used in any other cookbook.
In practice, since DNA contains the genes to build certain proteins, by changing the DNA sequence, engineers are able to provide a new gene for a cell/organism to create a different protein. The new instructions may supplement the old instructions such that an extra trait is exhibited, or they may completely replace the old instructions such that a trait is changed.
Genetic Engineering Technique
The process for genetic engineering begins the same for any organism being modified (see Figure 3 for an example of this procedure).
- Identify an organism that contains a desirable gene.
- Extract the entire DNA from the organism.
- Remove this gene from the rest of the DNA. One way to do this is by using a restriction enzyme . These enzymes search for specific nucleotide sequences where they will "cut" the DNA by breaking the bonds at this location.
- Insert the new gene to an existing organism's DNA. This may be achieved through a number of different processes.
Once the recombinant DNA has been built, it can be passed to the organism to be modified. If modifying bacteria, this process is quite simple. The plasmid can be easily inserted into the bacteria where the bacteria treat it as their own DNA. For plant modification, certain bacteria such as Agrobacterium tumefaciens may be used because these bacteria permit their plasmids to be passed to the plant's DNA.
Applications and Economics
The number of applications for genetic engineering are increasing as more and more is learned about the genomes of different organisms. A few interesting or notable application areas are described below.
How many of today's crops are genetically modified? As of 2010, in the U.S., 86% of corn produced was genetically modified. Bt -corn is a common GMO that combines a gene from the Bt bacteria with corn DNA to produce a crop that is insect-resistant. The bacteria gene used contains a recipe for a protein that is toxic when consumed by insects, but safe when consumed by humans.
A number of other genes can be combined with crops to produce desirable properties such as:
- Herbicide-, drought-, freeze- or disease-resistance
- Higher yield
- Faster growth
- Improved nutrition
- Longer shelf life
The creation of genetically modified crops provides many incentives for farmers and businesses. When farmers are able to plant a crop that has a higher yield per acre, they can significantly increase production, and thus sales, with minimal cost. Disease, pest and other resistances reduce crop loss, which also helps to increase profits. Besides farmers, other benefactors from modified crops include seed, agrochemical and agriculture equipment companies as well as distributors and universities that are involved in GMO research. In 2011, the value of genetically modified seed was $13.2 billion in the U.S. alone. The value of the end products produced from these seeds topped $160 billion.
Due to their simple structures, the most commonly modified organisms are bacteria. The first modified bacteria were created in 1973. Bacteria can be modified to produce desirable proteins that can be harvested and used. One example is insulin or spider silk, which is difficult to gather naturally. Other modifications to bacteria include making changes to the cellular respiration process to alter the byproducts; typically CO 2 is produced, however engineers have made modifications so that hydrocarbon byproducts such as diesel and polyethylene (a fuel and a plastic) are produced.
(The 30-minute lesson time leaves a fair amount of time for discussion, but since class participation will vary, you may want to extend the lesson another 30-minutes to allow for a thorough discussion of the ethical implications of genetic engineering. This makes a good student research and debate topic, too.)
The main reason genetically modified organisms are not more widely used is due to ethical concerns. Nearly 50 countries around the world, including Australia, Japan and all of the countries in the European Union, have enacted significant restrictions or full bans on the production and sale of genetically modified organism food products, and 64 countries have GMO labeling requirements. Some issues to consider when deciding whether to create and/or use GMOs include:
Safety: This generally arises in the case of GMO foods. Are the foods safe for human consumption? Is GMO feed healthy for animals? Many opponents of GMO foods say not enough independent testing is done before the food is approved for sale to consumers. In general, research has shown that GMO foods are safe for humans. Another safety consideration is the health of farmers and their families, animals and communities who are put at risk with exposure to chemicals used in tandem with GMO seeds.
Environmental Impact: Consider that genetic engineers have the ability to create trees that grow faster than their unmodified counterparts. This seems like a great deal for the lumber industry, but might some unintended consequences result? Being outdoors and grown in large quantities, the modified trees may cross-pollinate with unmodified trees to form hybrids outside of designated growing areas. This in return could create trees that could disrupt the ecosystem. For example, they could overpopulate the area or grow so large that they smother other plant life. This same scenario has unintended and undesirable consequences when the pollen from GMO crops drifts into non-GMO fields.
Humans: Should humans be genetically engineered? Doing so could have medical applications that reduce or prevent genetic disorders such as Down's syndrome. However, the bigger question is where should engineering humans stop? Should parents be allowed to decide their children's eye colors, heights or even genders before birth?
Watch this activity on YouTube
What part of an organism contains all of the information needed for it to function? (Answer: DNA) When genes are expressed, what is the final product made? (Answer: Proteins) Does anyone know why bacteria are modified more than other organisms? (Answer: With their very simple structures and ability to use plasmids, bacteria are much easier and less costly to modify.)
What are some ethical and moral concerns that genetic engineers must consider? Does anyone think it is a good idea to genetically modify people? Some researchers say this could be an approach to cure diseases such as Down's syndrome and other genetic defects. Superficial changes could also be made, such as determining a person's height, eye color or gender, by making changes to embryos in the mothers' wombs. But just because something can be done, does that make it a good idea? (Answer: No. This is a good topic for an extended discussion.)
DNA: Acronym for deoxyribonucleic acid, which is a molecule that contains an organism's complete genetic information.
gene: The molecular unit of an organism that contains information for a specific trait (specific DNA sequence).
genome: An entire set of genes for an organism.
GMO: Acronym for genetically modified organism.
nucleotide: The building block of DNA.
plasmid: The circular DNA structure used by bacteria.
protein: Large biomolecules used by an organism for a number of purposes; in this context, to express a desired trait.
recombinant DNA: DNA to which a section has been removed and replaced (recombined) with a new sequence.
restriction enzyme: An enzyme that "cuts" DNA when specific base pair sequences are present.
trait: A distinguishing characteristic.
Discussion Questions: Initiate a brief discussion to gauge whether students have heard of or know anything about genetics. Ask questions such as:
- Why are your eyes the color that they are?
- Would anyone like to be taller (or shorter)?
- Is there any way to make these changes?
Flow Chart: Have students complete the Genetic Engineering Flow Chart during the course of the lesson. After delivering the presentation and lecture, go through the flow chart as a class, so that students can complete anything they missed and check their flow charts for accuracy. Answers are provided on the Genetic Engineering Flow Chart Answer Key .
Lesson Summary Assessment
Recombinant Creature Design : Have students in pairs (or individually) create their own recombinant organisms. Direct students to pick any organism and decide what gene they would like to add. If desired, provide a list of genes from which they can choose (such as genes that makes an organism smarter, bigger, faster, grow extra limbs, etc.). To encourage critical thinking, require students to write down a potential use for the resulting creatures. Finally, have students sketch what their recombinant creatures would look like.
View some genetic engineering examples (with photographs) at: http://www.mnn.com/green-tech/research-innovations/photos/12-bizarre-examples-of-genetic-engineering/
Show students some applications of spider silk at Popular Mechanics' "6 Spider-Silk Superpowers" slide show at http://www.popularmechanics.com/science/health/med-tech/6-spider-silk-superpowers#slide-1
As a class, students work through an example showing how DNA provides the "recipe" for making human body proteins. They see how the pattern of nucleotide bases (adenine, thymine, guanine, cytosine) forms the double helix ladder shape of DNA, and serves as the code for the steps required to make gene...
Students learn about mutations to both DNA and chromosomes, and uncontrolled changes to the genetic code. They are introduced to small-scale mutations (substitutions, deletions and insertions) and large-scale mutations (deletion duplications, inversions, insertions, translocations and nondisjunction...
Students reinforce their knowledge that DNA is the genetic material for all living things by modeling it using toothpicks and gumdrops that represent the four biochemicals (adenine, thiamine, guanine, and cytosine) that pair with each other in a specific pattern, making a double helix. Student teams...
Students construct paper recombinant plasmids to simulate the methods genetic engineers use to create modified bacteria. They learn what role enzymes, DNA and genes play in the modification of organisms.
12 Bizarre Examples of Genetic Engineering. Posted October 27, 2010. MNN Holdings, Mother Nature Network. Accessed December 8, 2013. http://www.mnn.com/green-tech/research-innovations/photos/12-bizarre-examples-of-genetic-engineering
Biello, David. Turning Bacteria into Plastic Factories. Posted September 16, 2008. Scientific American. Accessed December 11, 2013. http://www.scientificamerican.com/article.cfm?id=turning-bacteria-into-plastic-factories-replacing-fossil-fuels
DNA. Updated June 7, 2014. Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. Accessed June 16, 2014. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/DNA
Emspak, Jesse. Gut Bacteria Make Diesel Fuel. Posted April 23, 2013. Discovery Communications. Accessed December 11, 2013. http://news.discovery.com/tech/biotechnology/gut-bacteria-make-diesel-fuel-130423.htm
Genetic engineering. Updated December 7, 2013. Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. Accessed December 9, 2013. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Genetic_engineering
Genetically modified crops. Updated June 12, 2014. Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. Accessed June 16, 2014. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Genetically_modified_crops
Straley, Regan. GMO Food Concerns. Posted August 29, 2014. Lancaster Online, Lancaster, PA. Accessed August 31, 2014. http://lancasteronline.com/opinion/gmo-food-concerns/article_3c5092ba-2ed0-11e4-ab00-001a4bcf6878.html
Vierra, Craig, et al. The Future of Biomaterial Manufacturing: Spider Silk Production from Bacteria. Posted July 17, 2012. Journal of Visualized Experiments (JoVE). Accessed December 11, 2013. http://www.jove.com/about/press-releases/39/the-future-biomaterial-manufacturing-spider-silk-production-from
What is genetic engineering and how does it work? Updated 2005. University of Nebraska. Accessed December 10, 2013. http://agbiosafety.unl.edu/basic_genetics.shtml
Other Related Information
(optional: Show students the What Is Engineering? video)
Supporting program, acknowledgements.
This digital library content was developed by the University of Houston's College of Engineering under National Science Foundation GK-12 grant number DGE 0840889. However, these contents do not necessarily represent the policies of the NSF and you should not assume endorsement by the federal government.
Last modified: May 12, 2021
- How It Works
119 Genetics Research Topics You Must Know About
Put simply, Genetics is the study of genes and hereditary traits in living organisms. Knowledge in this field has gone up over time, and this is proportional to the amount of research.
Right from the DNA structure discovery, a lot more has come out into the open. There are so many genetics research topics to choose from because of the wide scope of research done in recent years.
Genetics is so dear to us since it helps us understand our genes and hereditary traits. In this guide, you will get to understand this subject more and get several topic suggestions that you can consider when looking for interesting genetics topics.
Writing a paper on genetics is quite intriguing nowadays. Remember that because there are so many topics in genetics, choosing the right one is crucial. It will help you cut down on research time and the technicality of selecting content for the topic. Thus, it would matter a lot if you confirmed whether or not the topic you’re choosing has relevant sources in plenty.
What Is Genetics?
Before we even go deeper into genetics topics for research papers, it is essential to have a basic understanding of what the subject entails.
Genetics is a branch of Biology to start with. It is mainly focused on the study of genetic variation, hereditary traits, and genes.
Genetics has relations with several other subjects, including biotechnology, medicine, and agriculture. In Genetics, we study how genes act on the cell and how they’re transmitted from a parent to the offspring. In modern Genetics, the emphasis is more on DNA, which is the chemical substance found in genes. Remember that Genetics cut across animals, insects, and plants – basically any living organism there is.
Tips On How To Write A Decent Research Paper On Genetics
When planning to choose genetics topics, you should also make time and learn how to research. After all, this is the only way you can gather the information that will help you come up with the content for the paper. Here are some tips that can bail you out whenever you feel stuck:
Choosing the topic, nonetheless, is not an easy thing for many students. There are just so many options present, and often, you get spoilt for choice. But note that this is an integral stage/process that you have to complete. Do proper research on the topic and choose the kind of information that you’d like to apply.
On the web, there’s a myriad of information that often can become deceiving. Amateurs try their luck to put together several pieces of information in a bid to try and convince you that they are the authority on the subject. Many students become gullible to such tricks and end up writing poorly in Genetics.
Resist the temptation to look for an easy way of gaining sources/information. You have to take your time and dig up information from credible resources. Otherwise, you’ll look like a clown in front of your professor with laughable Genetics content.
Good Ideas For Genetics Topics
Here are some brilliant ideas that you can use as research paper topics in the Genetics field:
- Is the knowledge of Genetics ahead of replication and research?
- What would superman’s genetics be like?
- DNA molecules and 3D printing – How does it work?
- How come people living in mountainous regions can withstand high altitudes?
- How to cross genes in distinct animals.
- Does gene-crossing really help to improve breeds or animals?
- The human body’s biggest intriguing genetic contradictions
- Are we still far away from achieving clones?
- How close are we to fully cloning human beings?
- Can genetics really help scientists to secure various treatments?
- Gene’s regulation – more details on how they can be regulated.
- Genetic engineering and its functioning.
- What are some of the most fascinating facts in the field of Genetics?
- Can you decipher genetic code?
- Cancer vaccines and whether or not they really work.
- Revealing the genetic pathways that control how proteins are made in a bacterial cell.
- How food affects the human body’s response to and connection with certain plants’ and animals’ DNA.
Hot Topics In Genetics
In this list are some of the topics that raise a lot of attention and interest from the masses. Choose the one that you’d be interested in:
- The question of death: Why do men die before women?
- Has human DNA changed since the evolution process?
- How much can DNA really change?
- How much percentage of genes from the father goes to the child?
- Does the mother have a higher percentage of genes transferred to the child?
- Is every person unique in terms of their genes?
- How does genetics make some of us alike?
- Is there a relationship between diets and genetics?
- Does human DNA resemble any other animal’s DNA?
- Sleep and how long you will live on earth: Are they really related?
- Does genetics or a healthy lifestyle dictate how long you’ll live?
- Is genetics the secret to long life on earth?
- How much does genetics affect your life’s quality?
- The question on ageing: Does genetics have a role to play?
- Can one push away certain diseases just by passing a genetic test?
- Is mental illness continuous through genes?
- The relationship between Parkinson’s, Alzheimer’s and the DNA.
Molecular Genetics Topics
Here is a list of topics to help you get a better understanding of Molecular genetics:
- Mutation of genes and constancy.
- What can we learn more about viruses, bacteria, and multicellular organisms?
- A study on molecular genetics: What does it involve?
- The changing of genetics in bacteria.
- What is the elucidation of the chemical nature of a gene?
- Prokaryotes genetics: Why does this take a centre stage in the genetics of microorganisms?
- Cell study: How this complex assessment has progressed.
- What tools can scientists wield in cell study?
- A look into the DNA of viruses.
- What can the COVID-19 virus help us to understand about genetics?
- Examining molecular genetics through chemical properties.
- Examining molecular genetics through physical properties.
- Is there a way you can store genetic information?
- Is there any distinction between molecular levels and subcellular levels?
- Variability and inheritance: What you need to note about living things at the molecular level.
- The research and study on molecular genetics: Key takeaways.
- What scientists can do within the confines of molecular genetics?
- Molecular genetics research and experiments: What you need to know.
- What is molecular genetics, and how can you learn about it?
Human Genetics Research Topics
Human genetics is an interesting field that has in-depth content. Some topics here will jog your brain and invoke curiosity in you. However, if you have difficulty writing a scientific thesis , you can always contact us for help.
- Can you extend your life by up to 100% just by gaining more understanding of the structure of DNA?
- What programming can you do with the help of DNA?
- Production of neurotransmitters and hormones through DNA.
- Is there something that you can change in the human body?
- What is already predetermined in the human body?
- Do genes capture and secure information on someone’s mentality?
- Vaccines and their effect on the DNA.
- What’s the likelihood that a majority of people on earth have similar DNA?
- Breaking of the myostatin gene: What impact does it have on the human body?
- Is obesity passed genetically?
- What are the odds of someone being overweight when the rest of his lineage is obese?
- A better understanding of the relationship between genetics and human metabolism.
- The truths and myths engulfing human metabolism and genetics.
- Genetic tests on sports performance: What you need to know.
- An insight on human genetics.
- Is there any way that you can prevent diseases that are transmitted genetically?
- What are some of the diseases that can be passed from one generation to the next through genetics?
- Genetic tests conducted on a person’s country of origin: Are they really accurate?
- Is it possible to confirm someone’s country of origin just by analyzing their genes?
Current Topics in Genetics
A list to help you choose from all the most relevant topics:
- DNA-altering experiments: How are scientists conducting them?
- How important is it to educate kids about genetics while they’re still in early learning institutions?
- A look into the genetics of men and women: What are the variations?
- Successes and failures in the study of genetics so far.
- What does the future of genetics compare to the current state?
- Are there any TV series or science fiction films that showcase the future of genetics?
- Some of the most famous myths today are about genetics.
- Is there a relationship between genetics and homosexuality?
- Does intelligence pass through generations?
- What impact does genetics hold on human intelligence?
- Do saliva and hair contain any genetic data?
- What impact does genetics have on criminality?
- Is it possible that most criminals inherit the trait through genetics?
- Drug addiction and alcohol use: How close can you relate it to genetics?
- DNA changes in animals, humans, and plants: What is the trigger?
- Can you extend life through medication?
- Are there any available remedies that extend a person’s life genetically?
- Who can study genetics?
- Is genetics only relevant to scientists?
- The current approach to genetics study: How has it changed since ancient times?
Controversial Genetics Topics
Last, but definitely not least, are some controversial topics in genetics. These are topics that have gone through debate and have faced criticism all around. Here are some you can write a research paper about:
- Gene therapy: Some of the ethical issues surrounding it.
- The genetic engineering of animals: What questions have people raised about it?
- The controversy around epigenetics.
- The human evolution process and how it relates to genetics.
- Gene editing and the numerous controversies around it.
- The question on same-sex relations and genetics.
- The use of personal genetic information in tackling forensic cases.
- Gene doping in sports: What you need to know.
- Gene patenting: Is it even possible?
- Should gene testing be compulsory?
- Genetic-based therapies and the cloud of controversy around them.
- The dangers and opportunities that lie in genetic engineering.
- GMOs and their impact on the health and welfare of humans.
- At what stage in the control of human genetics do we stop to be human?
- Food science and GMO.
- The fight against GMOs: Why is it such a hot topic?
- The pros and cons of genetic testing.
- The debates around eugenics and genetics.
- Labelling of foods with GMO: Should it be mandatory?
- What really are the concerns around the use of GMOs?
- The Supreme Court decision on the patent placed on gene discoveries.
- The ethical issues surrounding nurses and genomic healthcare.
- Cloning controversial issues.
- Religion and genetics.
- Behavior learning theories are pegged on genetics.
- Countries’ war on GMOs.
- Studies on genetic disorders.
Get Professional Help Online
Now that we have looked at the best rated topics in genetics, from interesting to controversial topics genetics, you have a clue on what to choose. These titles should serve as an example of what to select.
Nonetheless, if you need help with a thesis, we are available to offer professional and affordable thesis writing services . Our high quality college and university assignment assistance are available to all students online at a cheap rate. Get a sample to check on request and let us give you a hand when you need it most.
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Genetic Engineering Research Papers Samples For Students
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Genetic Engineering Research Paper Examples
Genetically modified humans research paper samples, good example of research paper on explaining a concept: human engineering, introduction.
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Research Paper On Perspectives of Genetically Modified Foods
Free is genetic enhancement desirable research paper sample, impressive biology research paper sample, free modern eugenics research paper: top-quality sample to follow, sample research paper on threats to land sustainability.
Human activity on the natural resources causes threats to the land sustainability either directly or indirectly. This paper examines soil erosion, genetically modified grains and overpopulation as the main threats to land sustainability.
Soil erosion and how it impacts the global food supply
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Genetic Engineering Research Paper
Sample Genetic Engineering Research Paper. Browse other research paper examples and check the list of research paper topics for more inspiration. If you need a research paper written according to all the academic standards, you can always turn to our experienced writers for help. This is how your paper can get an A! Feel free to contact our custom research paper writing service for professional assistance. We offer high-quality assignments for reasonable rates.
The term ‘genetic engineering’ stands for human alteration of the genetic code of an organism, so that its biosynthetic properties are changed. The major applications are for the industrial production of desired peptides or proteins, or to alter the biological capabilites of the organism. These techniques have been used to develop crops with agronomically useful changes, such as pest resistance and ripening properties that allow for shipment. Surprising results have been obtained by silencing genes in experimental organisms, as well as the production of animal models of human disease by deriving strains of animals with mutated human genes. Much attention is being given to the production of products and methods to modify an individual’s cells to treat human disease. Although the majority of activity at the present time is directed toward traits governed by a single gene, commercial and academic investigators are hopeful that complex diseases and behavior can also be modiﬁed.
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Get 10% off with fall23 discount code, 1. biological background of genetic engineering.
The technology has developed in the context of our understanding of genetics. A vital property is the production and maintenance of variability in populations. One of the mechanisms that produces such variability is recombination. Information for a number of peptides as well as the controlling mechanisms for their synthesis are inherited together on a single chromosome. In diploid organisms, exchanges between homologous chromosomes is an important source of variation. This process occurs in the context of DNA replication, including the enzymatic unwinding of the double helix and synthesis of the new, complementary chain of nucleic acids.
Cellular properties may be altered by external mechanisms. One of the ﬁrst systems that was extensively studied, and provided the tools that are currently used, is the phenomenon of infection of bacteria by bacteriophages, the bacterial viruses. The usual direction of events is followed. The message is coded in the DNA sequence. It is then transcribed into the sequence of the intermediate messenger RNA molecules, and then translated into protein. In the lytic cycle, the viral DNA instructions are used to synthesize new viral DNA and protein that can assemble into new viral particles that destroy the cell and are then released into the environment to infect other host cells. In the lysogenic cycle, the DNA of the virus integrates into the host DNA. In addition, there are a number of other particles called plasmids, which can transfer genetic information from one bacterium to another. They are small, circular DNA molecules that replicate independently of the DNA of the host bacterium. Their role is particularly prominent in the transmission of antibiotic resistance. Most animal viruses are similar to the lytic cycle of bacteriophage, however, there are a number of viruses that can become latent. There is also agents like the retroviruses, whose genome gets transcribed into the host DNA, thereby changing cellular properties. Some of these agents will also incorporate host DNA into their sequences, and then capable of transmitting this sequence into a new host.
The tools that allow us to transfer genes from one organism to another are the restriction endonucleases. These enzymes are found naturally in bacteria and protect them from infection by breaking down foreign DNA. They are chemically very speciﬁc, only working on speciﬁc palindromic sequences. Consequently, the kind of infection discussed in the last paragraph can only occur if the bacteriophage sequence does not contain elements that will be broken down by the host bacterial system of endonucleases. A number of diﬀerent enzymes are found in diﬀerent bacterial species, and the enzymes referred to by an abbreviation of the bacterial species name and a number. Similarly, there are enzymes that are used to connect fragments, the ligases (Griﬃths et al. 1996).
2. Cloning Genes
All of the manipulations of genetic engineering require muliple copies of the DNA sequence or gene of interest. The original methods of getting multiple copies relied on bacteriophage or plasmid vectors to introduce the foreign DNA into bacteria to produce these copies, as each modiﬁed cell produces multiple copies, and the bacterial culture itself increases. This is done by ﬁrst physically isolating the vector, opening its DNA with a restriction enzyme and binding in DNA from the organism being studied that has also been cleaved with a restriction endonuclease. A new population of bacteria is then infected with the altered vector. Given an appropriate way of selecting the population of bacteria so that it uniformly has the DNA of interest multiplying within, one can isolate a large population of vector molecules with the desired sequence, which is then freed by enzymatic cleavage once again.
Fragments of DNA are identiﬁed by physically separating them by electrical charge and molecular weight through gels. The DNA of the vectors and bacteria are generally in the range of one to ten thousand base pairs, and there are a suﬃciently small number so that the fragments can be identiﬁed with a simple staining technique, usually a compound that binds to DNA and ﬂuoresces under ultraviolet light. The larger quantity of fragments that would be isolated from more complex organisms produces a smear with such dyes, so the base-pairing property of DNA, the obligate pairing of adenine with cytosine and guanine with cytosine that allows for both recognition and synthesis of the linear sequence, is used to identify the same sequence on the gel by labeling a known fragment with an isotope or ﬂuorescent dye. The labeled molecules are called probes. This is also the basis for identifying genetic variation in organisms, either for basic studies or identiﬁcation of mutations associated with disease.
Isolation of fragments produced by digestion with several enzymes, used both singly and in combination, allows for the construction of a physical, restriction fragment map. Smaller fragments may be replicated, followed by the chemical analysis of the base sequence within fragments which are then assembled into the ﬁnal base sequence of the gene. Once the sequence is known, production of useful amounts of a region of DNA may now be done enzymatically in vitro with the polymerase chain reaction (PCR). In this technique, the region between two primers, one from each strand of the ﬁnal DNA molecule is copied in a logarithmic fashion by a heat-resistant DNA polymerase from a small amount of genomic DNA (it has been done with single cells), using multiple heating and cooling cycles. This technique is also used in diagnostic work (Strachan and Read 1996).
3. Modifying Cells To Produce Proteins
A number of strategies have been used to produce large amounts of a peptide or protein. Multiple techniques have been necessary because of the diﬀerent kinds of cells that have been used. The production of human insulin, one of the earlier products produced commercially, is a useful model that is an example of expression cloning. The sequences for the A and B chains were introduced into separate vectors in sequence with a bacterial promoter (a signal to turn a gene on) and the enzyme β-galactosidase that produces colored bacterial colonies. This arrangement is necessary because bacteria will not just produce the human protein if only the structural gene is introduced. The bacteria are tricked into producing a fusion protein: a bacterial β-galactosidase with a human insulin chain sequence at the end. After selecting the colonies by color, mass cultures are produced from which the fusion proteins can be puriﬁed. The normal insulin dimer is then produced chemically by removing the βgalactosidase, purifying the chains, combining the chains and allowing them to refold and form the sulﬁde bridges between the two chains.
Expression cloning in bacteria works well if the peptide or protein is composed entirely of the amino acid sequence. Many functional proteins contain speciﬁc carbohydrate groups at precise locations on the chain that are attached after translation. These modiﬁcations are diﬀerent in diﬀerent classes of organisms, so techniques using yeast, plant, cultured insect, other mammalian, or human cells have been used to make the complete molecule. Another problem that is addressed in this approach is the elimination of bacterial toxins that cannot be removed from the desired protein product mixture. The engineered DNA can be introduced into these cells by a variety of methods. The physical techniques like electroporation, which uses an current to move the DNA inside, or coating various kinds of particles, like gold, with the DNA and then bombarding the cells to get the DNA inside has a chemical parallel in the use of calcium salts and heat. Artiﬁcal yeast chromosomes have been produced to move gene constructs. For the cultured insect cells, modiﬁed Bacloviruses are used (these are viruses that have invertebrate hosts). In mammalian systems, several viruses have been used, including retroviruses (the class of agents involved in acquired immunodeﬁciency and tumor transformation in experimental organisms), adenoviruses (agents that typically produce respiratory disease, however, some strains are capable of producing more severe systemic disease), and herpes simplex.
The goal of expression cloning is to produce large amounts of protein that can be puriﬁed more easily, and in much larger amounts than is possible using chemical techniques starting with cells from the normal tissue. On the research laboratory scale, the three-dimensional structure of the whole protein or the active region can be determined by a combination of nuclear magnetic resonance and x-ray crystallography. This information is useful for understanding function or designing small molecules that are expected to have pharmacological actions. This is then one element of the strategy in rational drug design. If the protein is to be used as a product, the growth of the modiﬁed cells has to be done on an industrial scale that is an engineering problem similar to that used in the production of a number of antibiotics (Glick and Pasternak 1998).
4. Modifying Organisms
An organism that has been engineered so that it has a gene from another species integrated into its genome is called a transgenic organism. These techniques have been used to produce plants and animals expressing mutated genes of that species to study function, with mutated or genes introduced from another species with desired agronomic properties, as models of human diseases, and to produce therapeutic products. There is a large and continuously growing literature of studies in the mouse.
Two procedures have been widely performed in mice: the interruption of a mouse gene to eliminate its function, for which the term knockout has been used, and introduction of a transgene. The ‘standard’ procedure employs classical, cellular, and molecular genetic techniques. The gene to be studied is ﬁrst cloned, and then introduced into a targeting vector in such a way that the coding sequence of the gene is interrupted by the neomycin resistance gene. The vector also has the thymidine kinase gene from herpes. Embryonic stem cells are obtained from a brown mouse and placed in culture. The cells are then exposed to the vector. There are three possible outcomes. The vector does not insert at all, the whole construct inserts at random in a chromosome, or only the desired coding sequence and the neomycin resistance gene insert into the normal location on the chromosome. Treating the cells with a neomycin analogue and the antiviral agent ganciclovir will kill all of the cells except the ones with the integrated sequence. The surviving stem cells are injected into the blastocyst stage embryo of a black mouse and placed in a surrogate mother. If a chimera is formed, it will have a coat of two colors. The chimeras are mated with black mice, and their brown oﬀspring tested for the modiﬁed gene. Those that are heterozygous are mated, and one of four will be homozygous for the modiﬁcation.
In addition to the introduction of genes into stem cells by vectors, injection of the desired sequence has been done by some of the physical methods discussed earlier such as electroporation, coated gold particles, and salt precipitation. Some transgenics have been derived from direct injection of the plasmid into the egg.
The production of genetically identical organisms, cloning in the original sense, was ﬁrst done in amphibians by nuclear transplantation into fertilized ova from which the original nucleus was removed. This was done widely in mammals by using embryonic cells as the nuclear donor. The production of the sheep named Dolly was noteworthy because the donor nuclei were obtained from adult mammary cells that were maintained in cell culture. This precipitated a round of discussion about the feasibility and the desirability of doing this in human beings. The claim was made that this would be an alternative for infertile couples, and therefore acceptable. It is necessary to point out to people who would propagate themselves for narcissistic reasons that the derived individual would not be absolutely the same because of the developmental environment, both before and after birth (Hubbard and Wald 1997).
Another possible use of this technology that has been proposed is the therapeutic cloning of replacement tissues or organs. Cells would be biopsied from the eventual recipient and placed in culture. Nuclei from these cells would be transplanted into eggs from which the nuclei have been removed; these eggs will be allowed to develop to the blastocyst embryonic stage for the isolotion of embryonic stem cells that are treated to produce the desired cell types. This avoids the problem of using fertilized eggs, but still involves the use of human eggs and early embryonic stages (Gurdon and Colman 1999).
5. Gene Therapy
The goal of gene therapy is to provide a functional protein to an individual whose genotype leads to a disease because the protein is missing or modiﬁed so that it is not functional. There are two potential modes. In germ-line therapy, the modiﬁcation would be heritable, and the individual’s oﬀspring potentially would not be aﬀected. In somatic cell therapy, only the treated individual would have the modiﬁcation. There have been many arguments against germ-line therapy including our inability to know whether potentially harmful changes in the sequence have been made inadvertantly. All of the trials to date have been in somatic cells for the treatment of inherited disease and cancer by control of cell death.
Two strategies are being attempted. For those disorders for which bone marrow transplantation has been eﬀective, the gene is introduced into marrow cells, the population of which is then expanded and infused into the patient. The techniques for gene introduction are similar to the ones previously discusssed: viral vectors and chemical or physical techniques. An immune deﬁciency disorder, adenosine deaminase deﬁciency, was the ﬁrst attempt reported. Although the modiﬁed cells express the enzyme, repeated infusions of treated cells have been necessary, and the patients have continued to receive chemically modiﬁed enzyme, so it is not clear whether or not gene therapy alone is suﬃcient.
Other trials have used viral vectors to treat target organs, such as the lung in cystic ﬁbrosis. The therapeutic trail of an adenovirus-mediated transfer of a gene to the liver has received general media attention because of the death of a participant. Evidently, other participants in gene therapy trials have died, although it is not clear how many of those deaths are a result of the procedure (Strachan and Read 1996).
6. Genetic Engineering Applications To Behavior
The application of these techniques in behavior is loaded with scientiﬁc, ethical, and legal complications. Part of the problem stems from the very human desire to have a simple answer to a complex problem. Genetic, environmental, and developmental factors interact to produce behavior, and it is diﬃcult to distinguish the role of each component. One should ask if it is even desirable to do this, because of the mixture of potential beneﬁt and risk. It is clear that each behavioral trait is heterogeneous. There may be families where a single major gene is responsible, and a particular drug, expressed protein or even gene therapy could work, but in the more usual instance of several genes and environmental factors, it is unlikely that such a unitary approach would work. The promise of a solution to disease problems by deﬁnition of molecular mechanisms has been diﬃcult to achieve. We still do not have an answer in the case of sickle cell anemia, the ﬁrst disorder to be described in this manner. Common behavioral traits would be more diﬃcult because of the interactions.
Because of the Human Genome Project, it is likely that a number of genes will be discovered that contribute to the development of a number of behavioral characteristics. The technology therefore will create the possibility of diagnostic tests for the presence of variants at these genetic loci that might be involved in diagnostic conﬁrmation, or even asymptomatic screening without necessarily having the ability to safely and ethically treat those in whom the genetic variant is identiﬁed. Furthermore, since it is well known that the genotype does not always predict the phenotype even for such things as emphysema associated with a variant α-1-antitrypsin, one should question this approach with respect to behavioral characteristics (Hubbard and Wald 1997).
Using genetic information to design pharmacologically active agents will probably be useful for drugs interacting with receptors inﬂuencing neural function. A similar problem arises here. Will the intervention be beneﬁcial to someone who is suﬀering or will it be used to control individuals who are designated by those in authority to be deviant? Modifying the environment to enhance development is eﬀective and poses less of a biological risk than drugs or gene therapy (Duyme et al. 1999). The relative economic costs are unknown, but the human ramiﬁcations are immense.
- Duyme M, Dumaret A-C, Tomkiewicz S 1999 How can we boost IQs of ‘dull children’?: A late adoption study. Proceedings of the National Academy of Science USA 96: 8790–4
- Glick B R, Pasternak J J 1998 Molecular Biotechnology: Principles and Applications of Recombinant DNA. 2nd ed. ASM Press, Washington, DC
- Griﬃths A J F, Miller J H, Suzuki D T, Lewontin R C, Gelbart W M 1996 An Introduction to Genetic Analysis. 6th ed. W H Freeman, New York
- Gurdon J B, Colman A 1999 The future of cloning. Nature 402: 743–6
- Hubbard R, Wald E 1997 Exploding the Gene Myth: How Genetic Information is Produced and Manipulated by Scientists, Physicians, Employers, Insurance Companies, Educators and Law Enforcers. Beacon Press, Boston
- Strachan T, Read A P 1996 Human Molecular Genetics. WileyLiss, New York
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Good Research Topics about Genetic Engineering
- Flawless Society: The Consequence of Genetically Engineered Humans
- Genetic Engineering and Forensic Felony Case Analysis
- A Project of Biotechnology and Genetic Engineering
- Genetic Engineering and Inherently Altered Organisms
- Controversial Genetic Engineering and Bio-Ethics
- Well-Being and Ecological Dangers of Genetic Engineering in Food
- Genetic Engineering and the Dangers of Implementing Modifications on Organisms
- Genetic Engineering and How It Influences on Global Heating
- Duplicating and Genetic Engineering in the Food Animal Manufacturing
- Genetic Engineering and Its Impact on the Community
- Research on Embryos, Genetic Engineering and Duplicating
- Genetic Engineering: Related Dangers and Potentials
- Issues Relating to Genetic Engineering in Food Manufacturing
- Genetic Engineering, DNA Finger Marking, Gene Treatment
- The Advantages and Risks of Genetic Engineering in Cloning
- Changing the Aspect of Science in Genetic Engineering, The Past and Forthcoming
- Islamic and Catholic Outlooks on Genetic Engineering
- Therapy on Genetic Factor and Genetic Engineering: Should it Be Permitted in the US
- Discovering the Real Profits of Genetic Engineering in the Contemporary World
- Genetic Engineering and Food Safety: Perception of Economic Welfare
Simple & Easy Genetic Engineering Essay Titles
- Recognize the Possible Effect of Genetic Engineering on the Forthcoming Development of Immunodeficiency Virus
- Genetic Engineering and DNA Machinery in Agrarian Efficiency
- Human Genetic Engineering: Planning the Future
- Genetic Engineering and the Politics After It
- The Prospective and Effects of Genetic Engineering
- Genetic Engineering and Its Influence on Human Well-being
- The Ethical and Moral Debates, Profits, and Future of Genetic Engineering
- Gene Rehabilitation and Genetic Engineering for Treating Illnesses
- Genetic Engineering and the Human Genome Scheme
- Moral Principles for Genetic Engineering
- Genetic Engineering and Cryonic Sub-zero: A Contemporary Frankenstein
- The Impeccable Youngster: Genetic Engineering
- Genetic Engineering and Its Influence on Forthcoming Generations
- Agrarian Genetic Engineering: Foods that Are Modified Genetically
- Genetically Engineering: The Management or Change of the Genomic Construction of a Single Cell of Organism
- Examining Genetic Engineering Concerning Plato’s Viewpoint
- The Perils and Profits of Human Duplicating and Genetic Engineering
- Genetic Engineering: Influences of Both Promoters and Adversaries and a Mediated Solution
- Genes and by What Means Does Genetic Engineering Is Dispersing Uniqueness
- Discovery of Genetic Harmony with Genetic Engineering
Genetic Engineering Discussion Questions
- How Is Genetic Engineering Defined?
- Do You Think Inherently Modified Food Could Impair Bionetworks of the Areas in Which They Develop?
- How Agricultural Study Methods Shape a Technological Rule That Advances Genetic Engineering?
- Can Genetic Engineering Benefits the Poor?
- How Does Genetic Engineering Influence Agricultural Science?
- Is it Really Crucial to Alter Genes to Make New Medications?
- How Can Genetic Engineering End Human Distress?
- Can HIV/AIDS in Humans Be Treated by Genetic Engineering?
- How Has Genetic Engineering Transformed Science and the World?
- Does Genetic Engineering Go Against the Natural Will of God and That Life Should Be As It Was?
- What Are Some Pros and Cons of Genetic Engineering?
- Will Human Race Be Affected by Genetic Engineering?
- The Deterioration of Genetic Engineering
- Genetic Engineering: Its Profits to Humans
- What Is the Influence of Genetic Engineering in the Entire World?
- In What Way Does the Christian Belief Oppose With Genetic Engineering?
- What Are the Moral and Societal Consequences of Genetic Engineering?
- By What Means Will Genetic Engineering Influence Our Lives?
- Identifying The Reason for Genetic Engineering to Be Extended
- The Transformation of Genetic Engineering Everlastingly in our Community
- Identifying the Concerns of People Who Opposed Genomic Engineering
- Should Eating Genetically Modified Food Be the Cause of Concern?
- Is the Idea of the Replacement of Genetically Modified New Bodily Organs Once it Gets Old a Good Idea?
- Is it a Good Idea to Eradicate Human Imperfections such as Ferocity, Jealousy, Hatred, Etc.?
- What Right Do the Government Have to Restrict How Far We Alter Ourselves?
- Why Is Genetic Food Not Acknowledged Well?
- What Is the Greatest in the Genetic Alteration of Plants, Plant Cell, or Chloroplasts and Why?
- What Is Your Opinion About the Modification of Human Gene
- Does Climate Crisis Create the Genetic Engineering of Crops Unavoidable?
- Your Opinions About Genetic Alteration
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