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- 1. Economics TOLL-FREE NO: +44 2038681671 EMAIL: [email protected] WHATSAPP NO: +44 7999903324 WEBSITE: https://www.instantassignmenthelp.com Get PUBLIC ECONOMICS ASSIGNMENT HELP by experts at Instant Assignment Help
- 2. TABLE OF CONTENTS Introduction......................................................................................................................................3 Market Equilibrium..........................................................................................................................3 Effect of Technology on Product Market Equilibrium................................................................3 Implication for national economy if various firms are affected by the technology.....................7 Conclusion.......................................................................................................................................9 References......................................................................................................................................10 TOLL-FREE NO: +44 2038681671 EMAIL: [email protected] WHATSAPP NO: +44 7999903324 WEBSITE: https://www.instantassignmenthelp.com Get PUBLIC ECONOMICS ASSIGNMENT HELP by experts at Instant Assignment Help
- 3. INDEX OF TABLES Table 1: Changes in equilibrium due to shift in demand curve......................................................4 Table 2: Changes in equilibrium due to shift in supply curve........................................................6 TOLL-FREE NO: +44 2038681671 EMAIL: [email protected] WHATSAPP NO: +44 7999903324 WEBSITE: https://www.instantassignmenthelp.com Get PUBLIC ECONOMICS ASSIGNMENT HELP by experts at Instant Assignment Help
- 4. ILLUSTRATION INDEX Illustration 1: Shift in equilibrium...................................................................................................5 Illustration 2: Downward shift in equilibrium due to change in demand curve..............................7 Illustration 3: Shift in supply curve and change in equilibrium price..............................................8 TOLL-FREE NO: +44 2038681671 EMAIL: [email protected] WHATSAPP NO: +44 7999903324 WEBSITE: https://www.instantassignmenthelp.com Get PUBLIC ECONOMICS ASSIGNMENT HELP by experts at Instant Assignment Help
- 5. INTRODUCTION Market equilibrium can be defined as market point where demand of consumer is equivalent to the supply provided by the suppliers. Point of equilibrium is directly connected to the factors of demand and supply (Yomba, 2009). Due to this aspect, equilibrium will be shifted with the change in the factors that can make change in the demand and supply in the market. Present study is focused on the evaluation of impact of technology at the point of market equilibrium. Further, evaluation of impact on change in technology will be done by considering macro-economic factors. THIS IS A SAMPLE ASSIGNMENT BUY QUALITY ASSIGNMENT CONTACT US: TOLL-FREE NO: +44 2038681671 EMAIL: [email protected] WHATSAPP NO: +44 7999903324 WEBSITE: https://www.instantassignmenthelp.com MARKET EQUILIBRIUM 1). Effect of Technology on Product Market Equilibrium Equilibrium in economic terms is referred to a situation where demand and supply of any article or product are equal to each other. Every company tries to achieve and maintain equilibrium as shortfall in either demand or supply will lead the company towards loss (Siebert, 2007). Equilibrium of price in product market can be affected either by macro-economic factors or micro-economic factors. Micro economics consists of factors, shift or alteration of which will affect only a small part of economy like particular unit or segment of industry while macro economics studies economy as a whole. Micro-economics relates to individuals and business decisions while macro economics helps in decision forming relating to whole country rather than every single unit (Tohidinia, 2011). Companies when adopt new technologies either to increase their revenues or enhancing their growth, there will be an impact on the product market equilibrium of that TOLL-FREE NO: +44 2038681671 EMAIL: [email protected] WHATSAPP NO: +44 7999903324 WEBSITE: https://www.instantassignmenthelp.com Get PUBLIC ECONOMICS ASSIGNMENT HELP by experts at Instant Assignment Help
- 6. particular company. This is known as Micro-Economics because adoption of new technology by a company will affect the equilibrium position i.e shift in demand-supply of that company only. 2). Supply and demand curve Supply and demand curves can be defined as the graphical presentation of the price and quantity. In such graphs price is demonstrated on y axis and quantity of good is reflected on x axis. It is most basic and fundamental economic model for the prediction of the optimal prices in the market. Equilibrium price point is intersection point of demand and supply curve (Avlonitis and Giannopoulos, 2012). Change in technology will have direct impact on the supply and demand curve. In addition to this, it will also make shift in the point of equilibrium either to up or down. By considering the type of good, technology could make complete elimination demand. It is because good will become obsolete as effective substitute good is developed by the technology (Boon and Wong, 2011). This aspect is mainly noticed in the mobile phones. In such situation demand is shifted from right to left and equilibrium price will be lowered where suppliers will not be able to supply good along with the profit. 2(i) Changes in demand curve Changes in demand curve is occurred in situation where there in increase or decrease in the quantity demand at particular point of price. Increase in demand at market will make rightward shift will decrease in demand will make leftward shift (Just and Rausser, 2007). Impact of this shift on equilibrium can be understood through the following table: Table 1: Changes in equilibrium due to shift in demand curve Shifts in the Demand Curve (when supply is unchanged) Shift to the right It will make increase in demand It will cause equilibrium to increase Shift to the left It will make decrease in demand It will cause equilibrium to decrease Introduction of new technology in product market will make increase in the demand of product with the new technology. Consequently, there will be reduction in the demand in the TOLL-FREE NO: +44 2038681671 EMAIL: [email protected] WHATSAPP NO: +44 7999903324 WEBSITE: https://www.instantassignmenthelp.com Get PUBLIC ECONOMICS ASSIGNMENT HELP by experts at Instant Assignment Help
- 7. product with the old technology (Changes in Demand and Supply and Impacts on Equilibrium, 2015). Impact of these changes in equilibrium point will be as follows: For example X company had launched new series of particular mobile phone i.e. 0001 in the market then there will be rightward shift in demand of product 0001. Position of equilibrium in this situation will be as follows: At initial level demand of 0001 was at Q1 and price of product will be at P1. With the launch of new series, demand of new product will have rightward shift i.e. D1 to D2. By considering this aspect, it can be noticed that equilibrium will be attained at higher point and consequently price of equilibrium will be increase from P1 to P2. In this situation, there is upward shift in the point of equilibrium. There will also be reduction in the demand of the good with the old technology and consequently price of the goods will be reduced in order to attain the point of equilibrium (Brooks, 2002). TOLL-FREE NO: +44 2038681671 EMAIL: [email protected] WHATSAPP NO: +44 7999903324 WEBSITE: https://www.instantassignmenthelp.com Get PUBLIC ECONOMICS ASSIGNMENT HELP by experts at Instant Assignment Help Illustration 1: Shift in equilibrium (Source: Bold and Vega, 2003)
- 8. In accordance with this illustration, it can be noticed that demand of product in reducing from Q1 to Q2. Due to this aspect, there is leftward shift in the demand curve. In this situation in order to attain the point of equilibrium suppliers will be required to make reduction in the price of product with the old technology. THIS IS A SAMPLE ASSIGNMENT BUY QUALITY ASSIGNMENT CONTACT US: TOLL-FREE NO: +44 2038681671 EMAIL: [email protected] WHATSAPP NO: +44 7999903324 WEBSITE: https://www.instantassignmenthelp.com By considering the factors of supply curve it can be said that launch of new technology in the product market will make increase in the equilibrium price of the new product (Avlonitis and Giannopoulos, 2012). Along with this it will make reduction in the equilibrium price of the product with old technology. TOLL-FREE NO: +44 2038681671 EMAIL: [email protected] WHATSAPP NO: +44 7999903324 WEBSITE: https://www.instantassignmenthelp.com Get PUBLIC ECONOMICS ASSIGNMENT HELP by experts at Instant Assignment Help Illustration 2: Downward shift in equilibrium due to change in demand curve (Source: Changes in Demand and Supply and Impacts on Equilibrium, 2015)
- 9. 2(ii) Changes in supply curve There is shift in supply curve with change in quantity of supply provided by the supplier. Increase in supply makes rightward shift while reduction in supply will provide leftward shift (Wessels, 2000). Impact of this shift on the equilibrium price in the product market is as follows: Table 2: Changes in equilibrium due to shift in supply curve Shifts in the Demand Curve (when supply is unchanged) Shift to the right It will make increase in supply It will cause equilibrium to decrease Shift to the left It will make decrease in supply It will cause equilibrium to increase Introduction of new technology will also have impact on the supply curve. It is because; with the increasing demand various suppliers will tend to provide product in the market and consequently there will be right shift in the supply curve (Dowling, 2009). With the launch of new technology in competitive market, suppliers will make increase in the supply there will be right shift in supply in order to cope up with the demand. Due to this aspect, customers have the option for the purchase as supply is higher than the demand and consequently price of equilibrium will have downward shift (Avlonitis and Giannopoulos, 2012). This aspect can be noticed through following example: For example new technology of growing wheat in introduced in the market that can make reduction in the cost of production. In this situation, producers will be willing to supply more quantity in the market. Impact of increase in supply can be noticed through following illustration: TOLL-FREE NO: +44 2038681671 EMAIL: [email protected] WHATSAPP NO: +44 7999903324 WEBSITE: https://www.instantassignmenthelp.com Get PUBLIC ECONOMICS ASSIGNMENT HELP by experts at Instant Assignment Help
- 10. This illustration shows that if quantity is increased from Q1 to Q2 then equilibrium will be attained at lower point as suppliers will be required to make reduction in the price of product. In addition to this, there will be reduction in the supply of product with the new technology because it is no longer profitable to the suppliers. 3. Implication for national economy if various firms are affected by the technology Macro-Economics is when various firms adopt the practice of adoption or change of technology affecting the demand-supply cycle of whole industry and thus there will be an impact on national economy. Product market equilibrium will be influenced when new technologies are adopted in a manner explained below : Change in Supply : Supply is affected by the technological changes in a way that how much a company is able to increase its production with such change in technology. Suppliers will be required to provide excessive supply of goods and services in order to TOLL-FREE NO: +44 2038681671 EMAIL: [email protected] WHATSAPP NO: +44 7999903324 WEBSITE: https://www.instantassignmenthelp.com Get PUBLIC ECONOMICS ASSIGNMENT HELP by experts at Instant Assignment Help Illustration 3: Shift in supply curve and change in equilibrium price (Source: Changes in Demand and Supply and Impacts on Equilibrium, 2015)
- 11. cope up with the increasing demand in the economy (Eaton, 2015). In addition to this, increase in supply will be supported by the improved technology. Production-possibility frontier (PPF): Technological advancement will make increase in the productivity of the companies which will provide upward shift to the graph. For example advancement in technology of transportation, energy systems, logistics and communication system will make increase in standard of living. Contribution to the GDP growth: Technological improvement in product market will make increase in the GDP of the nation. It is because, organizations will be able to make increase in their profitability and consequently their per capita income will be increased (Reut and Scerri, 2009). Further, growth of businesses is connected to the growth of economy. For example if there is 10% growth in business than 10% of it will be transferred for the increase in GDP. Business innovation: In situation where various firms are affected by the new technology then they will be work to launch more effective technology in the market in order to stay competitive. In this manner, fair competition will be increased in the market and organization will work in more effective manner (Moseley, 2010). With the innovative ideas, they can expand their business operations at the global level in order to attain higher profitability and growth. Product development: New technology will make increase in the efficiency of business and there will be reduction in the cost of production. With this approach, business organizations will be able to make increase in their production capacity without spending high resources. Increase in production capacity will boost the economy but there will also be issue of unemployment (Dowling, 2009). It is because; technology will promote machine work instead of manual work. These factors show that technology have positive as well as negative influence of the economy. Influence for international trade: With the invention of new technology, business organizations can export their goods to the another countries as improved technology will make increase in the capacity of production. In addition to this, national debt is connected TOLL-FREE NO: +44 2038681671 EMAIL: [email protected] WHATSAPP NO: +44 7999903324 WEBSITE: https://www.instantassignmenthelp.com Get PUBLIC ECONOMICS ASSIGNMENT HELP by experts at Instant Assignment Help
- 12. with the trade between countries (Boon and Wong, 2011). Due to this aspect, increasing export will make position of the country strong at the international market and there will also be upliftment in rate of currency. Improved quality at lower price to the customers: Customer will also attain the benefit of improvement in technology. It is because, qualitative product will be available at lower price in the market (Siebert, 2007). This aspect will make increase in their purchasing power and consequently there standard of living will be improved. Development of employment opportunities: New inventions of technology creates various jobs opportunities for the individuals. However, for this aspect they are required to learn new skills and change their job roles by considering the situation. For this aspect, technology advancement in wireless industry can be considered. This industry had provided employment to the thousand of workers for the App businesses and had supported in the growth of economy (Moseley, 2010). This aspect demonstrates that growing business has potential to make increase in the availability of jobs in order to balance the shortage of workers occurred due to instalment of new techniques in work practices. By considering the above description, it can be noticed that wealth of nation will be increased by the technological advancement in the economy. It is because, organizations are able to earn high profitability and customers are able to make increase in their living standards. In addition to this, it will also create opportunities for employment for further development. TOLL-FREE NO: +44 2038681671 EMAIL: [email protected] WHATSAPP NO: +44 7999903324 WEBSITE: https://www.instantassignmenthelp.com Get PUBLIC ECONOMICS ASSIGNMENT HELP by experts at Instant Assignment Help
- 13. CONCLUSION In accordance with the present study, conclusion can be drawn that technology has significant impact on the equilibrium price in the market. With the improvement or decrement in the technology simultaneous impact can be noticed in the equilibrium price. It is because of the model of supply and demand in the economics. Further, if various competitive firms are affected by the implication of the technology then entire national economy will be influenced. It is because when various firms adopt the practice of adoption or change of technology then there will be effect the demand-supply cycle of whole industry. THIS IS A SAMPLE ASSIGNMENT BUY QUALITY ASSIGNMENT CONTACT US: TOLL-FREE NO: +44 2038681671 EMAIL: [email protected] WHATSAPP NO: +44 7999903324 WEBSITE: https://www.instantassignmenthelp.com TOLL-FREE NO: +44 2038681671 EMAIL: [email protected] WHATSAPP NO: +44 7999903324 WEBSITE: https://www.instantassignmenthelp.com Get PUBLIC ECONOMICS ASSIGNMENT HELP by experts at Instant Assignment Help
- 14. REFERENCES Books and Journals 1. Avlonitis, J. G. and Giannopoulos, A. A., 2012. Balanced market orientation: qualitative findings on a fragile equilibrium. Managing Service Quality: An International Journal. 22(6). pp.565 - 579. 2. Bold, F.X. and Vega, C., 2003. Micro E ects of Macro Announcements: Real-Time Priceﬀ Discovery in Foreign Exchange. American Economic Review. 93. pp. 38–62. 3. Boon, S. and Wong, Y. C., 2011. The moderating effects of technological and demand uncertainties on the relationship between supply chain integration and customer delivery performance. International Journal of Physical Distribution & Logistics Management. 41(3). pp.253 - 276. 4. Brooks, C., 2002. Introductory Econometrics for Finance. Cambridge University Press. Cambridge. United Kingdom. 5. Dowling, E., 2009. Schaum's Outline of Mathematical Methods for Business and Economics. McGraw Hill Professional. 6. Just, E. R. and Rausser, C. G., 2007. General Equilibrium in Vertical Market Structures: Overselling Versus Overbuying, in Richard O. Zerbe ,Research in Law and Economics. Emerald Group Publishing Limited. pp.149 – 181. 7. Moseley, F., 2010. Criticisms of Aggregate Demand and Aggregate Supply and Mankiw's Presentation. Review of Radical Political Economics. 42(3). pp.308-314. 8. Reut, A. and Scerri, K., 2009. UK public finances and oil prices. Luxembourg: Publications Office. 9. Siebert, H., 2007. Global View on the World Economy: A Global Analysis. Routledge. 10. Tohidinia, A., 2011. The feasibility of effectual ethics on the foundations of micro and macro issues of economics. Humanomics. 27(4). pp.243 - 251. 11. Wessels, W., 2000. Economics. Hauppauge, NY: Barron's. 12. Yomba, P. J. S., 2009. Micro Economics to Macro Economics: The Concept of Market Exchange Rate. AuthorHouse. Online 1. Changes in Demand and Supply and Impacts on Equilibrium. 2015. [Online]. Available through < https://www.boundless.com/economics/textbooks/boundless-economics- textbook/introducing-supply-and-demand-3/market-equilibrium-48/changes-in- TOLL-FREE NO: +44 2038681671 EMAIL: [email protected] WHATSAPP NO: +44 7999903324 WEBSITE: https://www.instantassignmenthelp.com Get PUBLIC ECONOMICS ASSIGNMENT HELP by experts at Instant Assignment Help
- 15. demand-and- supply-and-impacts-on-equilibrium-181-12279/>. [Accessed on 25th December 2015]. 2. Eaton, J., 2015. Technology and the Global Economy [Online]. Available through <http://www.nber.org/reporter/summer99/eaton.html>. [Accessed on 25th December 2015]. TOLL-FREE NO: +44 2038681671 EMAIL: [email protected] WHATSAPP NO: +44 7999903324 WEBSITE: https://www.instantassignmenthelp.com Get PUBLIC ECONOMICS ASSIGNMENT HELP by experts at Instant Assignment Help
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OBOR: Implications and ExpectationsIn the contemporary economic world, several countries have emerged as economic leaders, with immense amount of economic activities and overall progress and development. China is one such leading global economy, dominating the international economic scenario for the last few decades. With immense economic progress and manufacturing expertise, the country now holds capacity to influence the international commer...
Course Code: MOD003327
University: Anglia Ruskin University
Use of Long-Term Economic policiesIn order to ensure the prosperity of the nation as well as the citizen's welfare, the country's government plays an important role. In this, the government develops long-term economic policies to facilitate economic growth. It is because the main emphasize of the government is to ensure economic growth in order to provide better life to the people (Pearson, 2000). The main purpose of this report is to discuss th...
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University: Macquarie University
Published On: 29-06-2022
Is industry policy still possible today?Industry policy also known as IP is a strategic effort which is used by developing and developed countries to encourage development and growth in parts of an economy. The IP is a way governments of such countries can improve the competitiveness and capabilities of the country’s domestic firms. Industry policy helps domestic firms through promotion of transformation. The content of this paper discus...
Course Code: ECON3041
University: Thompson Rivers University
Published On: 19-10-2021
Why do Americans value bottled water more than gasoline?Question 1: Water is not scarce as gasoline in America. However, according to Americans bottled water has more value than gasoline and that is why they are willing to pay more for the water that is a renewable resource than for gas that is a non-renewable resource. Question 2: Water itself Culture When the Americans purchase bottled water at a higher price, it is because they are...
Course Code: ENVI524
University: Victoria University Of Wellington
Country: New Zealand
Published On: 06-10-2021
The Ballast Water Policy of VictoriaMost of the parts of Victoria, there are a number of water channels, which include bay, rivers, inlets, lakes and the coast. Victoria has roughly 2500 km of coastline, and there are more than 120 bays, inlets and estuaries along its dimensions. Victoria's three largest bays are Western Port, Corner Inlet and Port Phillip. The state also has more than 85,000 km of rivers and 13,000 natural wetlands. Victoria'...
Course Code: BUS104
University: Kaplan Business School
Published On: 30-09-2021
Part 1: Elasticity The law of demand ‘expresses a relationship between the quantity demanded and its price’.( Economicsdiscussion.net, The Law of Demand) . For any good the law states state that as price rises the quantity demanded will fall, ceteris paribus assuming other things remain unchanged. The latter include the following determinants of demand. We give examples for oil in brackets): Income of the buyer of oil ...
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In this assignment, we will be focusing on the macroeconomic concepts, microeconomic concepts as well as the basic mathematical concepts (which have their implications in economics).
As the title suggests, Macroeconomics deals with the Macro (or the Aggregate/Large) view of the economy, such as the functioning of govt policies, be it Fiscal or Monetary. It also deals with the National Income Accounting, like Gross Domestic Product (GDP), Per-Capita Income (PCI) (Heijdra, 2017).
Microeconomics, on the other hand, deals with the study of small economic units, which, when come together, form the economy as a whole. As the title suggests, Micro means 'small,' henceforth, this involves dealing with firms, and individual households as well as business, so as to understand the functioning of the economy at its very base, or from the root level. Example of microeconomic concepts is â€“ Average Cost (AC), Marginal Physical Product (MPP).
Mathematical Economics takes into account the basic mathematical formulae and exercises of calculation or the arithmetic processes, which, when applied alongside the economic framework, helps in forecasting as well as formulating a specific route or path the economy must have taken or is going to follow in the future. Now, this might at times involve some concepts which have their relations to the statistical concepts such as Mean, Median, Mode, et al.Â Sometimes we also use mathematical concepts such as Matrices and Calculus, which have their implications in Microeconomics and Macroeconomics also (Minford and Peel, 2019).
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For low-budget smartphones in general and also high-end smartphones brands like Samsung, APPLE, and Motorola, the price elasticity of demand is often inelastic.
That is, the demand for the good is unresponsive to any change in the price. This type of behavior is often seen in goods which are perceived by consumers to be a necessity; now, this can be a lot of products like Groceries, Gas, Water, and on. But for a mobile phone to be considered a necessity, might make a few old-souls to raise their eyebrows and shake their head in disgust while muttering 'This generation is so spoilt.'
Anyways, in the present scenario, mobile phones have genuinely become a necessity. Gone are the days of fixed home landlines, even 12-year-olds roam about with an iPhone nowadays, and it has nothing to do with its affordability, well maybe it has got to do with 'affordability' a bit because that's why we are dealing with Price Elasticity of Demand, but in layman's term, it has become a utility. And for a utility, the price legitimately doesn't matter a bit. This is because any utility is good, which can be used to accomplish day to day menial as well as exhausting tasks (Heijdra, 2017).
So, bottom-line, if people cannot live without an iPhone, then its price elasticity of demand is INELASTIC [ -1 < E d < 0]. And, no matter at what price APPLE decides to sell it, itâ€™s always going to have a market and ample demand for it. This can be traced due to itâ€™s
- Brand Value
- Technological superiority in comparison to other brands
- Unique Operating System
- Excellent Customer Service
- The superiority of Items used in manufacturing. Â
There are always various factors that go about in the determination of Price Elasticity of Demand of a product, but they are usually different for an essential good or a utility item like iPhone. This could be due to the fact that although being an essential commodity, itâ€™s used more extensive and far-stretched than the use of say, a carton of Milk. Easily explained, if I am paying around 1000$ for a carton of milk, I need to be sure that it's going to make my bones as strong as titanium.Â
Therefore, if a person is going to be paying a thousand bucks for an iPhone, they are obviously going to have a tad bit of rationality and skepticism while buying it. The factors which contribute to that can be summarised as follows:
- Availability of Substitutes , i.e., if Samsung has a phone which has the same features as that of the latest iPhone and is 50$ cheaper, then a rational person would prefer Samsung to the latter.
- Consumer Loyalty ; going ahead with the above example, if the person is an APPLE enthusiast, then no matter the price, he is always going to choose the iPhone every time.
- Income Level ; obviously with a high-end pricing strategy of APPLE, income level plays a major part for a consumer to go for it, however so, with recent EMI and financing plans by carrier companies like Verizon and all, it has become comparatively easier to get one of your own (well, technically it isn't yours until you pay all the installments).
- Complementary Goods: as we know it, APPLE products are only compatible with other APPLE products, unlike other competitors existing in the technological sphere. But this also works as something which gives APPLE the 'exclusive luxury' brand status, and therefore it adds on to its value, thereby making it a thing of prestige (if, you own it) (LIU and LIU, 2016).
First year price (P 1 ) = $700
Units sold in 1 st year (U 1 ) = 10 Million
Revenue Earned (R 1 ) = $7 Billion
Second year price (P 2 ) = $525
Units sold in 2 nd year (U 2 ) = 14 Million
Revenue Earned (R 2 ) = $7.35 Billion Â
Since R 2 >R 1
Therefore, we can say that a decrease in the price of the iPhone in the second year let to a higher number of sales and also a greater revenue, by $350 Million.
Price elasticity of Demand (E d ) = (Change in Q d /Q d ) * (P/Change in P)
4/10*700/175 = 1.6 = E d
Since E d >1
Therefore, we can infer that the price elasticity of demand for the iPhone is Elastic.
With a low number of entry and exit barriers in the perfectly competitive market, getting a firm into the market and exiting the market is not as haphazard in comparison to an Oligopolistic setup. This can be explained through an example, which is as follows:
Suppose in the Arcade Games business market, two firms already exist. One of them is Sony Entertainment (PlayStation), and the other is Microsoft (XBOX). Now, this type of market set up is that of a Monopolistic competition, but for the sake of the question, we are assuming that the market set up is that of a perfectly competitive market. Being a perfectly competitive market, APPLE ARCADE steps in the main fray, thereby displacing the 50-50 market share of both Sony & Microsoft, with the new market share being 33.3% for each of the firms(Jawad et al., 2018).
Consider that in the short run, APPLE ARCADE starts to earn a supernormal profit due to the fact that people prefer it more in comparison to its other two competitors. Now earning Supernormal Profits is only possible in the short run. This is because, in the long run, more firms will enter in the market thinking they can earn supernormal profits like APPLE ARCADE as well, however so, their entry in the market would do nothing else but redistribute the total market share amongst the existing companies, thereby eventually leading to every firm earning Normal Profits (LIU and LIU, 2016).
Â Short Run â€“ Supernormal Profits
And in the Long Run, Supernormal Profits -> Entry of Firms -> Redistribution of Mkt Share -> Profit Shares decrease, and firms earn normal profits. Â
In the first place, the brand is basic and simple to utilize. Truth be told, it is instinctive. At the point when I changed from a Microsoft PC and working framework to an APPLE PC and working framework, I didn't allude to any guidance manual. I simply turned the gadget on and began utilizing it.
Also, the Operating System (OS) smooth and stylishly satisfying. Its plan is moderate. It and my Tesla Model 3 share that same cloud platform, practically speaking. Truth be told, my iPhone combines pleasantly with my Tesla and with the Bose headphones, and as well as JBL Harman audio system has an outer volume control that works flawlessly with APPLE gadgets. I feel that these brands fit well together on the grounds that they share attention on greatness, advancement, and clean plan tasteful (Salamone et al., 2017).
APPLE has not been an open stage. It controls what programming is utilized with its gadgets, nearly wiping out similarity issues, accelerating preparing time, and making it progressively hard for infections and malware (Liu, 2018).
APPLE has become the anti-Microsoft brand. In other words, it has gotten a better option than Microsoft-fuelled gadgets. Individuals have worn out on the issues related to Microsoft-based stages, particularly identified with PC security, infections, and malware.
In-store client assistance is best in class, promoting the problem-free naturally simple nature of the brand. What's more, the stores strengthen the plan stylish of the brand.
APPLE is an inventive organization and isn't apprehensive about making something new that makes a past item old. Witness iPods. They are not scared of foreseeing client needs and wants and are glad to convey benefits that clients had not by any means envisioned. The production of iPhone applications is a case of this (Jawad et al., 2018).
The cross-similarity and correspondence between the entirety of APPLE's gadgets is another positive part of the brand. Â
In the above graph or diagram, the Demand Curve (or it is usually known as DD curve), is the downwards sloping curve in the red color. The downwards sloping nature of the demand curve is due to the fact that with an increase in price, the quantity demanded decreases and vice versa.
The upwards sloping curve is the Supply Curve, also known as the SS curve). It is the upwards sloping blue coloured line. The SS curve is upwards sloping in nature due to the reason that as price increases, producers of a commodity or services intended to produce more of that commodity and thereby supplying it in larger quantities. Therefore, an increase in price, increase the supply of a good and vice versa
The extra mobile roaming charges in other nations led to a loss in the consumer surplus of the consumers who had travelled to another nation; this was due to the fact that they were now paying more than the reservation price they had for this service (Hennessy and Wolf, 2018).
(Reservation price is the maximum amount a consumer is willing to pay for a good or service) .
However so, this additional tariff charged in a foreign country, led to an increase in the producer surplus of the suppliers, as higher tariff charges than usual, led to more income and henceforth more surplus.
The cumulative effect of the higher tariff is depicted in the lower graph, thereby showing a decrease in the consumer surplus and a simultaneous increase in the producer surplus. Â
European Union and Parliament realised that this Roaming tariff was sort of market failure because it was supposed to be a public good which private companies were using to their advantage so as to profit from it and earn higher revenue, only due to the fact that different nations existing under European Union had different pricing for Cellular services (such as calls, messages, and data) (Mitra et al., 2018).
Moreover so, by not providing the customers with knowledge about this tariff hike in surrounding/neighborhood nations, it was also a form of Asymmetric Information, which eventually leads to a market failure.
Henceforth, in simpler terms, the European Union considered this hike in data roaming charges to be a market failure solely due to two main reasons â€“
- Privatisation of a Public Good for profiteering.
- Asymmetric Information. Â
Yes, the European Union could have taxed, if NOT subsidised this additional charge on data by the Telecom Operators.
Since most of the public services in the European nations are funded by the taxpayer's money, this would have been a good source of income for the govt. So as to balance their books or earn some additional revenue.
By taxing this additional surcharge, the govt. Could have been able to put an end to this impending market failure earlier and simultaneously would've worked towards providing a positive externality through this tariff hike money (Salamone, et al., 2017).
Now, consider the scenario of Govt. providing subsidy to their nationals so as to bear the additional cost due to the tariff hike; then the govt must have to bear a brunt to their pockets, but this would lead to the welfare of the public as well as to the welfare of the state, thereby helping in improving the Quality of life of the individuals (who had to shell out a fortune due to these misnomers imposed by the Telecom Companies) (Aitken and Weale, 2018).Â
Yes, it was the moral and ethical responsibility of the service providers so as to provide information regarding the additional data charges and consumers when purchasing a plan, usually tend to skip such minute details, which often costs them manifold later on. But yes, the Telecom Operators and Service providers shouldâ€™ve given some hint or a piece of knowledge regarding this act of slyly stealing or siphoning off money from their clients (Mitra, et al., 2018).
However so, since these companies often function, being inclined towards the capitalistic side, it is unfair for us to assume that they should've behaved in an egalitarian or socialist way. Charging additional money is alright if you're alerting your clients about it, but doing what they did is straight-up illegal and unethical (Clark, 2019).
In the above graph, we have plotted a graph of Real Gross Domestic Product & Real Personal Consumption (of the United Kingdom) over a period of 24 years, from 1995 to 2018.
On the Y-axis, we have the GDP/Consumption in British Pounds, while on the X-axis, we have the annual data. As we can see from the graph, the GDP and RPC both have increased over this period of 24 years apart from the period of Global recession, i.e., 2008-2009, during that time we observed a dip in both the Gross Domestic Product and Real Personal Consumption. The recession trend was due to the global recession scenario, thereby effecting the growth of GDP and Personal Consumption of the economy (Mankiw, 2020).
We can also notice that the Real Personal Consumption has almost been three times (3x) that of the Real Gross Domestic Product, due to the fact that people tend to consume more as the GDP of the economy increases and the economy grows (Flynn et al., 2016).
The grey bars denote the recession values, -1 signifying a trough (a dip in growth) and +1 signifying a crest (a shoot in growth).Â
Inflation is defined as the increase in the general price levels of goods and services in the economy.Now, according to the graph, the Upwards Sloping line is the Short-Run Aggregate Supply Curve (in red) â€“ SRAS. The downwards sloping line depicts the Aggregate demand curve (in green) â€“ AD (Yu et al., 2017).
Â To understand better, this aggregate supply and demand curves are like the culmination of the individual & market supply and demand curves, respectively, for the whole economy or nation.The vertical line (blue in colour), is the Long Run Aggregate supply curve, or more commonly referred to as the Aggregate Supply curve â€“ AS. The intersection of the Aggregate Demand and Short-Run Aggregate Supply curves depicts the Equilibrium (Vasigh and Fleming, 2016).
The intersection of Aggregate Demand, Aggregate Supply & Short-Run Aggregate Supply curve shows that the economy is in a state of Full Employment Level of Equilibrium.
Any deviation from this point signifies that there is some disequilibrium in the economy.
If the Aggregate Demand is greater than Aggregate Supply, i.e., AD>AS , then the demand for goods is higher than the actual supply there is of it, henceforth the price increases. This increase in price level is known as Inflation.
From the above diagram, P 1 is the equilibrium price, and Y 1 is the equilibrium output. With an increase or excess of demand, the price increases to P 2 , and the output supplied remains at Y 1 only.
If this situation isn't kept in check, then the price further tends to increase, and a situation of hyper-inflation sets into the economy, with prices of necessities skyrocketing.
When economic growth increases, disposable income, and per-capita income also increases, thereby leading to a sudden increase in demand. Since this demand often outruns the production capacity of the economy at a point, it necessarily needs to inflation (Clark, 2019).Â
BREXIT is the political phenomenon of the decade, whereby, the UK is pulling itself out of the European Union. Forfeiting itself from all the monetary, fiscal, political pressures and responsibilities, which it has by being a part of the prestigious conglomerate of European Nations â€“ EU. This might leave a positive effect in the country as it can now do things which weren't equivocally endorsed by the other member nations of the European Union, however so, in the economic front, the United Kingdom or the UK is about to suffer a lot and that too mostly due to its severed trading relations after the endorsement of BREXIT by the ruling government (Goldberger, 2019).
The model of Aggregate Demand & Aggregate Supply might be able to explain the internal economic position and condition of Britain (through GDP and PCI), but the majority of key economic indicators such Balance of Payments (BoP) and Net Factor Income from Abroad, along with others, can't be effectively and accurately explained through the AD & AS relationship (Mankiw, 2020).
Therefore, the AD & AS curves will give a partial picture of the economic capability and condition of Britain after BREXIT.Â
To summarise the assignment, it was learned all about the basic economic theory and practical use of this theory from the examples of APPLE iPhones, Roaming Charges by Telecom operators, and the Macroeconomic analysis of an economy through this BREXIT phenomenon.
All in all, the researcher has developed a sound knowledge of Microeconomics, Macroeconomics, Maths, and as well as learn to integrate those three essential fulcrums of economics with Pictorial representation of data through graphs and diagrams.
Although, the researcher has learned quite a handful of things he still does have some convictions relating to the above research he went through regarding APPLE Inc., which are explained as follows â€“
Tim Cook is an obvious business person related to the brand.
There is a sure social store related to utilizing the brand. The entirety of the abovementioned, in addition to its more significant expense, focuses, fortify this.
Enabled and connected with workers would show cautious contracting rehearses. Actually, it has been said that APPLE directors pose three inquiries of potential employment applicants:
- Do they show coarseness, or the pervasiveness to take bold decisions?
- Can they convey a Sterling or Ritz-Carlton level of client support?
- Could they have gone head to head with Steve Jobs APPLE?
APPLE's way of life is, by all accounts, one devoted to revelation and greatness. Considering these positive characteristics together, it is no big surprise that APPLE is a top worldwide brand.
Aitken, A., and Weale, M., 2018. A democratic measure of household income growth: theory and application to the United Kingdom.Â Economica
Clark, C., 2019.Â National income and outlay . Routledge.
Flynn, B.B., Koufteros, X. and Lu, G., 2016. On theory in supply chain uncertainty and its implications for supply chain integration.Â Journal of Supply Chain Management ,Â 52 (3), pp.3-27.
Goldberger, A., 2019.Â Functional form and utility: A review of consumer demand theory . Routledge.
Heijdra, B.J., 2017.Â Foundations of modern macroeconomics . Oxford university press.
Hennessy, D.A., and Wolf, C.A., 2018. Asymmetric information, externalities, and incentives in animal disease prevention and control. Journal of Agricultural Economics ,Â 69 (1), pp.226-242.
Jawad, M., Lee, J.T., Glantz, S., and Millett, C., 2018. Price elasticity of demand of non-cigarette tobacco products: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Tobacco control ,Â 27 (6), pp.689-695.
LIU, H. and LIU, J.Q., 2016. Trade Openness, AS-AD Policy and Economic Risk.Â International Economics and Trade Research , (1), p.3.
Liu, Y., 2018. Estimating the elasticity of supply of housing space rather than units.Â Regional Science and Urban Economics ,Â 68 , pp.1-10.
Mankiw, N.G., 2020.Â Essentials of economics . Cengage learning.
Minford, P. and Peel, D., 2019.Â Advanced macroeconomics: a primer . Edward Elgar Publishing.
Mitra, S., Mookherjee, D., Torero, M. and Visaria, S., 2018. Asymmetric information and middleman margins: An experiment with Indian potato farmers.Â Review of Economics and Statistics ,Â 100 (1), pp.1-13.
Salamone, J.D., Correa, M., Yohn, S.E., Yang, J.H., Somerville, M., Rotolo, R.A. and Presby, R.E., 2017. Behavioral activation, effort-based choice, and elasticity of demand for motivational stimuli: Basic and translational neuroscience approaches.Â Motivation Science ,Â 3 (3), p.208.
Vasigh, B. and Fleming, K., 2016.Â Introduction to air transport economics: from theory to applications . Routledge.
Yu, J., Cheung, M.H., Huang, J. and Poor, H.V., 2017. Mobile data trading: Behavioral economics analysis and algorithm design.Â IEEE journal on selected areas in communications ,Â 35 (4), pp.994-1005.
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Sample Assignment economics
Economics assignment sample stuck with your economics assignments get free assistance from our ph.d. experts, econ1025 prices and markets assignment sample, assignment brief.
The assessment is worth 50 marks and will be delivered as a question sheet on Canvas exactly two weeks before the submission deadline. Your submission will receive an automatic Turnitin similarity score that should not exceed 25%. You should check this score using the tool on Canvas before submitting. Exceeding this limit raises the risk of your submission being subject to an academic integrity process. As per University regulations late assignments receive a 10% penalty per day until the mark reaches zero. Marks will be given according to the rubrics on Canvas. You must attach a completed coversheet with your submission (template appended below). For the formatting requirements follow the advice given for assessment task 2 above.
Your submission should be a word-processed document not exceeding 2000 words. Any diagrams that you wish to use can be inserted into this document in any way you like, i.e. created in the word-processing software itself, or inserted as a photograph of a pencil drawing or from another software.
There is no discretionary margin above this limit. There is no minimum but you are advised to use all the words for assignment help allowed to allow for a more developed and detailed analysis.
Answer any FOUR of the following questions. Each question is worth a total of 12.5 marks. If more than four questions are answered, marks will be awarded for the first four answers only.
High-performance cars (HPCs) are automobiles with engines that generate great power relative to their weight. They boast high acceleration, speed, cornering and breaking performance. But they obviously come with a very high price tag. Some people even buy them to publicly display their wealth. The Singapore economy has grown rapidly between the 1960s and 2018 with rising incomes across the island. Examine the likely consequences of rising incomes on the Singapore HPC market and one or two related markets.
The speed limit on Singapore roads, even expressways, never exceeds 90 kmh, much less than the top speed of HPCs. But there is a road racing culture where individuals perform stunts and races on public roads, far exceeding speed limits. What, if anything should government do about the HPC market? Should such cars be banned outright? What would be the problems with such interventions?
The car industry is characterized by heavy research and development activity. This activity has a high fixed cost and can only be undertaken by large firms with significant monopoly power. Sometimes the innovations of the car industry spill over into other industries. There is also a great deal of product differentiation, with certain brands enjoying reputation and loyalty. What are the likely effects of these aspects of the industry on the market structure for HPCs? Examine this industry using the theory and models of industry structure. Should government be worried about any aspect of how an industry with this market structure will perform?
BMW is one of the world’s best known HPC manufacturers. Developing new cars is a costly, uncertain and complex process. This company would need to consider which parts of the vertical chain to outsource and which to conduct in-house. Using the theory of the optimal boundary of the firm, discuss BMW’s make-or-buy decision for developing and producing a HPC. What stages of the vertical chain should BMW consider conducting in-house, and which should be outsourced? Provide reasons for your findings.
Consider the following hypothetical case. Only BMW and a competitor, Mazda, are considering launching a new, niche HPC in the Asian market. The issue is what price to charge. Both new cars are very similar in performance and production cost. Analyze the interaction between the two firms using game theory. Present a payoff matrix to model the situation and analyze it for Nash equilibrium. What can either of these firms do to make their best, most-preferred outcome more likely?
Question 1: likely consequences of rising incomes on the Singapore HPC market
High performance cars are considered a sign of wealth as rich people often showcase their status and flaunt their economic well-being. High prices of high performance cars imply that only a limited number of people are capable of buying those products in the market. High performance cars are considered to be a luxury commodity in the market as only a few people can afford to buy these products. However, rising economy of Singapore encourages its economic stakeholders to accumulate substantial wealth over the past few decades. Rapid growth from 1960 to 2018 has helped many people to change their fortune as they became wealthy during these periods. This has generated demand for high performance cars in the Singapore market as the capabilities of people buying similar kinds of cars has over this period. As per the studies done by Kern, Dossow & von Roon (2020), people tend to buy more expensive products with a rise in their income. Similar aspects could be observed in the Singapore market as demand for high performance cars would like to increase.
High performance cars apart from being a symbol of wealth possess high acceleration, speed, cornering along with breaking performance. The income elasticity of the high performance cars is positive as rising income enhances the affordability of those for the consumers. Rising market demand would cause the dealers to supply a higher volume in the Singapore market that would raise the overall supply of high performance cars. The market for high performance cars will see a boom as consistent growth of the Singapore market has established itself with a strong economy. The rapid growth of the Singapore economy has enabled the market players to infuse a huge amount of money that encouraged them to buy high performance cars in the market. According to the study of Ji et al. (2021), rising demand for any commodity would increase the price of that product in making it more experience. However, market equilibrium for high performance cars in Singapore would shift towards the right with further increases in the price in the market.
The price increase could be explained through comparative static models that compare different economic outcomes that can be observed after changes in exogenous parameters. In this scenario, demand for high performance cars is changed in the market through changes in income. Furthermore, the demand factor influences the price metric to change which raises the price of high performance cars in this case. The overall price of HPC will rise in the Singapore market although the growth of the economy would stimulate the demand in the market. This would raise the overall import items in the Singapore economy as car manufacturing companies would raise the supply in the market. As per the view of Sadiq et al. (2021), a rise in demand in a specific market often increases the demand in the related markets. Related markets such as customised parts or car paint would observe a growth in the market as the products are complementary.
Question 2: Government intervention in the HPC market and issues developed through intervention
High performance cars possess a high speed which is much higher than the restricted speed in the Singapore economy. Speed limit curbing the speed of vehicles does not allow the riders to enjoy the top speed of high speed cars as there remains racing culture among people. Individuals performing stunts or having a race on the public road could lead to fatal damages that may cause government intervention in the HPC market. As per the studies done by Basu & Ferreira (2020), government intervention allows a market to run properly as well helps in people getting benefits from the market. Restriction on sales of high performance cars could lower the chances of accidents on the road that would sufficiently help the people of that economy. Imposition on sale of high performance cars would discourage the wealthy population of the nation. The Government of Singapore further raised the speed limit in a specific time period along with special race tracks that would allow the cars to remain within a certain area.
High performance cars could be banned by the government of Singapore that would depress the HPC market. On the other hand, the banning of high performance cars would lead to the emergence of the black market in the country. According to the study of Adler, Peer & Sinozic (2019), market imposition of government often restricts the natural market composition that influences the shady market to grow. Furthermore, people of Singapore could buy high performance cars in different national markets and that could be imported into Singapore due to imposed market restrictions. These could lead to loss of taxes and other financial losses for the Singapore government arising due to government intervention in the market. However, banning cars would never solve the problems rather it would create further complications.
The emergence of a shady market is not helpful for the growth of the economy as the government does not get any financial benefits for transactions. The government will have no clue about the number of products sold in the market. As per the view of Bucsky (2018), market governance is necessary to have estimated about any specific market and transaction happening in that market. Furthermore, the government will be unaware of the shady deals that would occur in the parallel market. The parallel market assists in the growth and development of corruption that would cause a bigger issue for the government.
Market equilibrium in the high performance cars market would disrupt through the imposition of the Singapore government. It may lead to market failure as tough restrictions by the government could dry off the entire market. According to the study of Basu & Ferreira (2020), welfare loss happens due to the imposition of market restrictions as both producers and consumers waste their resources. High tax imposition could lower the sales of high performance cars that could help the government in lowering the number of cars in the market. The Singapore government could impose a higher import duty that would provide a similar effect as well.
Question 3: Market structure for HPC industry and governments worry on market performance
The global automobile industry is not that highly competitive as it is filled with various market producers. However, the market structure in the high performance car industry is oligopolistic markets as only a handful of market players dominate the industry. Target market of the high performance car industry always remained different as compared to the automobile industry. As per the studies done by Yin & Hamilton (2018), research and development is the crucial component behind the growth of high performance cars that can be managed through few market suppliers. Producers in the market are unable to carry the heavy research and developmental activities in the market in a regular manner. These aspects have implicated a few producers in the market who are the dominant force in the market.
The market producers have different brand valuations as they have some degrees of product differentiation. A certain amount of product differentiation causes a huge advantage in the market that allows some manufacturers to have a significant market advantage. According to the study of Minh (2020), brand valuation is another component that influences the market position of different car manufacturers. Furthermore, the brand valuation of a company comes through sufficient brand reputation that is acquired through proper servicing to consumers and efficient customer satisfaction. The car manufacturing companies with greater brand reputation allow a greater competitive advantage in the market that helps them in being a dominant force in the market.
Loyalty of the customers plays a crucial role in these aspects as car manufacturers with a higher brand reputation have a greater loyal customer base. As per the view of Horn et al. (2019), the customer retention rate of manufacturing companies depends on the loyal customer base that provides sufficient confidence to the companies in case launching new products in the market. Product differentiation allows car producers to develop different types of products in the market. High performance car industry possesses few manufacturers who have focused on the heavy research and development of their production system in a heavy manner. The car manufacturing companies possess a high fixed cost that provides a certain level of market entry barrier as very few producers are capable of sustaining the cost. This market entry barrier encourages the existing producers in the market to carry on the production activities as profitability remains higher.
The government must not worry about the existing market structure in the high performance car industry as few dominant producers are very competitive among themselves. However, the Singapore government must ensure that any single firm does not contain significant monopoly power in the market. According to the study of Horn et al. (2019), monopoly power could further disrupt the market as only one firm is capable of supplying products in the market which would result in loss of welfare in the market. Consumers could be exploited through the emergence of monopoly in the high performance car industry as a sole producer would satisfy the supply of the entire market. The government must ensure the car manufacturers do not form a cartel that would represent a monopoly manufacturing company itself.
Question 5: Market interaction between BMW and Mazda using Game theory
BMW and Mazda are two companies operating in the high performance car industry in the Asian market. Cars of both of the companies having similar features and providing the same performance lead to a case of no product differentiation in this scenario. Production cost of both the cars being the same implies the cost for these two vehicles will be identical. In this scenario, the application of game theory would be most useful helping to identify the market equilibrium. As per the studies done by Sun & Sun (2018), the payoff matrix model provides a visual representation of the best possible outcomes of strategic decisions for two different players.
The playoff model matrix for BMW and Mazda has been provided below,
Table 1: payoff Matrix Model for BMW and Mazda (Source: MS Word)
From the above matrix model it can be observed that the pricing of BMW and Mazda cars could be of two different levels which are 100000$, and 200000$. Furthermore, within the matrix, the market share for each of the cars has been provided based on the level of price for each of the high performance car manufacturing companies. It can be observed from the above table that the prices of both of the cars would lead to equal market share in the luxury car industry. Furthermore, one of the cars having different prices would lead to complete market acquisition for one car manufacturing company. Both of the cars having same production cost and identical products would lead to identical product pricing in the market. Cars having different prices in the market would lead to greater market accumulation by the other company. The company with a higher pricing policy would lose a heavy market share as consumers will shift to that other brand with lower cost (Ajay et al. 2019). In this scenario, BMW will consider market pricing of 100000 USD as the company is beneficial irrespective of policy adoption of Mazda. BMW will accumulate 50 percent and 100 percent of the market while adopting the price of 100000$ which is higher as compared to the other pricing strategy of the company. Similarly, from the playoff matrix, it can be observed that Mazda having products pricing 100000 USD could lead to higher market acquisition as compared to other pricing strategies. According to the study of Koryagin (2018), Nash equilibrium from a payoff matrix model leads to conjugal outcomes that satisfy both of the players. Mazda can acquire a higher market share in the high performance industry irrespective of the pricing strategy of BMW with a market price of 100000 USD. Hence, both the car manufacturer company BMW and Mazda will adopt a price of 100000$ and the Nash equilibrium is (50, 50) in this case.
Adler, M. W., Peer, S., & Sinozic, T. (2019). Autonomous, connected, electric shared vehicles (ACES) and public finance: An explorative analysis. Transportation Research Interdisciplinary Perspectives, 2, 100038. https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S2590198219300387
Ajay, M., Kannan, S., Narayan, P. P., & Kumar, R. D. S. (2019). A Glance Through History of Automobile Industry and Current Market Study of Some of the Legendry Models in India. In Advances in Manufacturing Technology (pp. 433-441). Springer, Singapore.https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Tamilselvam-Nallusamy/publication/332488514_Mechanical_Characterization_of_Glass_Fiber-Strengthened_Balsa-Depron_Composite/links/5f97e8c292851c14bceac820/Mechanical-Characterization-of-Glass-Fiber-Strengthened-Balsa-Depron-Composite.pdf#page=426
Basu, R., & Ferreira, J. (2020). Understanding household vehicle ownership in Singapore through a comparison of econometric and machine learning models. Transportation Research Procedia, 48, 1674-1693. https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S2352146520306244/pdf?md5=ce396baaa396abdbf25538b2104f72e0&pid=1-s2.0-S2352146520306244-main.pdf
Bucsky, P. (2018). Autonomous vehicles and freight traffic: towards better efficiency of road, rail or urban logistics? Urban Development Issues, 58(1), 41-52. https://sciendo.com/pdf/10.2478/udi-2018-0022
Horn, M., MacLeod, J., Liu, M., Webb, J., & Motta, N. (2019). Supercapacitors: A new source of power for electric cars?. Economic Analysis and Policy, 61, 93-103.https://eprints.qut.edu.au/121172/1/__qut.edu.au_Documents_StudentHome_Group77%24_n8844577_Documents_PhD_Misc_EVdocs_Supercapacitors%20A%20new%20power%20source%20for%20electric%20cars.pdf
Ji, X., Zhang, Y., Mirza, N., Umar, M., & Rizvi, S. K. A. (2021). The impact of carbon neutrality on the investment performance: evidence from the equity mutual funds in BRICS. Journal of Environmental Management, 297, 113228. https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Muhammad-Umar-150/publication/353257462_The_impact_of_carbon_neutrality_on_the_investment_performance_Evidence_from_the_equity_mutual_funds_in_BRICS/links/60f542869541032c6d4e25b7/The-impact-of-carbon-neutrality-on-the-investment-performance-Evidence-from-the-equity-mutual-funds-in-BRICS.pdf
Kern, T., Dossow, P., & von Roon, S. (2020). Integrating Bidirectional Chargeable Electric Vehicles into the Electricity Markets. Energies, 13(21), 5812. https://www.mdpi.com/1996-1073/13/21/5812/htm
Koryagin, M. (2018). Urban planning: A game theory application for the travel demand management. periodica polytechnic transportation engineering, 46(4), 171-178.https://126.96.36.199/tr/article/download/9410/7826
Minh, N. K. (2020, April). Features and prospects of the electric vehicle in the Vietnamese automobile market. In IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering (Vol. 819, No. 1, p. 012007). IOP Publishing.https://iopscience.iop.org/article/10.1088/1757-899X/819/1/012007/pdf
Sadiq, M., Hsu, C. C., Zhang, Y., & Chien, F. (2021). COVID-19 fear and volatility index movements: empirical insights from ASEAN stock markets. Environmental Science and Pollution Research, 1-18. https://link.springer.com/content/pdf/10.1007/s11356-021-15064-1.pdf
Sun, S., & Sun, N. (2018). Management Game Theory (pp. XI-129). Singapore: Springer.http://ndl.ethernet.edu.et/bitstream/123456789/67572/1/447.pdf
Yin, J. Z., & Hamilton, M. H. (2018). The conundrum of US-china trade relations through game theory modelling. Journal of Applied Business and Economics, 20(8), 133-150.https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Michael-Hamilton-25/publication/331994158_The_Conundrum_of_US-
BUECO5903 Assignment Sample
This assignment contains four questions. You are required to answer all four questions for assignment help .
This is an individual piece of assessment. Make sure your submission is an original
Submission - this means it must be the creation of the person submitting it.
You are required to explain your reasoning and use diagrams where appropriate.
Assessment weight: This assessment task constitutes 15 percent of the total assessment for this course.
Due date: Your instructor will advise you of the submission date of this assessment task.
Assignment to be submitted electronically in the drop box in your Moodle shell.
a) Give the definition of GDP and explain what items are not included in its calculation? b) How is GDP calculated using the expenditure approach? c) How is GDP calculated using the income approach? d) Explain the problem of "double-counting" and how it can be avoided in calculating GDP
Assume that an economy is initially operating at the natural rate of output (full employment output). Use the AD-AS model to illustrate graphically the effects on price and output of an increase in government spending and a decrease in the cash rate. Explain your assumptions with respect to the range of aggregate supply of your analysis.
Explain in detail the process of Monetary Policy transmission of an increase in the cash interest rate. Use relevant graphs to describe how a Central Bank’s action on the interest cash rate ripple through the economy and lead to the target policy goal. (Three connected diagrams should be used: (1) money supply and demand (2) investment demand schedule (3) AS/AD diagram. Interest rates is the variable that connects the first and second diagram).
Using the World Bank’s World Development Indicators database, https://databank.worldbank.org/home.aspx, a) Complete the following table.
*or latest available year
b) Produce a plot for each variable (GDP, gdp growth, inflation) comparing the four countries.
c) What can be inferred with respect to economic growth and price control in each of these economies?
A - In macroeconomics, GDP or Gross Domestic Product represents total value of entire economic activities that take place in a country in a specific period of time, for example, one year (Dynan and Sheiner 2018). In measuring GDP, total market prices of all final goods and services, which are produced in a specific geographic location in a particular year, are considered.
In measuring GDP, some items are not considered. These are:
i. Goods and services, manufactured in other countries and imported ii. Goods and services produced in previous year iii. Goods and services, which are resold iv. Goods and services that are sold in illegal process v. Transfer payments vi. Intermediate goods that are used as input in producing another good
B - GDP can be measured with the help of expenditure method. This method considers expenditures of all groups, which conduct economic activities in a year. In other words, this method considers all the expenditures that are made on final goods and services (Magdalena and Suhatman 2020). In this measure, four components are considered and these are private consumption (C), government spending (G), investment (I) and net exports (NX) (total exports- total imports). Hence, the formula of GDP using expenditure method is written as:
GDP = C+I + G +NX
C. In measuring GDP of a country, the income approach can be applied. This approach considers income of all production factors, which are, labour, capital, land and entrepreneur. Those factors contribute in the production of final goods and services of the country in a year. Consequently, labour, capital, land and entrepreneur receive their income in the form of wage, interest, rent and profit, respectively (Aitken 2019). Income approach depends on the accounting reality where all expenditure made on economic activities within the country equates with total income of all factors that produce final goods and services.
D. One can face the problem of double-counting at the time of measuring GDP of a country in a particular year. Double-counting implies the process of adding a product value for two times in the GDP measurement (Fforde 2021). To avoiding this problem of multiple counting, the value of final goods and services are not considered. Instead, the value-added method is considered in which value added in each stage of production is taken.
In the vertical range of the Aggregate supply curve, an economy can produces output at its full employment level. At this stage, the movement of aggregate demand can change the price level only while output level remains unchanged. As the government spending increases, it leads the aggregate demand curve to move upward (Lisi 2021). Moreover, a decrease in the cash rate leads the borrowers to borrow money for investment and consumer expenditure purpose. As a result, the aggregate demand curve can shift upward. The situation is shown below:
The Monetary Policy Transmission is a process of changing cash rate. The process influences both the economic activity and inflation in the economy. As cash rate rises, expenditure in the private sector declines and it further influences total productivity of the firms to decline. This in turn cause economic activity and total employment to decrease (Chatziantoniou, Gabauer and Stenfors 2021). The following diagram shows the activity of the Central bank on the interest cash rate ripple. Here, the interest rate is taken as variable in the first two diagrams. The first diagram represents money supply and money demand curves, the second diagram represents investment demand schedule and the third diagram represents aggregate demand and supply curves.
In figure 3, GDP per capita of Australia, China, India and US are compared for the years 2006, 2009, 2014 and 2020. In 2006, the GDP per capita of US was the highest followed by Australia. However, GDP per capita of China and India remained very low comparatively. The situation remained same in 2009. From figure, it is seen that GDP per capita of Australia and China increased in this year compared to that in 2006. In 2014, Australia’s GDP per capita increased considerably and it surpassed US. Moreover, China’s GDP per capita also increased in this year. In 2020, GDP per capita of the US, China and India increased while that of Australia declined.
As per figure 4, GDP growth rate of China remained the highest in 2006 followed by Indian, US and Australia. In 2009, GDP growth rate of each country declined while that of US became negative. In 2014, US’s GDP growth rate was improved and became positive. In 2020, the GDP growth rate of Australia was nil while that of India and US were negative.
Inflation rate of India remained the highest in 2006, 2009, 2014 and 2020 compared to other countries. On the other side, Inflation rate of US and China became negative in 2009 which means these countries faced deflation.
From the comparisons, it is understood that India needs to control its price for controlling inflation. China has gained significant economic growth over the years while Australia has also successfully maintained its economic growth.
Aitken, A., 2019. Measuring welfare beyond GDP. National Institute economic review, 249, pp.R3-R16.
Chatziantoniou, I., Gabauer, D. and Stenfors, A., 2021. Interest rate swaps and the transmission mechanism of monetary policy: A quantile connectedness approach. Economics Letters, 204, p.109891.
Dynan, K. and Sheiner, L., 2018. GDP as a measure of economic well-being. Work. pap, 43.
Fforde, A., 2021. Measuring economic transformation–what to make of constant price sectoral GDP–evidence from Vietnam. real-world economics review, p.113.
Lisi, G., 2021. Can the AD-AS Model Explain the Presence and Persistence of the Underground Economy? Evidence from Italy. Economies, 9(4), p.170.
Magdalena, S. and Suhatman, R., 2020. The Effect of Government Expenditures, Domestic Invesment, Foreign Invesment to the Economic Growth of Primary Sector in Central Kalimantan. Budapest International Research and Critics Institute-Journal (BIRCI-Journal), 3(3), pp.1692-1703.
Worldbank 2022. World Development Indicators | DataBank. Available at: https://databank.worldbank.org/indicator/NY.GDP.MKTP.KD.ZG/1ff4a498/Popular-Indicators (Accessed: 22 January 2022).
ECO500 Economics for Business Assignment Sample
Suppose that a new strain of Covid 19, known as Kappa, has been detected in Australia. Kappa is known to be twice as infectious than the existing variants of Covid 19. Kappa has been found also to be immune to the existing Covid 19 vaccines such as Pfizer and Astrazeneca.
KC Pharma, a local startup company, has produced a unique nasal spray vaccine called KC1 that has been found to be 98 per cent effective against Kappa in clinical trials. Based on this information the Therapeutic Goods Administration (TGA) of Australia, Australia’s regulatory body, has approved the use of KC1 in Australia in the short run to combat Kappa. Based on the above scenario, provide a project report on market structures, market model(s), economic strategy(ies) and profitability scenarios. In your assignment writing, you shall include the following issues clearly and sufficiently with diagrams and illustrations where necessary for assignment help :
1. Identify the basic market structure and explain the type of market in which KC Pharma will be operating
2. Based on your answer to question 1 above, show a theoretical market model explaining the equilibrium position (profit/loss situation) of KC Pharma in the short run.
3. Suppose you are the economic adviser to KC Pharma. Suggest a selling strategy to KC Pharma whereby it can further maximise its profit. Make sure you clearly illustrate the selling strategy to KC Pharma.
4. Critics of TGA argue that KC Pharma is charging a very high price for KC1 and is also unable to keep up with demand. They argue that more firms should contest the market to create efficiency in the market. TGA is convinced by the Critics’ arguments and allows a “large” number of firms to supply vaccines to combat Kappa. Assess and evaluate in which market structure(s) and the type of market(s) KC Pharma will be operating. In your demonstration, you must explain KC Pharma’s equilibrium position after the entry of large number of rivals in the market.
5. Analyse and evaluate economic profitability of KC Pharma in the long run.
KC Pharma will operate in an oligopoly market, which is a form of imperfect market condition. In this market structure, few firms compete with each other and produce differentiated products. As per the given scenario, KC Pharma has produced a unique nasal spray vaccine, KC1. However, the company have close competitors like Pfizer and AstraZeneca which produce COVID-19 vaccines that are also safe for people. These companies have captured a large share of the market. This is because new firms cannot enter into the market easily due to legal restrictions the Therapeutic Goods Administration (TGA) of Australia, large amount of capital investment and low economies of scale.
The oligopoly market is characterised by entry barriers and existence of limited firms. The main feature of the market is interaction as well as interdependency among existing firms. In other words, the action of one firm can influence the action of other firms in the market. Therefore, the oligopoly market often experiences strong competition between firms as each firm has the capability of making decisions on quantities, prices, and advertisement in order to maximise profits (Azar and Vives 2021). As the market is concentrated extremely with few companies, some firms can dominate the industry while other small firms can also perform their business. Likewise, Pfizer and AstraZeneca dominate the vaccine market while a start-up company like KC Pharma can also produce and sell its products. The start-up company can maximise its profit when its marginal revenue (MR) and marginal cost (MC) equate with each other. This situation creates an equilibrium condition where the firm produces equilibrium amount of vaccine at an equilibrium price. The start-up company, here, will experience a kinked-demand curve due to the competition of other oligopolistic firms. In Kinked demand curve model, two theories are seen, which are:
A. If a firm declines its price below the prevailing level then other rival firms will follow him
B. If the firm rises the price above the prevailing level then other rival firms will not follow him
The profit-making equilibrium condition of KC Pharma is presented in the figure below:
Figure 1: Short-run Profit maximisation condition of KC Pharma
The short-run profit maximisation condition of KC Pharma is shown with the help of kinked demand curve theory (Salehi and Makiyan 2021). As per the theory, each firm in the oligopoly market sells differentiated products and each of them experiences two market demand curves for its product. Thus, KC Pharma also faces two different demand curves where at high prices, the firm has comparatively elastic demand curve and at low price the firm has relatively inelastic demand curve. Corresponding to two demand curves, the firm has two marginal revenue curves accordingly. These two demand curves intersect at point k. Here, the MR and MC curves intersect at point E. Therefore, equilibrium quantity of KC Pharma is Q* and equilibrium price is P*. As per the assumption, if KC Pharma increases its price above P* then other vaccine producing firms will not follow the increase in price and hence the company will experience the more elastic market demand curve. If the company will decrease price below P* then it is assumed that other competing firms will follow the price. The main reason of these assumptions is that when KC Pharma will increase its price, it will face a substantial decrease in sales as consumers can purchase similar products from other companies. On the other side, if KC Pharma will reduce its price, other firms will follow it due to the fear of customer loss.
To increase profit further, KC Pharma can make collusion with other companies. In collusive oligopoly, firms make agreement between each other to make an undifferentiated oligopolistic industry. Here, all vaccine producing firms come together and agree to set prices as well as outputs for maximising total industry profits which is known as cartel (Schlechtinger et al. 2021). Thus, the company along with its competitors can set price in a collective way by the leadership of one firm instead of taking prices from the market. In this situation, profit margin becomes higher compared to that in a competitive market. Sometimes, governments do not support collusion and price-fixing. However, in case of vaccination, the industry can get the permission of fixing price by making a cartel.
The kinked-demand theory has several limitations for which the industry can move to make a cartel for making higher profits. Firstly, the kinked model does not state the condition by following which a firm can find its kinked point in the market demand curve. Secondly, the theory does not consider the chances of collusion and setting a fixed price and output. Lastly, the kinked-demand model shows that price increase by one firm will not be followed by other firms. Hence, considering these obstacles, it can be said that a cartel is better for KC Pharma to make higher profits.
Now it is essential to discuss the selling strategy that KC Pharma will follow for maximising its profit. The company needs to make a formal agreement with other vaccine producing companies in order to control supply and to manipulate price. Therefore, collusion will form a group of independent business that will perform as a single seller at the fixed price for the vaccines they produce without any competition. In this context, it is essential to mention that a cartel gets less facility compared to that of a monopoly where only a single seller only owns certain products in the market. The cartel of vaccine producing companies will help to set a fixed price for vaccines in a legal way. After forming cartel, each company will select their combined output where their marginal revenue becomes equal with marginal cost. The fixed price of cartel, therefore, will be determined by market demand curve where the cartel selects its output level. By forming a cartel, the vaccine producing firms can charge higher prices together for certain quantity of vaccines like a monopolist. The figure below reflects the situation:
The above figure represents a cartel where each firm together set price P2 and produces Q2 quantity of output. At this output level, MR and MC become equal with other. Hence, each firm can earn supernormal profit by the area P1BA2. Therefore, by making a cartel, KC Pharma can successfully earn profit. However, the company needs to follow some points that can breakdown a cartel. Sometimes, it is seen that other firms have cheating tendency on their quotas for getting higher benefits from higher output and price. Hence, the firm needs to make cartel with small number of firms so that it can easily observe behaviour of others. Moreover, penalties will be charged for each firm who will break quotas.
As per the given situation, KC Pharma will operate in a monopolistically competitive market. This market structure lies between a monopoly market and a perfectly competitive market. In this type of market, large number of firms produces and sells almost similar type of products in the market to a large number of customers. In this market, each firm will produce products that are close substitutes and hence they can differentiate their products by applying different market strategies. Thus, firms can act as a monopolist as each of them has different brand name, price level and product quality. Like a monopoly market, firms can charge higher prices for selling lower quantity of output than a perfectly competitive market. Therefore, each firm acts like a price maker in this imperfect competition where change in price will not cause any price war that can be seen in the oligopoly market. A monopolistic competitive firm achieves higher profit only in the short-run when its marginal revenue and marginal cost become equal. Moreover, the firm can also incur loss in or gain normal profit during this time. The figure below represents a condition, where the firm gains supernormal profit in the short-run:
TGA allows a large number of firms to supply vaccines for combating Kappa, which is produced by KP Pharma. Therefore, the number of vaccine sellers will increase in the market. However, one type of vaccine cannot substitute another type of vaccine completely as they can be differentiated by their company name, branding, price level and quality. Therefore, each vaccine producing firm will act like a monopolist and can set vaccine price individually in the market for maximising profit (Bertoletti and Etro 2022). Though firms can act like a price maker, they cannot charge higher prices due to strong competition in the market. By charging higher price, a firm can loss its customers and this in turn can reduce profit-making condition of the firm. The diagram above showcases equilibrium position of KC Phrama here the demand curve is slightly elastic. This indicates that if the firm increases price of its vaccine then its demand for product can be declined.
In figure 4, it is seen that the short-run equilibrium can be obtained at point E where marginal cost (MC) curve and marginal cost (MC) curve intersects. Hence, the corresponding equilibrium output and price level become Q* and P*. In short-run, the average cost (AC) curve is lower than average revenue (AR) curve. Average revenue curve which is also the demand curve of KC Pharma is elastic but not perfectly elastic as it has negative slope. Hence, the firm gains economic profit by the area CBAP*. In short-run, the monopolistic competitive firm can also face loss if its average cost becomes higher than average revenue. However, it is essential to mention that a monopolistically competitive firm does not become allocatively efficient as the price does not equal to marginal cost. Moreover, production efficiency also cannot be seen in the market as firms can set higher price than their marginal costs, which means, P > MC. Therefore, the market cannot achieve efficiency level instead of facing competition.
In long-run, the monopolistically competitive market has free entry and exit and this implies that the existing firm can make only normal profit in the long-run. In other words, when the market gains supernormal profit in the short-run, other firms will enter into the market. This will increase the number of firms and hence their profit making opportunity will decline until it will earn normal profit only. The following figure showcases equilibrium position of KC Pharma when it will operate in the monopolistically competitive market.
Figure 4: Monopolistically Competitive Market in the long run
As per figure 4, it is seen that the long-run equilibrium can be obtained at point E where long-run marginal cost (LMC) curve and marginal cost curve intersects. Hence, the corresponding equilibrium output and price level become Q* and P*. In long-run, the firm will operate somewhere to the left of the average cost (LAC) curve’s minimum point. Average revenue curve which is also the demand curve of KC Pharma is elastic but not perfectly elastic as it has negative slope. The left side of LAC curve becomes tangent with the AR curve and hence the firm only gets normal profit.
ECO600 Economics and Finance for Business Assignment Sample
1. Answer ALL four (4) sections. They contain short-answer questions. There are NO multiple-choice questions.
2. Keep your answers WITHIN 500 words per section.
Word Count Maximum 2,000 words
Section 1: Ethical enterprises in the modern economic system: the circular economy (10 marks; length: max. 500 words) Background
You are hired as the sustainability manager of Manly Golf Club. It is in Sydney, not too far away from ICMS’s main campus. Learn about the golf club, its facilities, and the services it provides here, in this website.
To distinguish itself from rival golf clubs in the area, this club is under pressure to demonstrate its circular economy credentials. It has hired you to propose strategies that apply the circular economy principles to all aspects of its operations.
1. Propose four (4) circular economy strategies, two for each of this golf club’s two services: (i) Golfing (ii) Weddings and functions
Where possible, demonstrate how each strategy could be good/profitable for the business.
Section 2: International trade and development (10 marks; length: max. 500 words)
Papua New Guinea is a large island country north of Australia. It has a largely underdeveloped economy: it mostly exports raw materials such as timber and copper.
It does not have a large manufacturing base, relying instead on importing manufactured goods from abroad.
To learn about the country, go here. To learn about its economy, go here.
To see its low and high complexity exports, use Harvard University’s Atlas of Economic Complexity (click here):
- Enter the country’s name and click ‘start exploring’ - Find the section called ‘Export basket’ (the products it exports). - Lastly, click on ‘Export complexity’ near the bottom.
1. Select one (1) export item from this country whose complexity is low. Then, follow these three steps:
First: propose how this item’s complexity could be improved using creativity, innovation or value-adding. Provide interesting detail. Argue why your proposals might be beneficial for this country’s economy.
Second: which country or region would be good target markets for this export, and why?
Third: suggest any trade-related policy that could help this country in this project.
Section 3: Macroeconomic fundamentals (10 marks; length: max. 500 words)
Maldives is an archipelagic country made up 1,200 islands of which only around 200 are inhabited. It has a population of 540,000 people. It is located to the south of India, in the Arabian Sea.
The economy is heavily reliant on tourism, which is its largest ‘export’ industry by far, followed by seafood exports (fish, prawns etc.)
Since 2012, Australia’s inflation rate was around 2% and falling, before rising sharply in 2022 to almost 4% as COVID-19 restrictions were largely removed (go here, click on ‘10Y’ button to see the last 10 years’ trend).
In contrast, Maldives inflation in 2012 was almost 20%, fell to 5% in 2018, and was mostly negative (between 0% and -5%) since then. Analyse Maldives inflation rate since 2018, by going here and clicking on the ‘10Y’ button. See how it looks like, in contrast to Australia’s.
Analyse Maldives unemployment rate, here (click on the ‘50Y’ button for a long historical perspective. Analyse its balance of trade, here (click on the ‘25Y’ button).
Contrast that to Australia’s unemployment and balances of trade (see here and here, click the ‘25Y’ button). You may investigate these and other macroeconomic measures more on the Internet.
1. By contrasting Maldives and Australia’s macroeconomic measures up to today in 2022, assess which phase of the business cycle Maldives is likely to be in (see here to learn about the business cycle). Justify your answer.
2. You are the general manager of the Four Seasons hotel chain in the Maldives. Given your analysis of the business cycle above:
(i) assess whether it might be a good idea for Four Seasons to invest in expanding its hotel operations in the Maldives
(ii) assess issues involved in hiring new hospitality managers and other workers for its hotels.
Section 4: Fiscal, monetary and supply-side policy (10 marks; max. 500 words)
Country X is a developing country with a large government bureaucracy that is quite inefficient. The processing of applications to start new businesses are slow.
This country also has generous unemployment benefits: its unemployed citizens receive a generous payment that allows them to pay for rent and food such that there is little motivation for some of the unemployed to look for jobs.
The key macroeconomic measures of Country X over time– from two years ago to the present– are shown below. Examine them carefully. They are expressed in quarters (quarters means in chunks of three months):
(a) GDP growth: -2%, -1%, -2%, 14%, 5%, 3%, 2%, -1%
(b) Unemployment rate: 8%, 9%, 10%, 6%, 6%, 5%, 5%, 8%
(c) Inflation rate: 2%, 2%, 1%, 3%, 3%, 1%, 0.5%, 0.5%
(d) The purchasing managers’ index, PMI, in the manufacturing sector: 47, 48, 49, 49, 45, 48, 46, 45
The current official interest rate is 4%.
Given the macroeconomic information above about this country’s economy:
1. Would this country’s central bank be likely to increase or decrease its official interest rate or maintain it at the same level? Why do you say that?
Next, based on your answer above, assess how that action might affect or transmit to each of these, with sufficient detail and discussion:
(a) consumer spending (C) and business investment (I)
(b) the unemployment rate
(c) the inflation rate
(d) the currency’s exchange rate, assuming all other things being equal (will the currency’s value tend to appreciate or depreciate, and why?)
(e) the exchange rate’s effect on the country’s exports, assuming all other things being equal (could the trade balance move towards a surplus or a deficit?)
- With respect to Cao, L., 2020, the implementation of coordinating the circular value chains with the help of data which is a circular economic strategy supports the preparation of products for recycling for reusing the data. If the Manly golf club uses the data of different players and collects detailed information related to the style of playing the golf, creates an effective plan for the different golf games. The purpose of implementing this strategy helps the golf club to understand the gameplay of the players and create potential golf courses for adding challenges and providing a high level of satisfaction to the players or the customer of the golf club. Through this process, the Manly golf club increased the profitability of the business and also met the satisfaction requirements of the customers or the players.
Rethink: The principle of rethink is applicable in this strategy for creating an effective golf course for the player and also understanding the playing style of the player. It adds up value to the product and makes it a potential product for best assignment help .
Figure 1: Coordinating the circular value chains (Source: https://www.boardofinnovation.com/circular-economy-business-models)
- Overview of the Kim, 2019, this strategy of circular product design of circular economic strategy helps for the preparation of different products to recycle for reusing the killed information of the players and game field. At any rate, the Manly golf club effectively uses the potential data of the different players and also it collects detailed information related to the different levels of players then it will create a potential golf course for the players. The purpose of implementing this strategy helps the golf club to understand the gameplay of the players and create potential golf courses for adding challenges and providing a high level of satisfaction to the players or the customer of the golf club.
Reduce: The above strategy helps to increase the efficiency level of the golf club and also provides various resources to the players. Providing a higher value of a product to the players creates a high level of satisfaction rate for the customers.
Figure 2: Circular product design (Source: https://www.boardofinnovation.com/circular-economy-business-models)
(ii) Weddings and functions
- Based on the analysis of the Kimanzi, M.K. and Gamede, 2020, the strategy of collection and reserve logistics of the circular economic strategy creates a potential environment and complementary services for the customers. With the help of this strategy, the different occasions and wedding functions can be effectively operated in the hotel of the Manly golf club. It is based on the life cycle of the product and the method of reselling. This process implements appropriately in the function section of the golf club which helps to increase the value of reputation and profitability of the golf club. Repurpose The strategy is based on the method of re-selling which is the main purpose of the concept. The repurposing of the different products can be helpful for the golf club.
- With respect to Klopotan, I., Zoroja, J. and Meško, 2018, the application of the sorting and the pre-processing with the help of data which is a circular economic strategy supports the preparation of products to recycle for reusing the data. This process helps to optically use any alternative products and services during the wedding function and occasions for the creation of different products. Recover: With the help of the above strategy, the golf club can effectively reuse the data for better purposes in the upcoming course of time. It will help the business of the golf club to increase in the upcoming course time.
According to the website, the selected export item is timber from the country Papua New Guinea which is standing in the low category of the complexities. It is one of the large Islands on the Norton side of Australia. The economic level of the country is underdeveloped
- In respect to Lamperti, F., Monasterolo, I. and Roventini, 2019, improvement can be done by creating valuable exporting relationships with other countries by exporting the timber and also the products which are made out of the timber. At the time of harvesting the timber, the scrap material and waste timber materials can be used to create potential artefacts which increase the profitability of the country. The scrap or the waste timber which is going to be thrown away now creates valuable artefacts which have a higher rate than the value of timber in respect to the art. On the other hand, the country needs to create relationships with developed countries for exporting the timbers and artefacts. For instance, if the buyer country of the timbers and artefacts of the country is the USA then the underdeveloped country Papua New Guinea can sell the timbers and artefacts at a high price. This process will be highly beneficial to the country and help to increase the rate of GDP and profitability at the same time.
- Based on the analysis of the Mian, A. and Sufi, 2018, to increase the profitability and improve the business quality of the underdeveloped country Papua New Guinea, the selected country origin for effective targeting market will be the developed countries such as the US and UK. The purpose behind selling the product to the US or the UK is due to the higher rate of currency and also the quality market segment. If the buyer country of the timbers and artefacts of the country is the USA or the UK then the underdeveloped country Papua New Guinea can sell the timbers and artefacts at a high price. This process will be highly beneficial to the country and help to increase the rate of GDP and profitability at the same time. Therefore, the country will get a high level of benefits and also the potential market segment which increases the profitability of the country decently.
- Based on the overview of the Pillay, S., Rajaram, R. and Ramnanun, 2020, the multilateral trade policy will be helpful for the country Papua New Guinea to maintain an agreement of commerce between the two countries by signing the treaties for the import and export of timber and artefacts made out of the timber materials. It will help the country to maintain a decent level of trade with developed countries which increases the profitability and helps the country to grow and develop in the coming course of time.
- According to the abstraction of the Rusydiana, A., Sanrego, Y. and Rahayu, 2021, after the investigation process, it is found that the business cycle of the Maldives is going towards a recession period. The forecasting range of the unemployment rate in the Maldives is going to be increased in the upcoming course of time which refers to the business cycle of recession. On the other hand, the macroeconomics level of the country is also going to decrease in the coming course of time due to safety and health reasons. The factor of safety and health reasons impact the entire business cycle of the country because the main occupation of the country is based on tourism which is going to be restricted in the upcoming course of time. The output level of revenue and GDP of the country is going to decrease due to the increasing unemployment rate in the country. It is also observed that the inflation rate of the country has been increasing for consecutive years which also impacts the profitability and the ability to generate revenue by tourism. Therefore, it is clear that the country is going forward into a recession period in the upcoming course of time.
- According to the analysis of the Rusydiana, A.S., Sanrego, Y.D. and Pratomo, 2021, after evaluating the financial business cycle of the country, it is not the appropriate time to invest in the expansion of the operations of the hotel in the country because of the decision period in which the inflation did become higher than the normal level and also the rate of unemployment increased. If the value of unemployment rate increases it will create a flood of working employees in the hotel and after the decision period most of the working employees are going to leave the hotel which creates an operational gap in the business. It also negatively impacts the growth and development prospect of the hotel. Therefore, the four-season hotel in the Maldives does not need to increase the expansion of the operation factor of the business.
- With respect to the overview of the Vogel, H.A., 2019, if the four-season hotel appoints a new manager for operating the hospitality operation then it will be beneficial for the entire hotel. The hotel needs to understand the purpose and perspective behind hiring anywhere manager for the hospitality section. The hiding of a new hospitality section of the hotel is beneficial but on the other hand, the hiring of various workers will negatively impact the overall productivity and profitability of the hotel. Therefore, the hotel can hire a new manager for the hospital section but the hiding of new workers will create conflict in the financial activities and transactions of the hotel.
Based on the analysis of Lamperti, 2019, the central bank of the country needs to increase the current official interest rate because of the negative rate of the GDP and the inflation rate. The country to maintain years’ financial value concerning the GDP rate. Therefore, the country needs to increase the interest rate for combating the financial environment. The central bank of the country needs money in their account rather than into the account of the customer.
(a) If the central bank of the country increases the interest rate then the consumer spending will become less because the citizens of the country will deposit their money into the bank and through this, the central bank will be able to fluctuate the level of inflation in the country. On the other hand, the business investment will remain the same or slightly decrease due to the increase in the interest rate which is comparatively safer than an investment in any other business organisation. Therefore, it helps to maintain the level of inflation in the country.
(b) The rate of unemployment in the country will decrease due to the higher interest value which provides courage to the people for finding a job and depositing their salary into the bank account through which the rate of interest is higher compared to the current situation of the time.
(c) If the central bank of the country increases the interest rate then it motivates the citizens of the country to deposit their money into the bank and through this, the central bank will be able to fluctuate the level of inflation in the country. Similarly, if the rate of inflation in the country is managed then the purchasing and consumption power of the citizens of the country increases. As the purchasing and consumption power of the customer increases in the country, it will provide a sustainable and lower inflation rate for the country.
(d) As it is discussed in the above section if the rate of interest of the country increases then the value of the currency of the country will also increase. This factor is the impact of the rate of interest if the citizens of the country deposit their money into the bank accounts which helps the country to manage the value of the currency. The exchange rate of the currency will also increase due to the sound base of the company.
(e) If the value of the currency of the country increases then it also impacts the process of import and export of the country. As the value of the currency of the country increases then it will provide a positive impact on the exporting of the products and goods to the different countries. The increased rate of interest provides a circular during the time of export of the goods and services to the different countries. This process will positively impact the process of export in the country in the appropriate method.
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Economic is a part of Social Science Study; it studies how people interact with the value of, in particular, the production, distribution and consumption of Product and service. It also focuses on the behaviour and interaction of economic agents and how economics work.
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Economics assignment sample by Economics Experts
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·An Economics assignment sample is nothing but a copy of an assignment that notifies a person what all a project should look like. ·A sample gives an idea to a student as to what all things have to be mentioned and how they have to be addressed. ·On a technical level, it answers all complex questions, which might entail all ins and outs related to economics. A student who needs an Economics assignment pdf can always look for samples and make their assignment Visit us: www.myassignmentservices.com
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