Research Paper Guide
Research Paper Example
Research Paper Example - APA and MLA Format
12 min read
Published on: Nov 27, 2017
Last updated on: Oct 25, 2023
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Do you spend time staring at the screen and thinking about how to approach a monstrous research paper ?
If yes, you are not alone.
Research papers are no less than a curse for high school and college students.
It takes time, effort, and expertise to craft a striking research paper.
Every other person craves to master the magic of producing impressive research papers.
Continue with the guide to investigate the mysterious nature of different types of research through examples.
Research Paper Example for Different Formats
An academic paper doesn't have to be boring. You can use an anecdote, a provocative question, or a quote to begin the introduction.
Learning from introductions written in professional college papers is the best strategy.
Have a look at the expertise of the writer in the following example.
Social Media and Social Media Marketing: A Literature Review
APA Research Paper Example
While writing research papers, you must pay attention to the required format.
Follow the example when the instructor mentions the APA format .
Effects of Food Deprivation of Concentration and Preserverance
Research Paper Example APA 7th Edition
Research Paper Example MLA
Once you are done with APA format, let’s practice the art of writing quality MLA papers.
Found Voices: Carl Sagan
We have provided you with a top-notch research paper example in MLA format here.
Research Paper Example Chicago
Chicago style is not very common, but it is important to learn. Few institutions require this style for research papers, but it is essential to learn. The content and citations in the research paper are formatted like this example.
Chicago Research Paper Sample
Research Paper Example Harvard
To learn how a research paper is written using the Harvard citation style , carefully examine this example. Note the structure of the cover page and other pages.
Harvard Research Paper Sample
Examples for Different Research Paper Parts
A research paper has different parts. Each part is important for the overall success of the paper. Chapters in a research paper must be written correctly, using a certain format and structure.
The following are examples of how different sections of the research paper can be written.
Example of Research Proposal
What is the first step to starting a research paper?
Submitting the research proposal!
It involves several sections that take a toll on beginners.
Here is a detailed guide to help you write a research proposal .
Are you a beginner or do you lack experience? Don’t worry.
The following example of a research paper is the perfect place to get started.
View Research Proposal Example Here
Research Paper Example Abstract
After submitting the research proposal, prepare to write a seasoned abstract section.
The abstract delivers the bigger picture by revealing the purpose of the research.
A common mistake students make is writing it the same way a summary is written.
It is not merely a summary but an analysis of the whole research project. Still confused?
Read the abstract mentioned in the following research to get a better idea.
Affirmative Action: What Do We Know? - Abstract Example
Literature Review Research Paper Example
What if a novice person reads your research paper?
He will never understand the critical elements involved in the research paper.
To enlighten him, focus on the literature review section. This section offers an extensive analysis of the past research conducted on the paper topics.
It is relatively easier than other sections of the paper.
Take a closer look at the paper below to find out.
Methods Section of Research Paper Example
While writing research papers, excellent papers focus a great deal on the methodology.
Yes, the research sample and methodology define the fate of the papers.
Are you facing trouble going through the methodology section?
Relax and let comprehensive sample research papers clear your doubts.
View Methods Section of Research Paper Here
Research Paper Conclusion Example
The conclusion leaves the last impression on the reader.
“Who cares for the last impression? It’s always the first.”
Don’t be fooled!
The conclusion sets the tone of the whole research paper properly.
A key list of elements must be present in conclusion to make it crisp and remarkable.
The Conclusion: Your Paper's Final Impression
View the sample paper and identify the points you thought were never a part of the conclusion.
Get Quick AI Research Help!
Research Paper Examples for Different Fields
Research papers can be about any subject that needs a detailed study. The following examples show how research papers are written for different subjects.
History Research Paper Sample
Many Faces of Generalisimo Fransisco Franco
Sociology Research Paper Sample
A Descriptive Statistical Analysis within the State of Virginia
Science Fair Research Paper Sample
What Do I Need To Do For The Science Fair?
Psychology Research Paper Sample
The Effects of Food Deprivation on Concentration and Preserverance
Art History Research Paper Sample
European Art History: A Primer
Scientific Research Paper Example
We have discussed several elements of research papers through examples.
Introduction in Research Paper!
Read on to move towards advanced versions of information.
Scientific research paper
Let's have a look at the template and an example to elaborate on concepts.
- Related Work
- Research Methodology
- Results and Discussion
- Conclusion & Future Work
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Science Fair Paper Format
Example of Methodology in Research Paper
The words methodology, procedure, and approach are the same. They indicate the approach pursued by the researcher while conducting research to accomplish the goal through research.
The methodology is the bloodline of the research paper.
A practical or assumed procedure is used to conduct the methodology.
The Effects of Immediate Feedback Devices in High School Chemistry Classes
See the way the researcher has shared participants and limits in the methodology section of the example.
Research Paper Example for Different Levels
The process of writing a research paper is based on a set of steps. The process will seem daunting if you are unaware of the basic steps. Start writing your research paper by taking the following steps:
- Choose a Topic
- Create a thesis statement
- Do in-depth research for the research study
- Create an outline
You will find writing a research paper much easier once you have a plan.
No matter which level you are writing at, your research paper needs to be well structured.
Research Paper Example Outline
Before you plan on writing a well-researched paper, make a rough draft.
Brainstorm again and again!
Pour all of your ideas into the basket of the outline.
What will it include?
A standard is not set but follow the research paper outline example below:
View Research Paper Outline Example Here
This example outlines the following elements:
- Thesis Statement
Utilize this standard of outline in your research papers to polish your paper. Here is a step-by-step guide that will help you write a research paper according to this format.
Good Research Paper Examples for Students
Theoretically, good research paper examples will meet the objectives of the research.
Always remember! The first goal of the research paper is to explain ideas, goals, and theory as clearly as water.
Yes, leave no room for confusion of any sort.
Fiscal Research Center - Action Plan
Qualitative Research Paper Example
Research Paper Example Introduction
How to Write a Research Paper Example?
Research Paper Example for High School
When the professor reads such a professional research paper, he will be delighted.
Grant of funds for the project!
Appreciation in Class!
You'll surely be highly rewarded.
Research Paper Conclusion
“Who cares for the last impression? It's always the first.”
Don't be fooled!
A key list of elements must be present in the conclusion to make it crisp and remarkable.
Critical Research Paper
To write a research paper remarkably, include the following ingredients in it:
- Justification of the Experimental Design
- Analysis of Results
- Validation of the Study
How to Write the Methods Section of a Research Paper
Theoretical Framework Examples
The theoretical framework is the key to establish credibility in research papers.
Read the purpose of the theoretical framework before following it in the research paper.
The researcher offers a guide through a theoretical framework.
- Philosophical view
- Conceptual Analysis
- Benefits of the Research
An in-depth analysis of theoretical framework examples research paper is underlined in the sample below.
View Theoretical Framework Example Here
Now that you have explored the research paper examples, you can start working on your research project. Hopefully, these examples will help you understand the writing process for a research paper.
If you're facing challenges with your writing requirements, think about hiring an online custom paper writing service .
MyPerfectWords.com is your trusted solution for obtaining a custom research paper and assisting students with their unique writing needs.
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Nova Allison is a Digital Content Strategist with over eight years of experience. Nova has also worked as a technical and scientific writer. She is majorly involved in developing and reviewing online content plans that engage and resonate with audiences. Nova has a passion for writing that engages and informs her readers.
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Purdue Online Writing Lab Purdue OWL® College of Liberal Arts
Writing a Research Paper
Welcome to the Purdue OWL
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The pages in this section provide detailed information about how to write research papers including discussing research papers as a genre, choosing topics, and finding sources.
The Research Paper
There will come a time in most students' careers when they are assigned a research paper. Such an assignment often creates a great deal of unneeded anxiety in the student, which may result in procrastination and a feeling of confusion and inadequacy. This anxiety frequently stems from the fact that many students are unfamiliar and inexperienced with this genre of writing. Never fear—inexperience and unfamiliarity are situations you can change through practice! Writing a research paper is an essential aspect of academics and should not be avoided on account of one's anxiety. In fact, the process of writing a research paper can be one of the more rewarding experiences one may encounter in academics. What is more, many students will continue to do research throughout their careers, which is one of the reasons this topic is so important.
Becoming an experienced researcher and writer in any field or discipline takes a great deal of practice. There are few individuals for whom this process comes naturally. Remember, even the most seasoned academic veterans have had to learn how to write a research paper at some point in their career. Therefore, with diligence, organization, practice, a willingness to learn (and to make mistakes!), and, perhaps most important of all, patience, students will find that they can achieve great things through their research and writing.
The pages in this section cover the following topic areas related to the process of writing a research paper:
- Genre - This section will provide an overview for understanding the difference between an analytical and argumentative research paper.
- Choosing a Topic - This section will guide the student through the process of choosing topics, whether the topic be one that is assigned or one that the student chooses themselves.
- Identifying an Audience - This section will help the student understand the often times confusing topic of audience by offering some basic guidelines for the process.
- Where Do I Begin - This section concludes the handout by offering several links to resources at Purdue, and also provides an overview of the final stages of writing a research paper.
How To Research In College
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College students in nearly every field write research papers, including business, sciences, and humanities students. To write a strong research paper, learners conduct research, evaluate information, and synthesize their findings. Gathering and evaluating research sources is the first step to writing a compelling paper.
This guide to college research papers explores common research strategies, tips for evaluating scholarly sources, and online resources for college students. The following sections also highlight popular online research databases, such as Google Scholar, ERIC, and PubMed Central.
Understanding and Finding Sources
While writing college research papers, learners use many types of sources. Students must be able to identify different types of sources and use them effectively together. Most research authorities define three major types of research sources: primary, secondary, and tertiary. Online research databases typically feature all three types of sources.
Primary sources recount information as close as possible to the original source. Examples include statistics and data from original research, speeches and interviews, and court decisions. Primary sources also include original texts such as novels, journals, and letters.
Secondary sources interpret and analyze primary sources. Secondary sources include scholarly journal articles, reports, and documentaries. Most research papers cite both primary and secondary sources. Primary sources often form the basis of a paper, while secondary sources add depth through critical analysis.
Tertiary sources identify and catalog primary and secondary sources. Bibliographies, literature reviews, and indexes are tertiary sources.
10 Search Engines for College Research
- Collapse All
This search engine for scholarly literature indexes most major academic research sources. The comprehensive database includes academic journals, conference papers, academic books, dissertations, and technical reports. Users can also find patents and legal opinions.
Google Scholar offers a comprehensive selection of research sources. However, the database may not include shorter pieces from academic journals, such as editorials, book reviews, and news sections.
Google Books stores and catalogs scans of print books, including many academic publications. As of 2019, the service includes more than 40 million books written in more than 400 languages. Google Books offers access to a wealth of research information, but some sources may include scanning or metadata errors. The database makes no guarantee of scholarly authenticity, and some books may include incorrect information.
Similar to Google Scholar, Microsoft Academic offers a searchable database of academic publications and other research resources. Users can search and browse publications from more than 49,000 academic journals and 27,000 research institutions. The service uses semantic search technology, which can provide more accurate results based on keywords.
The Microsoft Academic database features a huge array of research publications. However, the service is set to suspend access on December 31, 2021.
Bielefeld University Library maintains this resource, which provides access to more than 270 million academic documents. More than 9,000 content providers contribute research. Base carefully evaluates and indexes sources, ensuring that all content meets the highest academic standards. Users can search for terms in more than 20 languages. All search results display in-depth bibliographic information. About 60% of Base's content is available for free.
This targeted academic search engine serves teachers, students, administrators, and researchers. The database features hundreds of thousands of reputable research sources. Users can access publications from colleges, government agencies, and noncommercial research organizations. Large portions of the site's documents are editor-reviewed.
The service offers useful search specifications for teachers and education majors. Users can filter results by school subject and grade level. They can also find educational activities and lesson plans.
Users can search more than 60 federal scientific databases and more than 2,200 websites. This online database compiles research and development data from all types of federal science agencies. Participating U.S. agencies include the USDA, NASA, and the U.S. National Library of Medicine. Science.gov offers valuable resources for science students and researchers, but the service isn't practical for conducting research in other fields.
Refseek offers access to more than five billion research documents. Resources include books, academic journals, newspapers, encyclopedias, and web pages. Refseek's databases cover subjects including writing, visual arts, mathematics, and coding. Refseek offers a practical approach to research. That said, the service delivers less comprehensive results than other academic databases.
Educational Resources Information Center
This searchable education research database serves academics and students. Users can access publications from hundreds of academic journals. Additional sources include policy organizations and federal departments.
Unlike many college research databases, ERIC does not require institutional affiliation. The general public can access information for free. However, ERIC primarily contains education publications, making it less useful for students in other fields.
PubMed Central hosts research publications in biomedical and life sciences. The U.S. National Institutes of Health's National Library of Medicine operates this database, which contains more than seven million articles. Users can browse and search the database of journals, digitized content, and author manuscripts. All content is free to access.
PubMed Central is an excellent resource for science research papers. However, students in other fields may find the site less useful.
Semantic Scholar uses artificial intelligence to help students identify relevant college research paper sources. The site uses machine learning to draw connections between papers and identify relevant publications. Operated by the Allen Institute for AI, Semantic Scholar maintains partnerships with more than 50 scholarly societies and academic publishers. The database contains more than 190 million papers, covering all major scientific fields. The site also hosts articles from other fields, such as the humanities.
Research Tips for College Students
Browsing databases can overwhelm even organized students. Smart research involves refining searches and narrowing down findings. This section highlights tips to help learners perform research efficiently.
How to Evaluate a Resource for Academic Research
While writing a research paper, students should use information that is authentic, reputable, and up to date. This section highlights key questions to ask yourself when evaluating research sources.
College Research Resources
To produce a strong college research paper, students should use relevant and reputable sources. The following websites offer academic resources for college students. These resources help users identify the best sources for research papers.
RADAR stands for relevance, authority, date, appearance, and reason. This research technique can help students quickly evaluate research sources and determine their usefulness.
OWL at Purdue
Pudue's Online Writing Lab offers comprehensive resources for academic writing and research. The site features information on common types of papers, academic formatting, and citation practices.
This free research assistant tool compiles, organizes, and cites research sources. Users can arrange information and quickly search and view research sources.
Determine If a Source Is Scholarly
The University of Illinois Library offers this guide to determining a research source's scholarly authenticity. The guide includes evaluation criteria and a flowchart.
SUNY Empire State College's writing center offers this comprehensive guide to identifying and locating research sources. The guide outlines major research sources and techniques.
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- Research Paper Format | APA, MLA, & Chicago Templates
Research Paper Format | APA, MLA, & Chicago Templates
Published on November 19, 2022 by Jack Caulfield . Revised on January 20, 2023.
The formatting of a research paper is different depending on which style guide you’re following. In addition to citations , APA, MLA, and Chicago provide format guidelines for things like font choices, page layout, format of headings and the format of the reference page.
Scribbr offers free Microsoft Word templates for the most common formats. Simply download and get started on your paper.
APA | MLA | Chicago author-date | Chicago notes & bibliography
- Generate an automatic table of contents
- Generate a list of tables and figures
- Ensure consistent paragraph formatting
- Insert page numbering
Table of contents
Formatting an apa paper, formatting an mla paper, formatting a chicago paper, frequently asked questions about research paper formatting.
The main guidelines for formatting a paper in APA Style are as follows:
- Use a standard font like 12 pt Times New Roman or 11 pt Arial.
- Set 1 inch page margins.
- Apply double line spacing.
- If submitting for publication, insert a APA running head on every page.
- Indent every new paragraph ½ inch.
Watch the video below for a quick guide to setting up the format in Google Docs.
The image below shows how to format an APA Style title page for a student paper.
If you are submitting a paper for publication, APA requires you to include a running head on each page. The image below shows you how this should be formatted.
For student papers, no running head is required unless you have been instructed to include one.
APA provides guidelines for formatting up to five levels of heading within your paper. Level 1 headings are the most general, level 5 the most specific.
APA Style citation requires (author-date) APA in-text citations throughout the text and an APA Style reference page at the end. The image below shows how the reference page should be formatted.
Note that the format of reference entries is different depending on the source type. You can easily create your citations and reference list using the free APA Citation Generator.
Generate APA citations for free
Prevent plagiarism. Run a free check.
The main guidelines for writing an MLA style paper are as follows:
- Use an easily readable font like 12 pt Times New Roman.
- Use title case capitalization for headings .
Check out the video below to see how to set up the format in Google Docs.
On the first page of an MLA paper, a heading appears above your title, featuring some key information:
- Your full name
- Your instructor’s or supervisor’s name
- The course name or number
- The due date of the assignment
A header appears at the top of each page in your paper, including your surname and the page number.
Works Cited page
MLA in-text citations appear wherever you refer to a source in your text. The MLA Works Cited page appears at the end of your text, listing all the sources used. It is formatted as shown below.
You can easily create your MLA citations and save your Works Cited list with the free MLA Citation Generator.
Generate MLA citations for free
The main guidelines for writing a paper in Chicago style (also known as Turabian style) are:
- Use a standard font like 12 pt Times New Roman.
- Use 1 inch margins or larger.
- Place page numbers in the top right or bottom center.
Chicago doesn’t require a title page , but if you want to include one, Turabian (based on Chicago) presents some guidelines. Lay out the title page as shown below.
Bibliography or reference list
Chicago offers two citation styles : author-date citations plus a reference list, or footnote citations plus a bibliography. Choose one style or the other and use it consistently.
The reference list or bibliography appears at the end of the paper. Both styles present this page similarly in terms of formatting, as shown below.
To format a paper in APA Style , follow these guidelines:
- Use a standard font like 12 pt Times New Roman or 11 pt Arial
- Set 1 inch page margins
- Apply double line spacing
- Include a title page
- If submitting for publication, insert a running head on every page
- Indent every new paragraph ½ inch
- Apply APA heading styles
- Cite your sources with APA in-text citations
- List all sources cited on a reference page at the end
The main guidelines for formatting a paper in MLA style are as follows:
- Use an easily readable font like 12 pt Times New Roman
- Include a four-line MLA heading on the first page
- Center the paper’s title
- Use title case capitalization for headings
- Cite your sources with MLA in-text citations
- List all sources cited on a Works Cited page at the end
The main guidelines for formatting a paper in Chicago style are to:
- Use a standard font like 12 pt Times New Roman
- Use 1 inch margins or larger
- Place page numbers in the top right or bottom center
- Cite your sources with author-date citations or Chicago footnotes
- Include a bibliography or reference list
To automatically generate accurate Chicago references, you can use Scribbr’s free Chicago reference generator .
Cite this Scribbr article
If you want to cite this source, you can copy and paste the citation or click the “Cite this Scribbr article” button to automatically add the citation to our free Citation Generator.
Caulfield, J. (2023, January 20). Research Paper Format | APA, MLA, & Chicago Templates. Scribbr. Retrieved October 30, 2023, from https://www.scribbr.com/research-paper/research-paper-format/
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TIP Sheet HOW TO START (AND COMPLETE) A RESEARCH PAPER
You are a re-entry student and it's been fourteen years since you've written a paper. You coasted through high school on your charm and good looks and never actually wrote a research paper. You have written research papers, but every time is like the first time, and the first time was like a root canal. How do you start? Here is a step-by-step approach to starting and completing a research paper.
- Choose a topic.
- Read and keep records.
- Form a thesis.
- Create a mind map or outline.
- Read again.
- Rethink your thesis.
- Draft the body.
- Add the beginning and end.
- Proofread and edit.
You may read this TIP Sheet from start to finish before you begin your paper, or skip to the steps that are causing you the most grief.
1. Choosing a topic: Interest, information, and focus Your job will be more pleasant, and you will be more apt to retain information if you choose a topic that holds your interest. Even if a general topic is assigned ("Write about impacts of GMO crops on world food supply"), as much as possible find an approach that suits your interests. Your topic should be one on which you can find adequate information; you might need to do some preliminary research to determine this. Go to the Reader's Guide to Periodical Literature in the reference section of the library, or to an electronic database such as Proquest or Wilson Web, and search for your topic. The Butte College Library Reference Librarians are more than happy to assist you at this (or any) stage of your research. Scan the results to see how much information has been published. Then, narrow your topic to manageable size:
Once you have decided on a topic and determined that enough information is available, you are ready to proceed. At this point, however, if you are having difficulty finding adequate quality information, stop wasting your time; find another topic.
2. Preliminary reading & recordkeeping Gather some index cards or a small notebook and keep them with you as you read. First read a general article on your topic, for example from an encyclopedia. On an index card or in the notebook, record the author, article and/or book title, and all publication information in the correct format (MLA or APA, for example) specified by your instructor. (If you need to know what publication information is needed for the various types of sources, see a writing guide such as S F Writer .) On the index cards or in your notebook, write down information you want to use from each identified source, including page numbers. Use quotation marks on anything you copy exactly, so you can distinguish later between exact quotes and paraphrasing. (You will still attribute information you have quoted or paraphrased.)
Some students use a particular index card method throughout the process of researching and writing that allows them great flexibility in organizing and re-organizing as well as in keeping track of sources; others color-code or otherwise identify groups of facts. Use any method that works for you in later drafting your paper, but always start with good recordkeeping.
3. Organizing: Mind map or outline Based on your preliminary reading, draw up a working mind map or outline. Include any important, interesting, or provocative points, including your own ideas about the topic. A mind map is less linear and may even include questions you want to find answers to. Use the method that works best for you. The object is simply to group ideas in logically related groups. You may revise this mind map or outline at any time; it is much easier to reorganize a paper by crossing out or adding sections to a mind map or outline than it is to laboriously start over with the writing itself.
4. Formulating a thesis: Focus and craftsmanship Write a well defined, focused, three- to five-point thesis statement, but be prepared to revise it later if necessary. Take your time crafting this statement into one or two sentences, for it will control the direction and development of your entire paper.
For more on developing thesis statements, see the TIP Sheets "Developing a Thesis and Supporting Arguments" and "How to Structure an Essay."
5. Researching: Facts and examples Now begin your heavy-duty research. Try the internet, electronic databases, reference books, newspaper articles, and books for a balance of sources. For each source, write down on an index card (or on a separate page of your notebook) the publication information you will need for your works cited (MLA) or bibliography (APA) page. Write important points, details, and examples, always distinguishing between direct quotes and paraphrasing. As you read, remember that an expert opinion is more valid than a general opinion, and for some topics (in science and history, for example), more recent research may be more valuable than older research. Avoid relying too heavily on internet sources, which vary widely in quality and authority and sometimes even disappear before you can complete your paper.
Never copy-and-paste from internet sources directly into any actual draft of your paper. For more information on plagiarism, obtain from the Butte College Student Services office a copy of the college's policy on plagiarism, or attend the Critical Skills Plagiarism Workshop given each semester.
6. Rethinking: Matching mind map and thesis After you have read deeply and gathered plenty of information, expand or revise your working mind map or outline by adding information, explanations, and examples. Aim for balance in developing each of your main points (they should be spelled out in your thesis statement). Return to the library for additional information if it is needed to evenly develop these points, or revise your thesis statement to better reflect what you have learned or the direction your paper seems to have taken.
7. Drafting: Beginning in the middle Write the body of the paper, starting with the thesis statement and omitting for now the introduction (unless you already know exactly how to begin, but few writers do). Use supporting detail to logically and systematically validate your thesis statement. For now, omit the conclusion also.
For more on systematically developing a thesis statement, see TIP sheets "Developing a Thesis and Supporting Arguments" and "How to Structure an Essay."
8. Revising: Organization and attribution Read, revise, and make sure that your ideas are clearly organized and that they support your thesis statement. Every single paragraph should have a single topic that is derived from the thesis statement. If any paragraph does not, take it out, or revise your thesis if you think it is warranted. Check that you have quoted and paraphrased accurately, and that you have acknowledged your sources even for your paraphrasing. Every single idea that did not come to you as a personal epiphany or as a result of your own methodical reasoning should be attributed to its owner.
For more on writing papers that stay on-topic, see the TIP Sheets "Developing a Thesis and Supporting Arguments" and "How to Structure an Essay." For more on avoiding plagiarism, see the Butte College Student Services brochure, "Academic Honesty at Butte College," or attend the Critical Skills Plagiarism Workshop given each semester.
9. Writing: Intro, conclusion, and citations Write the final draft. Add a one-paragraph introduction and a one-paragraph conclusion. Usually the thesis statement appears as the last sentence or two of the first, introductory paragraph. Make sure all citations appear in the correct format for the style (MLA, APA) you are using. The conclusion should not simply restate your thesis, but should refer to it. (For more on writing conclusions, see the TIP Sheet "How to Structure an Essay.") Add a Works Cited (for MLA) or Bibliography (for APA) page.
10. Proofreading: Time and objectivity Time permitting, allow a few days to elapse between the time you finish writing your last draft and the time you begin to make final corrections. This "time out" will make you more perceptive, more objective, and more critical. On your final read, check for grammar, punctuation, correct word choice, adequate and smooth transitions, sentence structure, and sentence variety. For further proofreading strategies, see the TIP Sheet "Revising, Editing, and Proofreading."
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The Ultimate Guide to Writing a Research Paper
Few things strike more fear in academics than the accursed research paper , a term synonymous with long hours and hard work. Luckily there’s a secret to help you get through them. As long as you know how to write a research paper properly, you’ll find they’re not so bad . . . or at least less painful.
In this guide we concisely explain how to write an academic research paper step by step. We’ll cover areas like how to start a research paper, how to write a research paper outline, how to use citations and evidence, and how to write a conclusion for a research paper.
But before we get into the details, let’s take a look at what a research paper is and how it’s different from other writing .
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What is a research paper?
A research paper is a type of academic writing that provides an in-depth analysis, evaluation, or interpretation of a single topic, based on empirical evidence. Research papers are similar to analytical essays, except that research papers emphasize the use of statistical data and preexisting research, along with a strict code for citations.
Research papers are a bedrock of modern science and the most effective way to share information across a wide network. However, most people are familiar with research papers from school; college courses often use them to test a student’s knowledge of a particular area or their research skills in general.
Considering their gravity, research papers favor formal, even bland language that strips the writing of any bias. Researchers state their findings plainly and with corresponding evidence so that other researchers can consequently use the paper in their own research.
Keep in mind that writing a research paper is different from writing a research proposal . Essentially, research proposals are to acquire the funding needed to get the data to write a research paper.
How long should a research paper be?
The length of a research paper depends on the topic or assignment. Typically, research papers run around 4,000–6,000 words, but it’s common to see short papers around 2,000 words or long papers over 10,000 words.
If you’re writing a paper for school, the recommended length should be provided in the assignment. Otherwise, let your topic dictate the length: Complicated topics or extensive research will require more explanation.
How to write a research paper in 9 steps
Below is a step-by-step guide to writing a research paper, catered specifically for students rather than professional researchers. While some steps may not apply to your particular assignment, think of this as more of a general guideline to keep you on track.
1 Understand the assignment
For some of you this goes without saying, but you might be surprised at how many students start a research paper without even reading the assignment guidelines.
So your first step should be to review the assignment and carefully read the writing prompt. Specifically, look for technical requirements such as length , formatting requirements (single- vs. double-spacing, indentations, etc.) and citation style . Also pay attention to the particulars, such as whether or not you need to write an abstract or include a cover page.
Once you understand the assignment, the next steps in how to write a research paper follow the usual writing process , more or less. There are some extra steps involved because research papers have extra rules, but the gist of the writing process is the same.
2 Choose your topic
In open-ended assignments, the student must choose their own topic. While it may seem simple enough, choosing a topic is actually the most important decision you’ll make in writing a research paper, since it determines everything that follows.
Your top priority in how to choose a research paper topic is whether it will provide enough content and substance for an entire research paper. You’ll want to choose a topic with enough data and complexity to enable a rich discussion. However, you also want to avoid general topics and instead stick with topics specific enough that you can cover all the relevant information without cutting too much.
3 Gather preliminary research
The sooner you start researching, the better—after all, it’s called a research paper for a reason.
To refine your topic and prepare your thesis statement, find out what research is available for your topic as soon as possible. Early research can help dispel any misconceptions you have about the topic and reveal the best paths and approaches to find more material.
Typically, you can find sources either online or in a library. If you’re searching online, make sure you use credible sources like science journals or academic papers. Some search engines—mentioned below in the Tools and resources section—allow you to browse only accredited sources and academic databases.
Keep in mind the difference between primary and secondary sources as you search. Primary sources are firsthand accounts, like published articles or autobiographies; secondary sources are more removed, like critical reviews or secondhand biographies.
When gathering your research, it’s better to skim sources instead of reading each potential source fully. If a source seems useful, set it aside to give it a full read later. Otherwise, you’ll be stuck poring over sources that you ultimately won’t use, and that time could be better spent finding a worthwhile source.
Sometimes you’re required to submit a literature review , which explains your sources and presents them to an authority for confirmation. Even if no literature review is required, it’s still helpful to compile an early list of potential sources—you’ll be glad you did later.
4 Write a thesis statement
Using what you found in your preliminary research, write a thesis statement that succinctly summarizes what your research paper will be about. This is usually the first sentence in your paper, making it your reader’s introduction to the topic.
A thesis statement is the best answer for how to start a research paper. Aside from preparing your reader, the thesis statement also makes it easier for other researchers to assess whether or not your paper is useful to them for their own research. Likewise, you should read the thesis statements of other research papers to decide how useful they are to you.
A good thesis statement mentions all the important parts of the discussion without disclosing too many of the details. If you’re having trouble putting it into words, try to phrase your topic as a question and then answer it .
For example, if your research paper topic is about separating students with ADHD from other students, you’d first ask yourself, “Does separating students with ADHD improve their learning?” The answer—based on your preliminary research—is a good basis for your thesis statement.
5 Determine supporting evidence
At this stage of how to write an academic research paper, it’s time to knuckle down and do the actual research. Here’s when you go through all the sources you collected earlier and find the specific information you’d like to use in your paper.
Normally, you find your supporting evidence by reading each source and taking notes. Isolate only the information that’s directly relevant to your topic; don’t bog down your paper with tangents or unnecessary context, however interesting they may be. And always write down page numbers , not only for you to find the information later, but also because you’ll need them for your citations.
Aside from highlighting text and writing notes, another common tactic is to use bibliography cards . These are simple index cards with a fact or direct quotation on one side and the bibliographical information (source citation, page numbers, subtopic category) on the other. While bibliography cards are not necessary, some students find them useful for staying organized, especially when it’s time to write an outline.
6 Write a research paper outline
A lot of students want to know how to write a research paper outline. More than informal essays, research papers require a methodical and systematic structure to make sure all issues are addressed, and that makes outlines especially important.
First make a list of all the important categories and subtopics you need to cover—an outline for your outline! Consider all the information you gathered when compiling your supporting evidence and ask yourself what the best way to separate and categorize everything is.
Once you have a list of what you want to talk about, consider the best order to present the information. Which subtopics are related and should go next to each other? Are there any subtopics that don’t make sense if they’re presented out of sequence? If your information is fairly straightforward, feel free to take a chronological approach and present the information in the order it happened.
Because research papers can get complicated, consider breaking your outline into paragraphs. For starters, this helps you stay organized if you have a lot of information to cover. Moreover, it gives you greater control over the flow and direction of the research paper. It’s always better to fix structural problems in the outline phase than later after everything’s already been written.
Don’t forget to include your supporting evidence in the outline as well. Chances are you’ll have a lot you want to include, so putting it in your outline helps prevent some things from falling through the cracks.
7 Write the first draft
Once your outline is finished, it’s time to start actually writing your research paper. This is by far the longest and most involved step, but if you’ve properly prepared your sources and written a thorough outline, everything should run smoothly.
If you don’t know how to write an introduction for a research paper, the beginning can be difficult. That’s why writing your thesis statement beforehand is crucial. Open with your thesis statement and then fill out the rest of your introduction with the secondary information—save the details for the body of your research paper, which comes next.
The body contains the bulk of your research paper. Unlike essays , research papers usually divide the body into sections with separate headers to facilitate browsing and scanning. Use the divisions in your outline as a guide.
Follow along your outline and go paragraph by paragraph. Because this is just the first draft, don’t worry about getting each word perfect . Later you’ll be able to revise and fine-tune your writing, but for now focus simply on saying everything that needs to be said. In other words, it’s OK to make mistakes since you’ll go back later to correct them.
One of the most common problems with writing long works like research papers is connecting paragraphs to each other. The longer your writing is, the harder it is to tie everything together smoothly. Use transition sentences to improve the flow of your paper, especially for the first and last sentences in a paragraph.
Even after the body is written, you still need to know how to write a conclusion for a research paper. Just like an essay conclusion , your research paper conclusion should restate your thesis , reiterate your main evidence , and summarize your findings in a way that’s easy to understand.
Don’t add any new information in your conclusion, but feel free to say your own personal perspective or interpretation if it helps the reader understand the big picture.
8 Cite your sources correctly
Citations are part of what sets research papers apart from more casual nonfiction like personal essays . Citing your sources both validates your data and also links your research paper to the greater scientific community. Because of their importance, citations must follow precise formatting rules . . . problem is, there’s more than one set of rules!
You need to check with the assignment to see which formatting style is required. Typically, academic research papers follow one of two formatting styles for citing sources:
- MLA (Modern Language Association)
- APA (American Psychological Association)
The links above explain the specific formatting guidelines for each style, along with an automatic citation generator to help you get started.
In addition to MLA and APA styles, you occasionally see requirements for CMOS (The Chicago Manual of Style), AMA (American Medical Association) and IEEE (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers).
Citations may seem confusing at first with all their rules and specific information. However, once you get the hang of them, you’ll be able to properly cite your sources without even thinking about it. Keep in mind that each formatting style has specific guidelines for citing just about any kind of source, including photos , websites , speeches , and YouTube videos .
9 Edit and proofread
Last but not least, you want to go through your research paper to correct all the mistakes by proofreading . We recommend going over it twice: once for structural issues such as adding/deleting parts or rearranging paragraphs and once for word choice, grammatical, and spelling mistakes. Doing two different editing sessions helps you focus on one area at a time instead of doing them both at once.
To help you catch everything, here’s a quick checklist to keep in mind while you edit:
- Is your thesis statement clear and concise?
- Is your paper well-organized, and does it flow from beginning to end with logical transitions?
- Do your ideas follow a logical sequence in each paragraph?
- Have you used concrete details and facts and avoided generalizations?
- Do your arguments support and prove your thesis?
- Have you avoided repetition?
- Are your sources properly cited?
- Have you checked for accidental plagiarism?
Word choice, grammar, and spelling edit:
- Is your language clear and specific?
- Do your sentences flow smoothly and clearly?
- Have you avoided filler words and phrases ?
- Have you checked for proper grammar, spelling, and punctuation?
Some people find it useful to read their paper out loud to catch problems they might miss when reading in their head. Another solution is to have someone else read your paper and point out areas for improvement and/or technical mistakes.
Revising is a separate skill from writing, and being good at one doesn’t necessarily make you good at the other. If you want to improve your revision skills, read our guide on self-editing , which includes a more complete checklist and advanced tips on improving your revisions.
Technical issues like grammatical mistakes and misspelled words can be handled effortlessly if you use a spellchecker with your word processor, or even better, a digital writing assistant that also suggests improvements for word choice and tone, like Grammarly (we explain more in the Tools and resources section below).
Tools and resources
If you want to know more about how to write a research paper, or if you want some help with each step, take a look at the tools and resources below.
This is Google’s own search engine, which is dedicated exclusively to academic papers. It’s a great way to find new research and sources. Plus, it’s free to use.
Zotero is a freemium, open-source research manager, a cross between an organizational CMS and a search engine for academic research. With it, you can browse the internet for research sources relevant to your topic and share them easily with colleagues. Also, it automatically generates citations.
Writing long research papers is always a strain on your attention span. If you have trouble avoiding distractions during those long stretches, FocusWriter might be able to help. FocusWriter is a minimalist word processor that removes all the distracting icons and sticks only to what you type. You’re also free to choose your own customized backgrounds, with other special features like timed alarms, daily goals, and optional typewriter sound effects.
This useful and free tool from Google lets you create simple charts and graphs based on whatever data you input. Charts and graphs are excellent visual aids for expressing numeric data, a perfect complement if you need to explain complicated evidential research.
Grammarly goes way beyond grammar, helping you hone word choice, checking your text for plagiarism, detecting your tone, and more. For foreign-language learners, it can make your English sound more fluent, and even those who speak English as their primary language benefit from Grammarly’s suggestions.
Research paper FAQs
A research paper is a piece of academic writing that analyzes, evaluates, or interprets a single topic with empirical evidence and statistical data.
When will I need to write a research paper in college?
Many college courses use research papers to test a student’s knowledge of a particular topic or their research skills in general. While research papers depend on the course or professor, you can expect to write at least a few before graduation.
How do I determine a topic for my research paper?
If the topic is not assigned, try to find a topic that’s general enough to provide ample evidence but specific enough that you’re able to cover all the basics. If possible, choose a topic you’re personally interested in—it makes the work easier.
Where can I conduct research for my paper?
Today most research is conducted either online or in libraries. Some topics might benefit from old periodicals like newspapers or magazines, as well as visual media like documentaries. Museums, parks, and historical monuments can also be useful.
How do I cite sources for a research paper?
The correct formatting for citations depends on which style you’re using, so check the assignment guidelines. Most school research reports use either MLA or APA styles, although there are others.
This article was originally written by Karen Hertzberg in 2017. It’s been updated to include new information.
Journal of Student Research
Journal of Student Research (JSR) is an Academic, Multidisciplinary, and Faculty-reviewed Journal (Houston, Texas) devoted to the Rapid Dissemination of Current Research Published by High School Edition , Undergraduate and Graduate students.
Articles Indexed in Scholarly Databases
The journal seeks articles that are novel, integrative, and accessible to a broad audience, including an array of disciplines. The content of the journal ranges from Applied research to Theoretical research. In general, papers on all topics are welcome to submit. The journal uses an automated process from manuscript submission to publication. Manuscript submission, peer review, and publication are all handled online, and the journal automates all clerical steps during peer review.
Trusted By Student Authors Globally
Focus and Scope
Students strive to be successful at publications, and with JSR, authors aspiring to publish will receive scholarly feedback after the reviews of their submissions are received. This feedback will help authors identify areas of improvement to their submission and help them better understand the process to be successful at publication. Once published, we strive to provide a global platform for our authors to showcase their work.
Faculty-Refereed Review Process
This journal uses a double-blind review, which means that both the reviewer and author identities are concealed from the reviewers, and vice versa, throughout the review process. Authors need to ensure that their manuscripts do not give away their identity to facilitate this. To find out more about the review process, please visit the Author Guidelines page. We invite teachers and faculty interested in reviewing articles for this journal; please visit our Reviewers page for more information.
Open Access Policy
This journal provides access to its published content on the principle that making research freely available to the public supports a greater global exchange of knowledge. Learn more about Open Access .
Authors Retain Copyright
Articles published in this journal are under a Creative Commons License , and the authors retain the copyright to their work.
Call for papers: volume 13 issue 1.
If you are an undergraduate or graduate student at a college or university aspiring to publish, we are accepting submissions. Submit Your Article Now!
Deadline: 11:59 p.m. November 30, 2023
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How to Write a College Research Paper (With Examples)
- by Daniel Friedman
- 9 minute read
Want to know how to write A+ essays from an A+ student? This guide will show you how to write a college research paper perfectly!
Some of the most common assignments you will receive in college are essays. They can be intimidating and time consuming, but they don’t have to be.
I’m going to share with you how I approach essays, from the initial preparation, to how I create an outline which basically writes the essay for me.
Let’s get started!
Before you write your college research paper, it’s essential that you review the guidelines of your essay.
Create a document with the following basic guidelines of the paper:
- The number of sources needed
- Where your sources have to come from
This gives you an easy place to refer back to without reading the whole page of guidelines everytime.
I recommend using the same document to write your outline so you have everything in one place at all times.
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Research question example.
Writing out your research question (if necessary) or topic up front is really helpful as well. Do a bit of googling on several topics that match your prompt.
For example, if the prompt is to pick a historical event between 1950-1970 which impacted the United States in a negative way and explain the history of the event, how it impacted the US when it occurred, and the effects of the event, you’ll want to begin by looking up historical events between 1950 and 1970 which were impactful for the United States.
From there, choose events which have a lot of research essays, news articles, and papers written about them.
This just makes it a lot easier to find research to back up your essay claims compared to picking a niche topic with only 2 papers written about them.
This will also allow you to create a more original essay because there’s more research to choose from than merely 2 academic essays.
How to Research for a College Paper
To write a college research paper, it boils to down to one main thing… the research.
Often professors will give you guidelines as to where your research must come from. Remember to pay attention to these guidelines and use the databases your professor suggests.
Use databases provided by your university library’s website that match the genre you’re writing about. If it’s a history paper, be sure to use a historical database. Same for political science, english, or any other subject.
With the example we’ve been working with, let’s say we chose the Cuban Missile Crisis as our event. I would then type the Cuban Missile Crisis into my database and see what academic papers come up.
There will be LOTS of options with a topic like the Cuban missile crisis which is good.
It can also be a bit daunting, so it may help to add something a little more specific to your search.
For example, searching “Cuban Missile Crisis long term effects on the United States” may give you a better pool of options for the “effects” portion of your essay. Doing the same for each section will help you find the right research papers for your essay.
You will need to read through several research papers. I say need because this is what will help you write MUCH better papers. By reading through a good few papers, you not only gain a much better understanding of what your topic is about, but it helps you figure out which papers are the best for your topic.
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Start taking notes of the papers. This is super important when you need lots of sources.
When more than 5 sources are needed, reading so many papers without taking notes means you will forget everything you’ve read. You can then refer back to these notes and quotes when writing out your essay, and you’ll easily know which source to use for your point and which source to cite.
Keep in mind, your notes don’t have to be crazy. Getting the general idea with a few key points to recite back to is all you need to sort out the best ideas.
How to Create an Effective Outline
Once you know the instructions, the topic, and which research you’ll be pulling from, the next step is an outline. Each outline differs based on what your professor asks of you, but I will give you several examples of different outlines.
Always begin an outline by writing out the basic structure of your paper. Most papers will start with an introduction, followed by several sections/paragraphs depending on the length of your paper, and ending with a conclusion.
For longer essays, the best approach is to create sections. Sections will be titled based on the content, and split up into paragraphs within the section.
Sample College Research Paper Outline
If we continue with the aforementioned example prompt, this is how the sections would be split up:
- The Cuban Missile Crisis (a description of the event and how it impacted the United States)
- Effects of the Cuban Missile Crisis
Your introduction and conclusion should be short. Most professors don’t want a lot of information in those two sections, and prefer instead that you put the bulk of your essay into the main sections.
Your introduction should include the following:
- Your research question/topic
- The context of the event (what’s going on in the United States around the time of the event)
- A brief overview of what your paper talks about.
This includes your thesis!
Your conclusion is merely a summary of what you spoke about in your paper. Do not include new information in your conclusion! Doing so takes away from what the paper was really about and confuses the reader.
In your outline, bullet point these things so you know exactly what to write out in your essay.
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Creating proper sections.
The most important part of your outline is your sections. This is where you’ll bullet point exactly what you’ll be talking about, and which research/sources you will be pulling from.
Group your sources based on which section they go into. If it’s a good source on the context of your main topic, put it under your background section with your source notes included, and create points based on that research.
This is generally how you should outline your college research paper. By already having your sources, notes from those sources, and creating points based on it, You’ll already have the bulk of your paper mapped out.
Theories and Hypotheses
Some research papers require you to come up with a theory made up of hypotheses. Your hypothesis will be based on your research question if this is the case.
Here’s an example of a research question, and a practical theory created from it:
Research Question – What are the causes of the use of terrorism by the Palestinians and how has its use affected Arab-Israeli relations?
Hypothesis of causes are: a sense of abandonment from the Arab world, humiliation at the hands of Israelis, and demands falling on deaf ears, all of this caused Palestininans to utilize more drastic measures in order to get their needs heard and acted on.
Hypothesis of how its use affected Arab-Israeli relations: Terrorism created more distrust and fearfulness between Israel and Palestine wherein Israelis didn’t and don’t feel comfortable trusting any group of Palestinians due to the extreme actions of several groups, and utilize harsher retaliation or countermeasures as a result of the Palestinian terrorism, pushing both sides farther from cooperation.
A hypothesis is essentially coming up with what you believe the research will prove, and then supporting or contrasting that hypothesis based on what the research proves.
How to Write a Thesis for a College Research Paper
Getting a clear idea of your sections and what they’re about is how to write a college research paper with an effective thesis.
By doing so, your thesis will include the main points of your sections rather than just the names of your sections, which gives a better overview of what your paper is actually about.
You don’t have to create it at the end though. You might find often that you’ll write a thesis at the start and just correct it as your essay points change while writing.
Here’s an example of an A+ thesis in an introduction of an essay:
In the example above, I’ve highlighted the main issue of the poem in blue and the main argument of the poem in red.
Keep in mind, the whole point of a thesis is to explain what your entire paper is going to be discussing/arguing for within 1 or 2 sentences.
As long as you get the issue across along with (more importantly) the main argument of discussion, then your thesis will be formatted perfectly.
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How to structure a college research paper.
Structuring your paper is fairly simple. Often just asking your professor or TA will give you the best idea of how to structure. But if they don’t give you structure, the best way to go about it is in the way I mentioned before.
Introduction, sections, conclusion. It’s simple and clear cut, and most professors will appreciate that.
Reading through the sources also helps with structure. Often the sequence of events will guide the structure of your paper, so really understanding your topic helps not only with the content of your paper, but with the structure as well.
How to Cite Properly to Avoid Plagiarism
In my experience most professors won’t ask for a specific format in their essay guidelines. This means you’ll want to use whatever you’re most comfortable with.
MLA format is very common amongst most classes. If you didn’t have a clear format you learned in class, or don’t feel particularly comfortable with any one format, I suggest you use MLA.
A quick google search will give you the basic guidelines of MLA. Use this MLA format tool if you’re confused about how to cite sources properly.
An important part of citing is including parenthetical citations, AKA citing after a quote or paraphrased section.
It’s crucial that you cite ANY quote you use. This also goes for any section where you paraphrase from a source.
Both of these need parenthetical citations right after the direct quote or paraphrase.
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The last portion of Citing you need to think about is your works cited or bibliography page. This has all your sources in one place, in the format you’re using.
In order to make this I always use EasyBib . EasyBib will cite your sources for you and create a bibliography with very little effort on your part, and it can be in any format you choose.
Your works cited page will go at the end of your essay, after your conclusion, on a separate page. Not including one means you are plagiarizing , so make sure you don’t forget it!
Hopefully these tips help you how to write a college research paper and better college essays overall.
Take it from an A+ student who can help you achieve the same goal in your college classes.
A huge thanks to Nivi at nivishahamphotography.com for helping out Modern Teen with this incredible post!
If you have any comments, questions, or suggestions leave them below. Thanks for reading!
Hey, I'm Daniel - The owner of Modern Teen! I love sharing everything I've experienced and learned through my teen and college years. I designed this blog to build a community of young adults from all around the world so we can grow together and share our knowledge! Enjoy and Welcome!
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How To Write A Research Paper
Research Paper Example
Research Paper Example - Examples for Different Formats
Published on: Jun 12, 2021
Last updated on: Jul 21, 2023
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Writing a research paper is the most challenging task in a studentâs academic life. Students face similar writing process hardships, whether the research paper is to be written for high school or college.
A research paper is a writing type in which a detailed analysis, interpretation, and evaluation are made on the topic. It only requires not only time but also effort and skills to be drafted correctly.
If you are working on your research paper for the first time, here is a collection of examples that you will need to understand the paperâs format and how its different parts are drafted. Continue reading the article to get free research paper examples.
Research Paper Example for Different Formats
When writing a research paper, it is essential to know which format to use to structure your content. Depending on the requirements of the institution, there are mainly four format styles in which a writer drafts a research paper:
Letâs look into each format in detail to understand the fundamental differences and similarities.
Research Paper Example APA
If your instructor asks you to provide a research paper in an APA format, go through the example given below and understand the basic structure. Make sure to follow the format throughout the paper.
APA Research Paper Sample (PDF)
Research Paper Example MLA
Another widespread research paper format is MLA. A few institutes require this format style as well for your research paper. Look at the example provided of this format style to learn the basics.
MLA Research Paper Sample (PDF)
Research Paper Example Chicago
Unlike MLA and APA styles, Chicago is not very common. Very few institutions require this formatting style research paper, but it is essential to learn it. Look at the example given below to understand the formatting of the content and citations in the research paper.
Chicago Research Paper Sample (PDF)
Research Paper Example Harvard
Learn how a research paper through Harvard formatting style is written through this example. Carefully examine how the cover page and other pages are structured.
Harvard Research Paper Sample (PDF)
Examples for Different Research Paper Parts
A research paper is based on different parts. Each part plays a significant role in the overall success of the paper. So each chapter of the paper must be drafted correctly according to a format and structure.
Below are examples of how different sections of the research paper are drafted.
Research Proposal Example
A research proposal is a plan that describes what you will investigate, its significance, and how you will conduct the study.
Research Proposal Sample (PDF)
Abstract Research Paper Example
An abstract is an executive summary of the research paper that includes the purpose of the research, the design of the study, and significant research findings.
It is a small section that is based on a few paragraphs. Following is an example of the abstract to help you draft yours professionally.
Abstract Research Paper Sample (PDF)
Literature Review Research Paper Example
A literature review in a research paper is a comprehensive summary of the previous research on your topic. It studies sources like books, articles, journals, and papers on the relevant research problem to form the basis of the new research.
Writing this section of the research paper perfectly is as important as any part of it.
Literature Review in Research Sample (PDF)
Methods Section of Research Paper Example
The method section comes after the introduction of the research paper that presents the process of collecting data. Basically, in this section, a researcher presents the details of how your research was conducted.
Methods Section in Research Sample (PDF)
Research Paper Conclusion Example
The conclusion is the last part of your research paper that sums up the writerâs discussion for the audience and leaves an impression. This is how it should be drafted:
Research Paper Conclusion Sample (PDF)
Research Paper Examples for Different Fields
The research papers are not limited to a particular field. They can be written for any discipline or subject that needs a detailed study.
In the following section, various research paper examples are given to show how they are drafted for different subjects.
Science Research Paper Example
Are you a science student that has to conduct research? Here is an example for you to draft a compelling research paper for the field of science.
Science Research Paper Sample (PDF)
History Research Paper Example
Conducting research and drafting a paper is not only bound to science subjects. Other subjects like history and arts require a research paper to be written as well. Observe how research papers related to history are drafted.
History Research Paper Sample (PDF)
Psychology Research Paper Example
If you are a psychology student, look into the example provided in the research paper to help you draft yours professionally.
Psychology Research Paper Sample (PDF)
Research Paper Example for Different Levels
Writing a research paper is based on a list of elements. If the writer is not aware of the basic elements, the process of writing the paper will become daunting. Start writing your research paper taking the following steps:
- Choose a topic
- Form a strong thesis statement
- Conduct research
- Develop a research paper outline
Once you have a plan in your hand, the actual writing procedure will become a piece of cake for you.
No matter which level you are writing a research paper for, it has to be well structured and written to guarantee you better grades.
If you are a college or a high school student, the examples in the following section will be of great help.
Research Paper Outline (PDF)
Research Paper Example for College
Pay attention to the research paper example provided below. If you are a college student, this sample will help you understand how a winning paper is written.
College Research Paper Sample (PDF)
Research Paper Example for High School
Expert writers of CollegeEssay.org have provided an excellent example of a research paper for high school students. If you are struggling to draft an exceptional paper, go through the example provided.
High School Research Paper Sample (PDF)
Examples are essential when it comes to academic assignments. If you are a student and aim to achieve good grades in your assignments, it is suggested to get help from CollegeEssay.org .
We are the best writing company that helps students by providing free samples and writing assistance. Professional writers have your back, whether you are looking for guidance in writing a lab report, college essay, or research paper.
Simply hire a writer by placing your order at the most reasonable price. You can also take advantage from our essay writer to enhance your writing skills.
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As a Digital Content Strategist, Nova Allison has eight years of experience in writing both technical and scientific content. With a focus on developing online content plans that engage audiences, Nova strives to write pieces that are not only informative but captivating as well.
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Sat / act prep online guides and tips, 113 great research paper topics.
One of the hardest parts of writing a research paper can be just finding a good topic to write about. Fortunately we've done the hard work for you and have compiled a list of 113 interesting research paper topics. They've been organized into ten categories and cover a wide range of subjects so you can easily find the best topic for you.
In addition to the list of good research topics, we've included advice on what makes a good research paper topic and how you can use your topic to start writing a great paper.
What Makes a Good Research Paper Topic?
Not all research paper topics are created equal, and you want to make sure you choose a great topic before you start writing. Below are the three most important factors to consider to make sure you choose the best research paper topics.
#1: It's Something You're Interested In
A paper is always easier to write if you're interested in the topic, and you'll be more motivated to do in-depth research and write a paper that really covers the entire subject. Even if a certain research paper topic is getting a lot of buzz right now or other people seem interested in writing about it, don't feel tempted to make it your topic unless you genuinely have some sort of interest in it as well.
#2: There's Enough Information to Write a Paper
Even if you come up with the absolute best research paper topic and you're so excited to write about it, you won't be able to produce a good paper if there isn't enough research about the topic. This can happen for very specific or specialized topics, as well as topics that are too new to have enough research done on them at the moment. Easy research paper topics will always be topics with enough information to write a full-length paper.
Trying to write a research paper on a topic that doesn't have much research on it is incredibly hard, so before you decide on a topic, do a bit of preliminary searching and make sure you'll have all the information you need to write your paper.
#3: It Fits Your Teacher's Guidelines
Don't get so carried away looking at lists of research paper topics that you forget any requirements or restrictions your teacher may have put on research topic ideas. If you're writing a research paper on a health-related topic, deciding to write about the impact of rap on the music scene probably won't be allowed, but there may be some sort of leeway. For example, if you're really interested in current events but your teacher wants you to write a research paper on a history topic, you may be able to choose a topic that fits both categories, like exploring the relationship between the US and North Korea. No matter what, always get your research paper topic approved by your teacher first before you begin writing.
113 Good Research Paper Topics
Below are 113 good research topics to help you get you started on your paper. We've organized them into ten categories to make it easier to find the type of research paper topics you're looking for.
- Discuss the main differences in art from the Italian Renaissance and the Northern Renaissance .
- Analyze the impact a famous artist had on the world.
- How is sexism portrayed in different types of media (music, film, video games, etc.)? Has the amount/type of sexism changed over the years?
- How has the music of slaves brought over from Africa shaped modern American music?
- How has rap music evolved in the past decade?
- How has the portrayal of minorities in the media changed?
- What have been the impacts of China's one child policy?
- How have the goals of feminists changed over the decades?
- How has the Trump presidency changed international relations?
- Analyze the history of the relationship between the United States and North Korea.
- What factors contributed to the current decline in the rate of unemployment?
- What have been the impacts of states which have increased their minimum wage?
- How do US immigration laws compare to immigration laws of other countries?
- How have the US's immigration laws changed in the past few years/decades?
- How has the Black Lives Matter movement affected discussions and view about racism in the US?
- What impact has the Affordable Care Act had on healthcare in the US?
- What factors contributed to the UK deciding to leave the EU (Brexit)?
- What factors contributed to China becoming an economic power?
- Discuss the history of Bitcoin or other cryptocurrencies (some of which tokenize the S&P 500 Index on the blockchain) .
- Do students in schools that eliminate grades do better in college and their careers?
- Do students from wealthier backgrounds score higher on standardized tests?
- Do students who receive free meals at school get higher grades compared to when they weren't receiving a free meal?
- Do students who attend charter schools score higher on standardized tests than students in public schools?
- Do students learn better in same-sex classrooms?
- How does giving each student access to an iPad or laptop affect their studies?
- What are the benefits and drawbacks of the Montessori Method ?
- Do children who attend preschool do better in school later on?
- What was the impact of the No Child Left Behind act?
- How does the US education system compare to education systems in other countries?
- What impact does mandatory physical education classes have on students' health?
- Which methods are most effective at reducing bullying in schools?
- Do homeschoolers who attend college do as well as students who attended traditional schools?
- Does offering tenure increase or decrease quality of teaching?
- How does college debt affect future life choices of students?
- Should graduate students be able to form unions?
- What are different ways to lower gun-related deaths in the US?
- How and why have divorce rates changed over time?
- Is affirmative action still necessary in education and/or the workplace?
- Should physician-assisted suicide be legal?
- How has stem cell research impacted the medical field?
- How can human trafficking be reduced in the United States/world?
- Should people be able to donate organs in exchange for money?
- Which types of juvenile punishment have proven most effective at preventing future crimes?
- Has the increase in US airport security made passengers safer?
- Analyze the immigration policies of certain countries and how they are similar and different from one another.
- Several states have legalized recreational marijuana. What positive and negative impacts have they experienced as a result?
- Do tariffs increase the number of domestic jobs?
- Which prison reforms have proven most effective?
- Should governments be able to censor certain information on the internet?
- Which methods/programs have been most effective at reducing teen pregnancy?
- What are the benefits and drawbacks of the Keto diet?
- How effective are different exercise regimes for losing weight and maintaining weight loss?
- How do the healthcare plans of various countries differ from each other?
- What are the most effective ways to treat depression ?
- What are the pros and cons of genetically modified foods?
- Which methods are most effective for improving memory?
- What can be done to lower healthcare costs in the US?
- What factors contributed to the current opioid crisis?
- Analyze the history and impact of the HIV/AIDS epidemic .
- Are low-carbohydrate or low-fat diets more effective for weight loss?
- How much exercise should the average adult be getting each week?
- Which methods are most effective to get parents to vaccinate their children?
- What are the pros and cons of clean needle programs?
- How does stress affect the body?
- Discuss the history of the conflict between Israel and the Palestinians.
- What were the causes and effects of the Salem Witch Trials?
- Who was responsible for the Iran-Contra situation?
- How has New Orleans and the government's response to natural disasters changed since Hurricane Katrina?
- What events led to the fall of the Roman Empire?
- What were the impacts of British rule in India ?
- Was the atomic bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki necessary?
- What were the successes and failures of the women's suffrage movement in the United States?
- What were the causes of the Civil War?
- How did Abraham Lincoln's assassination impact the country and reconstruction after the Civil War?
- Which factors contributed to the colonies winning the American Revolution?
- What caused Hitler's rise to power?
- Discuss how a specific invention impacted history.
- What led to Cleopatra's fall as ruler of Egypt?
- How has Japan changed and evolved over the centuries?
- What were the causes of the Rwandan genocide ?
- Why did Martin Luther decide to split with the Catholic Church?
- Analyze the history and impact of a well-known cult (Jonestown, Manson family, etc.)
- How did the sexual abuse scandal impact how people view the Catholic Church?
- How has the Catholic church's power changed over the past decades/centuries?
- What are the causes behind the rise in atheism/ agnosticism in the United States?
- What were the influences in Siddhartha's life resulted in him becoming the Buddha?
- How has media portrayal of Islam/Muslims changed since September 11th?
- How has the earth's climate changed in the past few decades?
- How has the use and elimination of DDT affected bird populations in the US?
- Analyze how the number and severity of natural disasters have increased in the past few decades.
- Analyze deforestation rates in a certain area or globally over a period of time.
- How have past oil spills changed regulations and cleanup methods?
- How has the Flint water crisis changed water regulation safety?
- What are the pros and cons of fracking?
- What impact has the Paris Climate Agreement had so far?
- What have NASA's biggest successes and failures been?
- How can we improve access to clean water around the world?
- Does ecotourism actually have a positive impact on the environment?
- Should the US rely on nuclear energy more?
- What can be done to save amphibian species currently at risk of extinction?
- What impact has climate change had on coral reefs?
- How are black holes created?
- Are teens who spend more time on social media more likely to suffer anxiety and/or depression?
- How will the loss of net neutrality affect internet users?
- Analyze the history and progress of self-driving vehicles.
- How has the use of drones changed surveillance and warfare methods?
- Has social media made people more or less connected?
- What progress has currently been made with artificial intelligence ?
- Do smartphones increase or decrease workplace productivity?
- What are the most effective ways to use technology in the classroom?
- How is Google search affecting our intelligence?
- When is the best age for a child to begin owning a smartphone?
- Has frequent texting reduced teen literacy rates?
How to Write a Great Research Paper
Even great research paper topics won't give you a great research paper if you don't hone your topic before and during the writing process. Follow these three tips to turn good research paper topics into great papers.
#1: Figure Out Your Thesis Early
Before you start writing a single word of your paper, you first need to know what your thesis will be. Your thesis is a statement that explains what you intend to prove/show in your paper. Every sentence in your research paper will relate back to your thesis, so you don't want to start writing without it!
As some examples, if you're writing a research paper on if students learn better in same-sex classrooms, your thesis might be "Research has shown that elementary-age students in same-sex classrooms score higher on standardized tests and report feeling more comfortable in the classroom."
If you're writing a paper on the causes of the Civil War, your thesis might be "While the dispute between the North and South over slavery is the most well-known cause of the Civil War, other key causes include differences in the economies of the North and South, states' rights, and territorial expansion."
#2: Back Every Statement Up With Research
Remember, this is a research paper you're writing, so you'll need to use lots of research to make your points. Every statement you give must be backed up with research, properly cited the way your teacher requested. You're allowed to include opinions of your own, but they must also be supported by the research you give.
#3: Do Your Research Before You Begin Writing
You don't want to start writing your research paper and then learn that there isn't enough research to back up the points you're making, or, even worse, that the research contradicts the points you're trying to make!
Get most of your research on your good research topics done before you begin writing. Then use the research you've collected to create a rough outline of what your paper will cover and the key points you're going to make. This will help keep your paper clear and organized, and it'll ensure you have enough research to produce a strong paper.
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A Step-by-Step Guide to Save Time and Energy
With all the things you have going on as a student, writing a paper can seem like a daunting task. Many students opt to put off that daunting task, which ultimately leads to bad grades on papers that would otherwise have been easy A's. On top of that, papers often make up a large portion of a student's overall grade in any class, which makes them even higher risk ventures.
Here, we'll walk you through the most important aspects of making a paper, from beginning to end so you won't have to whip up a paper in an afternoon, plagiarize, or neglect to do the assignment.
This image and list-based, step-by-step tutorial is the closest thing to writing a plug and chug paper you can get. In this tutorial you'll learn:
- Techniques to clearly understanding assignments and what professors want to see in your writing
- Techniques for managing your time while you work on a long term research paper or short term writing assignment
- Approaches to generating solid topic ideas that will make your paper interesting and engaging
- Tips for crafting a strong thesis statement that can be sustained throughout the whole of a long assignment
- Tips for crafting transitions between ideas, sentences and paragraphs
- Techniques for revising and editing your paper before you hand it in
So, are you ready to ace this paper of yours? Get out some paper and a pencil and let's get started!
How do I Know What My Professor is Looking for?
The answer to this question is easy: look at the materials the prof gives you. But, it’s important to get started the exact same day that the prof hands you the assignment, and it will only take 30 minutes. There’s no time to waste.
Let’s deal with the first one right now: Looking at what the prof wants you to do.
1. Write to the Rubric
The first important step in writing a paper is taking some time to understand what the professor is looking for. If you know that, you can write to the rubric and pick up easy points along the way.
Universities mandate that professors given students rubrics or some form of assessment guideline. Remember, the rubric for the course on the assignment sheet you’ve been given, you will find a general rubric in the class syllabus, or the professor will include a rubric with an assignment sheet.
If the professor does not provide these things to you, don’t be afraid to ask for them. It’s completely unfair to assess a student if the student doesn’t know what’s expected of them. When you ask, be courteous.
2. Begin with the End in Mind
Once you have that rubric and assignment sheet in hand, you’re ready to discern the things your prof will look for when grading the assignment. This means you can begin with the end in mind, crafting the paper around what you know the prof wants to see. To begin with the end in mind, you need to follow three simple steps:
– Look at the Assignment With a Critical Eye
Take a few moments to review the assignment and rubric with a pen and highlighter, making notes and underlining key elements the prof wants to see.
– Write an Anchor Sentence
Once you know what the prof wants, you can write a one sentence reference that you can refer to whenever you feel like you’re going off course.
– Assess your Gaps
Make a list of three strengths and weaknesses you have as a writer. Be mindful of the pitfalls and confident about your high points.
All this should take you no more than 10 or 15 minutes. It may seem counter-intuitive, but using time to get organized saves you time later, and makes the writing process so much simpler. So, here it is, step-by-step:
3. Look at the Assignment Critically
Now, let’s take a look at a sample assignment. Say you have to write a paper for your Linguistics class. Take a look at this assignment from an actual college professor:
Yow! Even with bullets and commands that’s a lot of text. Let’s take it section by section, one directive at a time.
First, let’s start with the macro. Go through and find the concepts the prof wants you to cover in the paper.
This prof is doing what profs do: pontificating. Lord love ‘em, but professors are notorious for giving more information than necessary or saying more than what needs saying, so do your best to boil the assignment down to the essentials with your highlighter:
Take note, these macro concepts are often suggestions, not commands. They are the prof telling you how to be impressive, clear, or to raise your grade through a demonstration of your wits and knowledge.
Your profs know when you don’t take time prewriting, and they know when you’re being wishy-washy or only reading to reinforce your opinion. This is your prof letting you know that.
Second, go micro. Go through and underline actionable items. These are the items that must be included in the paper for you to get a good grade. Usually they are very specific:
Clearly, if your paper uses first-person pronouns, it will irk the person giving you the grade—probably best to stay away from that. Also, you should be using scholarly research, which means no random Googling and picking the first things you ping.
Take a look at the first section of the assignment sheet. See where the prof tells you exactly what your paper should be?
Also, take a look at the section at the “Requirements” section. This paper better be formatted in a particular way!
Also, watch for specific requests about format changes and due dates. Circle them!
These are no-nonsense statements/compromises that the prof needs you to abide.
Why would a prof do this? Well, the answer is simple. Your profs aren’t trying to bust your chops (they do, in fact, have other things to do than make you miserable)—they’re trying to streamline the grading process. Imagine you have 75 papers to grade written by your 75 students.
Imagine just how much variation and diversity would occur between those 75 people and their papers if the prof left it all to chance—all of these students like different fonts, would cite things differently based on their preferences, and would hand in widely varied papers, at least doubling the time it would take to read those papers.
So, don’t you want to help that prof out? Make that prof love you by following these directions. If you follow the directions, this prof will direct their ire elsewhere.
Now that you understand why profs are such format sticklers, take a look at the rubric:
The rubric is a list of direct touch points that will be examined by the professor as they grade your work. Take note, they’re specific and they break down your potential performance. In this case, you can see five discrete categories, each with its own stakes, and the number value that corresponds to your performance:
The prof will take the rubric and keep it within reach while grading. Along with making notes on your paper, the prof will also check off your performance in each category—summarizing your performance in that category:
If you have a hundred-point paper, each one of these categories is worth 20 points. The prof will add up the categories and multiply that number by 4 to get your grade: 4 + 5 + 5 + 4 + 5 = 23 x 4 = 92.
To get an A on this paper, you have to perform with excellence in 3 categories and above average in at least 2 of the other categories.
Now you have a goal. Which three categories are you going to absolutely kill in?
At least one of them—formatting—is a gimmie. All it takes is attention to detail—Microsoft Word has all the tools you need to score perfectly there.
Focus on Development and Body Paragraphs for your other two. They’re simple—almost completely made of a thesis statement and transitions.
Now that you have that figured out, let’s move on to the next step: Crafting a reminder that you can revisit while you write.
4. Writing an Anchor Sentence
It might seem like a silly thing to do, but an anchor sentence is as vital as a thesis statement. It’s essentially a thesis statement for the paper writing process. With this sentence you will remind yourself about what the prof wants and how you’re going to give it to them.
– Summarize the Elements
It’s clear from the highlighting and underlining that the prof wants an argumentative paper that’s well-organized and thoughtful. Note that there is nothing about originality in this rubric.
The prof isn’t asking you to reinvent the wheel or come up with something that will change the field of Linguistics forever—they’re simply asking you to take some important ideas from your linguistics class and apply them to something that you like.
– Understand the Concept
It’s also clear that this prof wants you to synthesize the research in the field of linguistics, not conduct new research.
This goes back to the originality idea—demonstrate you’ve been listening and can apply the concepts of the class to the practices and concepts in another field of study or personal interest.
– Create the Anchor
Now that you have an idea of what’s needed, go ahead and write one or two sentences combining steps 1 and 2:
In this paper, I will demonstrate my understanding of a linguistic concept I learned this semester and how it relates to my field of study. I will demonstrate this knowledge by staying organized, using relevant research, and sticking to my thesis statement.
Yes, it seems a bit silly. But now you have an anchor. If you get stuck while writing, pull out this sentence and see where you’ve gone astray, or where you go to get back on track.
5. Assessing Your Gaps
You know what the prof wants, you know how you’re going to give it to them. Now all you need to know is where it could all fall off the rails. In this step, you name your strengths and weakness so you know exactly where you stand walking in.
It’s super-simple—all you do is answer two questions, making a list of two or three things for each:
- As a writer, I know I’m not so great at … developing a thesis, staying organized, and conducting research .
- As a writer, I know I’m great at … coming up with interesting ideas, articulating my thoughts clearly, and using good grammar .
Simple as that. Now all you need to do is play to those strengths and be cognizant of the weaknesses. You’re ready to move on to the next step, so get to it! Let’s talk about how to execute.
How do I Organize my Research Paper?
1. sit down.
Ernest Hemingway famously said that “the hardest part about writing is getting your ass in the chair.” And he’s absolutely correct. If you can sit down to write, you’ve got 90% of the work behind you already.
Completing this second step immediately—before you go to bed on the day you get the assignment—is essential to acing this paper.
That said, you should go back to your room, get out your calendar, and start looking at specific pockets of time in your days between when you’re assigned the paper and when the assignment is due.
Follow these tips when making the schedule:
Make the time non-negotiable
It will be tough, but don’t let friends or activities derail your schedule. Set the plan and execute, execute, execute—this is the only way to achieve the results you want.
Be specific about how you spend the time
When making the schedule, set completion goals so that the time isn’t open-ended. If your time is nebulous, you will be more likely to drop the ball. You’ve got a date with a chair and life-long learning.
Commit to the process
Keep in mind that one of the crucial ingredients of successful writing is time. You need time to think, research, and create. If you fail to acknowledge this, you will write a crumby paper every time.
You’re working toward something bigger
It can be easy to fixate on the trees at the expense of seeing the whole forest, so be sure to remember that what you’re doing is adding to your overall career. If the paper is good, you can use it as a writing sample or try to publish it, which will build your résumé. Resist the impulse to think of the paper as a hurdle.
Take advantage of support systems
You’re not writing in a vacuum—you have academic support at your fingertips, as well as friends who are in the same boat. Make an appointment with the writing center to get a semi-professional set of eyes, and had that paper to a friend for quick notes.
2. Get Organized
Your next step is to organize your time. You’re going to fill out an hour or two of work each day, accounting for other classes, social engagements, and priority requirements.
Make a specific tab for your paper, and fill in the times you can work:
The most important part about this is that you’re specific —setting tangible completion goals for each work session. Most of your sessions should be no more than an hour or two, but some activities—like research—might need to be a bit longer:
If you notice, most of your writing time will be spent on the front end—creating the first draft of the paper. This is because everything after that will be revisionary.
Don’t forget to find your revision buddy, and make an appointment at the writing center!
If you stick to this schedule, you will not only complete your paper on time, you will complete it well. Every writer on the planet will tell you that the schedule is the foundation of good writing—the more time you spend in the chair, the better the writing gets.
How do I Come Up with Ideas for a Paper?
So you’ve completed the first two steps before bed on the day your assigned the paper, now comes the tough stuff. It will, however, be a bit easier now that you know exactly what your prof wants and you’ve got a schedule in place.
To generate ideas, you’ve got a few options. Free writing is often popular, but it can be really time consuming, and also not particularly helpful for research papers. As well, some profs advise talking it out with a friend, which can be distracting.
But you don’t have much time, so you want to focus and narrow your ideas—it’s essential to success. The best method for this is mapping. Mapping is a technique that allows you to freely record your ideas in a logical manner.
Mapping will give you strong guiding questions as well as demonstrate how your ideas are connected, which is super useful for writing a long research paper. Mapping looks something like this:
Note that the ideas get more specific the further away they are from the center topic. As well, note that they’re written as interrogatives—questions stimulate thought. Circle the ones that are most specific and uses them for your paper.
Pro tip: One simple angle that always seems to work is “how is your subject different, altered, or effected by technology and the contemporary trappings of the 21 st century?” You can apply this concept to every paper you will write in college.
So, apply your field of study, your interests, or something topical to the subject. Let’s say you’re studying to be a teacher and are interested in ESL students—that’s a lens every topic and question in this list can be examined through. Here are some ideas based upon that…
- Language acquisition: How can new technologies help second language learners learn English faster?
- Pragmatics: How do ESL students understand pragmatics in English contexts?
- Universal Grammar: How does an ESL student learn to transition from one language to another?
- Phonetics: How can ESL students learn English sounds more effectively?
Out of the above, which sounds like it has the most juice? Probably number one. Even without doing any Googling, it seems evident that there will be research in this area that you can draw from. As well, you can rely on non-technical, non-academic observation to give you better ideas—you can use your experience to shape your subject matter. So go with number 1.
Now, plug the subject into Wikipedia to get an overview of what the subject is.
Ctrl + F to search the page and look for key words, like technology
No shock that there’s a whole section on Wikipedia to get you going. Take a look at these specific ideas that you can use in your research phase:
Click the numbered hypertext to see resources. Looks like 23-26 will be helpful:
And look, you can scroll to the bottom of the page to get a jump on specific articles to use in your research. As well, 51 mentions your keyword!
Now that you know—on a very general level—what’s happening in the field, you can get going on making your thesis and outline.
How do I Write a Thesis Statement?
With our tutorial on writing a thesis statement, you will see thesis examples, ways to craft a thesis sentence, and how to organize your paper around a thesis statement. First, you’ll need a decent grasp of your topic. Second, you will need specific examples to write about. Third, you will need to organize those three items effectively. And, fourth, you will need to make an outline.
For this step-by-step tutorial of thesis examples, we’re going to break things down for super efficiency so you can create the backbone of the paper.
The writing of the thesis is broken into four parts. Master these and the paper will be a cinch.
1. Creating the Topic Overview
The first step to creating a successful thesis statement is generating a concise overview of the topic at hand. In this case, technology and the ESL classroom is the topic upon which the paper is based. So the first portion of your thesis should be a generalized statement that describes the imperatives which make your paper relevant.
Begin by making a list of why you think your paper topic is relevant. In this case, we could say that…
– technology use inside and outside the classroom has increased in the past decade.
– students use their phones in class, which is a distraction to learning.
– social media interaction is now just as important to most students as face-to-face interaction.
– students are often taken from the expansive digital world outside of the classroom and are bored in a classroom with walls.
– student learning is increasingly social and communal in nature, as opposed to being delivered by an expert.
Now, let’s take those ideas and try to make them into one sentence:
Teachers who refuse to use technology in the classroom are not engaging their students and are disregarding their students’ natural ways of learning and their social needs.
Sounds pretty good, eh? Yep! Now, let’s punch up that language a bit, so we can sound a bit smarter:
Teachers who do not embrace technology in their classes risk losing students to academic boredom, not to mention that they will be perceived by their students as tedious and irrelevant. This is because technology and sociability aren’t extracurricular—students’ lives are increasingly technology oriented and social in nature in ways that weren’t around years ago.
Oh! Even better! But there are still some simple things we can do to punch up the language, like use Word’s synonyms function by right-clicking:
Be careful as you do this—sometimes the tool can be a bit off since it can’t improvise well for word forms. But go through word by word and tighten, change, and you’ll get this:
That sounds great, doesn’t it? With adding then subtracting, expanding then consolidating, moving from the general to the specific, you can craft an overview to be used in the thesis. Also, note the use of old tricks, like opposing vocabulary (extracurricular v. intercurricular) which heighten the rhetoric.
So, check the rubric—did we hit any goals? Yep! See Development, Language and vocabulary, and Sentence structure!
2. Constructing the Specifics
Now that you’ve nailed down the overview, switch gears into getting really narrow. Here, you’re going to identify three solutions to the issue that you presented in the crafting of the overview.
While these things will be more specific than the previous section, they aren’t going to be hyper-specific, but broad enough to act as a reference points for the rest of the paper.
The problem presented was that instructors take away learning tools from students and replace them with less interesting forms of learning and stop social interaction with the classroom. As well, instructors give little attention to technology-based learning tools as an avenue for education.
How can this problem be fixed? Teachers should…
– Leverage technology to get students talking about work when not in class
– Integrate unconventional technologies in class (like iPhones)
– Make technology use a classroom priority
Now, take those things and combine them into a single statement:
ESL instructors should make using technology a priority of education, both inside and outside the classroom.
But, let’s try massage it a bit more, like the last one. Let’s try to keep our triad of ideas intact, that way we can make at least three different sections to the paper:
ESL instructors should try to increase digital interactions between students outside of class, use digital technology inside of class, and make digital avenues of education a learning priority.
Pretty good, but we can make it sound even more academic. Again, use the Word synonym function, and try to bring out the parallel structure even more:
3. Crafting the Thesis Sentences
We’re so close to being done with the thesis! All we need now is to connect the two sentences together with some kind of sentence, transitional phrase, or conjunction. In this case (as with almost everything in writing, actually) keep it simple:
Some of you are saying “Hey! Wait a sec! You can’t begin a sentence with because !” In fact, you can. You’ve been lied to if that’s what you think.
Many teachers tell students this because it prevents them from writing incomplete thoughts, or writing sloppily, but it’s totally street legal and, in this case, quite stylish as a prepositional phrase. So use it with abandon, so long as you complete the sentence!
Now, check the rubric again!—clarity of the argument, arguable thesis, and well-organized ideas! Check and check and check! You’re killing it.
You have a thesis!
4. Make an Outline
From there, you can also build your outline, and break up your potential sources, like so:
Introduction/Hook (Engaging anecdote to transition you into the thesis)
Part 1 (first portion of the thesis)
– 3-4 sources
Part 2 (second portion of the thesis
Part 3 (third portion of the thesis)
Conclusion/Charge (Wrapping up, charging the reader to make a change)
It’s really just that simple. And, to top it all off, you now have three areas of research to focus on!
Now that we’ve got that square, let’s move on to some techniques for transitioning between ideas.
How do I Create a Transition?
Often students writing long, research-based papers struggle with smoothly connecting the related ideas within the paper. This isn’t uncommon, and—good news—is easily fixed! There are three simple steps. First, you must identify the relationship between the two ideas. Second, you must craft a transition. And, third, you must be careful of potential pitfalls.
1. Determine the Relationship
Let’s say you have this paragraph to open the first section of your Linguistics paper:
You need to get from that really broad idea to a much simpler idea: that people from different cultures have trouble communicating, or—as it’s written in the paper, this:
See how jarring the logical jump is from the broad statement to the specific assertion? Take a look at the two statements together, as they are color coded—red being broad, blue being specific:
You need something between them to link them logically together and to help the reader make the leap with you, so you’ll need to make a sentence to go between them—one that embodies both the broad and the specific together.
Take a look at this, which logically fills in the gap for the reader, so that the reader doesn’t have to fill in the gaps themselves:
Now give it a read all together:
2. Make the Connections
– the author identified the relationship.
It’s clear here that people’s abilities to communicate define their cultural importance. This idea is loosely connected to another idea the author is writing toward—that those unique cultural differences are often the culprit for communication breakdown.
The author sees that the relationship is one of contrasts, so they try to name the contrast to create a connection in the transition—the green text is the merging of contrasts:
– The author crafted the transition
Using a really simple, but subtle writing skill, this author used word choice to make deeper connections between the sentences. See the color coded portions:
The phrases “existing in the world” and “shared paradigm” mean almost the same thing. As do the phrases “mutual conventions” and “cultural overlap.” The author is essentially re-saying what was just previously stated, but in a more specific way or with different vocabulary. Not how the ideas from each paragraph come together in the transition.
– The author is careful not to fall into traps
In a paper, it’s easy to use simple transition words— therefore, consequently, etc. There is nothing wrong with a transition word here and there, but they are very easy to overuse. Most blogs, like this one , this one , and this one make using transition words an important part of this process.
And it is, sort of, but we’re teaching you how to do this better than average, remember?
You’re trying to ace this paper, which means you have to do a little extra and move past the things that all students can do into things that exceptional students do.
The elegant transition based on nuanced vocabulary is an exceptional student move. Check it against the rubric: readability/unity, logical/seamless transitions, demonstration of knowledge through word choice, vocab, and logical thought—you got it! Bam!
How Do I Edit My Paper?
After you’ve filled in your outline and placed some of your research into your paper, you will have completed first draft. This is more than most students have when they hand in a paper. The editing portion has five steps: First, you revise to tighten and clarify. Second, you edit for grammar, usage, and mechanics. Third, you give a clean copy to a friend and visit academic support. Fourth, you do your final read through to clean things up. And, fifth, recheck the paper against the rubric.
Remember when you were one of those foolish plebes handing in a paper you wrote hours before it was due and hope for an C? Aren’t you glad you know better now?
You’ve finished your preliminary draft and now you need to get it looking sexy for your prof. There are two ways to do this—revising and editing.
– Revising comes first. Revising is when you literally re-vision the piece. You make big changes—fix transitions or pieces research alongside organization and structure.
– Editing comes second. Editing is making small changes to the piece—correcting the grammar, usage, and mechanics, changing the diction to alter the tone a bit.
These terms aren’t interchangeable, though many people make mistakes and use them interchangeably.
Step 1: Revise
After you have finished that paper, it’s important to go back and make large-scale changes. You aren’t going to change the bedrock of the paper—the thesis and the research to go along with it—but you are going to change things that make the paper flow, like smoothing out the transitions, evening out the structure and order of the paragraphs, and make sure all the ideas link together naturally.
This is also a time to add ideas to the basic premise of each section or to eliminate tangents that you may have followed in the heat of the moment. Add what must be added and cut out anything that doesn’t need to be there. Some common things to look for:
– Paragraphs have a logical unfolding order
– Rambling, overly long sentences
– All sections echo back to the thesis
– Appropriate, academic tone
– Engaging to reader
– Claims contain evidence and support
– Transitions are clear
– All ideas are fully developed
– Adding section headings
– Introduction and conclusion serve thesis well
Step 2: Edit
Now that the paper is set, your job is to go through and tighten all the sentences, make changes to word choice (remember Word’s synonym function), and correct and errors in grammar or punctuation that you find. Some common things to look for:
- – Eliminate contractions
- – Comma/semi-colon use
- – Spelling errors
- – Clear pronoun reference
- – Format specific (italics, bolds, etc.)
- – Quotation rules obeyed
- – Apostrophes for plurals and possessives
- – Easily confused words ( too, to , and two )
- – Misplaced or dangling modifiers
- – Incomplete sentences
Pro reading tip: While you’re re-reading for your edits, it might be good to move through the paper backwards, that way you can disorient yourself a little and catch more mistakes. Start with the last sentence, then read the second to last sentence, and so on until you get to the first sentence.
Step 3: Review
Next, you’re ready to give this paper to other people for them to examine. First, find a friend you trust and share the paper with them. Next, make an appointment with the campus writing center. With both of these reviews, hand over this set of questions for your reviewers to answer:
- Summarize the main points of this paper in your own words.
- Is the thesis clear and focused, does it fit well with the introduction?
- Is the end of the paper effective? Does it summarize the content well and invite the reader to action?
- Has the argument of the paper been fully addressed?
- Are there any places where the analysis in the paper falls short or is incomplete?
- Are the transitions fluid and succinct? Are there are jarring jumps between ideas?
- Is the research well integrated to the paper? Is there a good balance between my voice and the voices of my sources?
- Do you see any inconsistencies with grammar, usage, or mechanics?
Your reviewer can answer these directly with by talking it out, or offer suggestions by making notes. Once you have this feedback, make the suggested changes you feel make sense.
Step 4: Last Pass
You’ve done so much work and you’re almost complete! You have one more important step: download the Natural Reader Pro app . This app will cost you $10 and is well worth the price. Natural Reader reads documents, PDFs, and websites to you in a range of speeds and voices so that you can hear your paper as it is written, not as you wish it was written.
Print out your paper, fire up Natural Reader, and follow along. Mark any spots that don’t feel right and correct any final mistakes.
Step 5. Check the Rubric
At this point, it might seem like it’s over the top with all the excellent work you just finished. But take one moment to look at the rubric one last time. And the assignment sheet, too.
Ask yourself honestly: Did I fulfill these requirements?
Based on all the work you did above, it’s very unlikely that you didn’t nail the assignment. Unless there are any glaring errors, you’re finished!
Print that sucker out and hand it in! You’re done! Get ready to see a bump in your GPA!
We hope you’ve enjoyed this College Choice tutorial on writing the perfect research paper. Stay tuned for more tutorials on all things related to thriving in college.
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200 Easy Research Paper Topics for College Students in 2021
Writing research papers is a must-do step in any educational process at college. In many cases, professors allow students to be creative with choosing a topic to complete this type of academic assignment. This privilege usually sounds great at first glance. However, thousands of learners might feel overwhelmed with a wide choice of interesting research topics they can find online.
The truth is that you can easily get lost in countless research paper topics available on different websites. Moreover, exploring and narrowing down the solutions for your essay might appear too challenging. The reason is that many research topics for college available online are outdated or contain too broad concepts for the research. To make your investigation process easier, we’ve collected a list of 200 new and innovative topics for composing an impressive research essay, presentation, or report. No worries if you have little writing experience or creativity - this guide will help you choose a fresh solution for your assignments in no time.
How to Choose Research Study Ideas for College Students
If the professor gives you complete freedom to pick up a topic, we have good news for you. Now, you can select a field or niche according to your individual preferences and background knowledge! There is no need to compose a boring paper that will make you yawn during the entire writing process. However, make sure you follow some basic rules of choosing good research paper topics below.
Stick to Your Favorite Topic
Are you fond of cars? Feel free to research the benefits and drawbacks of electric automobiles. Can’t imagine your life without sports? Explore the dope issue in professional sports. The key to developing a successful paper is to write about the topic that makes you feel excited. If you write about something you show zero interest in, the process will likely slow down and become more challenging. Therefore, always try to find something inspiring.
Choose Understandable Solutions
Many students are interested in modern technologies or space exploration. However, writing on these topics requires having advanced knowledge in the corresponding areas. Still, few learners can boast of having a deep understanding of artificial intelligence, computer programming, or space technologies. That is why it is better to look for easier and more comprehensive topics to write about. As a result, you will reduce the amount of time for research and cope with the college task faster.
Make Sure You Will Find Enough Information
When choosing ideas for a research paper, you need to make sure there are at least several reliable sources you can use for researching. The fact is that if you pick a truly out-of-the-box solution, you might fail to find enough relevant information about it. The same rule works for outdated topics. In case you select a played-out idea, you will hardly find new and up-to-date sources to support your idea. Here is a little hint for you: if you are looking for the relevant information for a chosen idea but fail to find anything suitable, it is better to change your topic.
Look for Clear and Understandable Concepts and Issues
When searching for the best research paper topics, don’t forget to think about your audience. What does it mean? The fact is that it is necessary to pick up a solution that is completely understandable for both you and the readers. In other words, avoid sticking to extremely difficult or complex topics that might make your audience feel confused. In case you use some specific terms in your paper that might be unfamiliar to the common reader, it is better to explain them briefly.
Try to Be Specific
Picking up too broad topics for research papers is one of the most common mistakes of hundreds of students. To avoid this issue, it is better to stay away from too general solutions that can be described from dozens of sides. Otherwise, you might go down in tons of diverse data and arguments you can use for your paper. Being precise and choosing only the most powerful facts are among the features of any successful student.
Look For Something Unique
Picking up topics for a research paper some of your classmates are also writing about is never the best choice. It is better to select an idea you will be able to describe from an unusual perspective. If you prefer to cover simple and comprehensive topics, it will be great to try an innovative approach to describing facts. However, don’t experiment with the paper’s structure and focus on providing exclusive and original arguments only. The best research academic papers are intriguing and inspiring.
Be In Trend
There is nothing new that trendy topics attract more attention from the audience. The reason is that they have a huge unexplored potential and amazing research opportunities. If you pick up an emerging topic, you will likely get higher grades for your academic assignment.
Simple Research Topics: Education
If you are still wondering which idea is the best one for composing your research paper, it might be good to write about education . The truth is that this topic is one of the easiest to write about. Moreover, you will effortlessly find countless relevant sources to support your ideas related to education. Feel free to grab one of these handy solutions you can put into practice when writing your academic paper.
- Are Standardized Tests Good to Evaluate the Student’s Knowledge?
- How to Make Education More Accessible for Students With Disabilities?
- Should Tuition Become Free at All Colleges in the United States?
- How Can Schools and Colleges Support International Students?
- Becoming a Student and a Successful Businessman: Is It Possible?
- The Impact of COVID-19 Pandemic on the Education Sector
- The Benefits of Social Networking at College and University
- The Innovations in the Education System of the United States
- Is It Possible to Start Building a Career During Studies?
- How Can Schools Stop Violence Among Students?
- Should American Learners Have a “Gap Year”?
- The Analysis of the Finnish Education System
- Homeschooling vs. Learning in the Classroom
- British vs. American Education Systems
- The Teaching Technologies of the Future
- Should College Students Have a Part-Time Job?
- Is There Any Discrimination at High Schools?
- Should Schools Have Sexual Education Lessons?
- Most Common Issues of Bilingual Education
- Why Do Students Need to Learn Religion at School?
- How to Stop Cheating on Exams
- Student Loans: Pros and Cons
- The Pros and Cons of Same-Sex Classrooms
- The Development of Women’s Right to Education
- Montessori Method: Advantages and Drawbacks
- Effective Ways to Improve the Quality of Teaching
- How Can the Issue of “Useless Classes” Be Solved?
- Should Colleges Become Business-Driven?
- How to Improve Modern Elementary Education?
- Should School Children Wear Uniforms?
- How to Stop Hazing at High Schools?
Unique Research Topics on Health
To put it short, these solutions remain topical among young learners for years. If you would like to select a comprehensive and brilliant solution for your research paper, choosing topics related to health might help you finish your essay fast. What to research? Here is a list of ideas you can start writing about right now.
- The Impact of Drugs on the Human Body
- How to Stop Consuming Too Much Junk Food?
- How Much Fruit and Vegetables Should a Common Student Consume per Day?
- The Correlation Between Mood and the Health of the Immune System
- Is It Possible to Stop the COVID-19 Spread in All Countries?
- Why Do Many Girls Suffer From Anorexia During Their Studies?
- The Mental Issues of the Most Well-Known Criminals
- The Impact of Classical Music on Overall Well-Being
- Main Reasons for Facing Serious Allergies
- The Importance of Regular Health Screenings
- Ways to Prevent Serious Mental Diseases
- Kids’ Vaccination: Advantages and Risks
- Birth Control Issues in Developed Countries
- The Impact of Breastfeeding on the Kids’ Health
- The Impact of Insomnia on the Quality of Life
- Most Effective Ways to Control Obesity
- Top Reasons to Consume More Fats Regularly
- Artificial Vitamins: Should Everyone Consume Them?
- The Role of Nutrition for Maintaining Brain Health
- How to Decrease Stress Levels of Teenagers
- The Pros and Cons of Reconstructive Surgery
- Acupuncture: The Hidden Health Benefits
- The Most Important Aspects of Neonatal Nutrition
- Impact of Emotional Stability on Human Health
- Uncommon Solutions to Improve Short-Term Memory
- Should Elementary Schools Have Homework?
- The Psychology of Gifted People
- Top Issues of Cardiovascular Care
- How to Keep Your Brain Healthy
- The Impact of Sports on Human Health
- The Future of Natural Medicine
- New Strategies for Coma Recovery
- Basic Rules of Sun Safety
- The Dangers of Low-Fat Diets
- The Future of Antibiotics Therapies
- Pros and Cons of Dietary Supplements
- Non-Medical Cancer Treatments
- Most Effective Ways to Make Your Brain Work Harder
- Religion and Health
- Benefits of Swimming
- Eating Disorders
Easy Research Paper Topics: Environment
If you would like to follow the path of Greta Thunberg, it might be good to start your way with composing papers related to environment protection and ecology. Explore the main issues in this field and come up with an impressive research paper in a matter of a couple of hours.
- The Main Dangers of Air Pollution
- Greenhouse Effect: Myths vs. Reality
- Ways to Stop Marine Pollution
- Advantages and Drawbacks of Using Pesticides in Agriculture
- GMO Products vs. Organic Food
- The Importance of “Green Programs” in Developing Countries
- The Problem of Radioactive Waste Disposal
- Should Environmental Regulations Become Stricter?
- Is the Problem of Global Warming Exaggerated?
- The Problem of Water Deficit in Developing Countries
- Ways to Protect Endangered Wildlife
- How Can an Individual Help Save an Environment?
- Why Should Children Learn About Global Warming?
- The Advantages of Solar Technologies
- The Main Dangers of Producing Too Much Plastic
- How to Start Using Eco-Friendly Products?
- The Changes in the Climate of Earth in the 21st Century
- The Analysis of the Deforestation Levels in South America
- How to Improve Access to Clean Water in All Countries Globally?
- Is It Possible to Manage Overpopulation?
- The Prospects of Nuclear Energy
Interesting Topics to Research: Technology and Media
Modern technologies are developing at a breakneck speed. The new solutions, apps, and approaches revolutionize different industries and elevate the quality of lives of millions of people. If you choose a nice solution about innovation and computing for your essay, you will definitely have a chance to attract the attention of the audience. Top research papers topics ideas are right here below!
- The Possible Ways to Develop Artificial Intelligence Systems
- How Will Smartphones Change in the Near Future?
- The Benefits of Cloud Solutions in Storing Data
- Top Areas to Use Drone Technologies
- Ecommerce Solutions vs. Local Retailers
- Online Currencies and Their Impact on the Global Financial System
- How to Avoid the Dangers of the Dark Web?
- Will Self-Driving Cars Become Common in the Future?
- Privacy Issues Online
- The Future of Blogging
- Online vs. Offline Communication
- Will People Colonize Mars?
- Nanomedicine: Myths and Realities
- Online Payments and Paper Money
- Breaking the Sound Barrier
- Is Social Media a New Technology?
- Technologies That Might Impact Human Behavior
- Safest Ways to Store Information in the 21st Century
- How Do Modern Technologies Allow People to Work From Home?
- The Impact of Modern Technologies on Globalization
- The Perspectives of Online Gaming
- The Impact of Advertisements on Kids and Teens
- Newest Technologies Used in Surgery
- Internet Addiction and the Ways to Prevent It
- Censorship Control
Top Solutions Related to Business and Economy
Many students are looking for research papers topics for college-related to the economy, e-commerce, and business. If you are one of them, explore this ultimate list of the newest ideas related to these popular spheres.
- Most Effective Ways to Improve the Economy of the Developed Countries
- How to Start Your Business in E-Commerce
- Modern Ways to Manage Inflation
- How to Fight Poverty and Hunger
- The Role of Taxes in the Modern Economy
- How Did Industrialization Change the World?
- International Tourism During the Pandemic Times
- Industries That Were Impacted by the COVID-19 Crisis
- The Correlation Between Culture and Economic Growth
- How Can Immigration Impact the Country’s Economy?
- The Global Pandemic and Employment Rates
- Role of a Leader in Modern Business
- Choosing the Best Work Environment
- The Impact of Corporate Culture on the Employment Rate
- How to Set Up Effective Business Links?
- The Most Common Issue of Taxation of Small Businesses
- The Advantages of a Four-Day Workweek
- How to Stop Discrimination at the Workplace?
- Drawbacks of Using Unethical Business Practices
- Social Media Ads to Promote Small Businesses
- How to Improve the Effectiveness of a Human Resource Department?
- Why Do Companies Attract International Investors?
- Most Effective Types of Business Models
- How to Become More Competitive in a Chosen Market?
- Government Regulations and Business
- Basic Reasons to Increase the Minimum Wage in the United States
- Most Promising Business Ideas for the Near Future
Hot Topics for Research Paper: Family and Communication
Family is an essential part of our lives. How to set up healthy family relationships? What is the role of parents in raising children? Feel free to use any of these ideas for your research paper. By the way, good research topics related to communication are also collected in this paragraph.
- Marital Rape and Its Impact on the Personality
- Impact of Divorce on Kids and Teens
- How to Stop Abusive Relationships?
- How to Make Your Children Happier?
- Effective Ways to Solve Conflicts in Families
- How to Improve Communication Between Siblings?
- Role of Grandparents in Raising Children
- Lack of Communication Between Family Members
- Why Do Children Kill Abusive Parents?
- The Impact of Parents’ Depression on Their Children
- Happy Childhood and Leadership
- Advantages of Having a Big Family
- Drugs and Alcoholism in Modern Families
- Impact of Home Life on Child Development
- Do All Children Need to Respect Their Parents?
- The Criticism of Freud’s Theories
- Important Parental Rights
- Gender Roles in the Family
- Basic Family Values
- Domestic Abuse
Easy and Interesting Research Paper Topics
Many students face difficulties when choosing an idea for composing an academic paper. If you are not good at writing on education, health, business, or family relationships, it might be great to search for something more exciting. Here is a list of diverse topics you might find good-looking.
- The Role of International Health Organizations in Modern Society
- Corporate and Business Laws: Most Common Issues
- Why Do Many People Watch TV Shows and Series?
- Future of Chinese Economy
- The Future of Video Streaming Services
- Women’s Rights in the Modern World
- How to Support Global Peacekeeping
- Gender Stereotypes in Advertising
- Classical Hollywood Cinema
- Landmark Court Decisions
- Possible Ways to Use 3d Printers
- Portrayals of Superheroes in Movies
- Cannabis Legalization: Pros and Cons
- Should Companies Stop Animal Testing?
- Criminalizing Protests
- Socialism vs. Capitalism
- How Has Feminism Changed Over the Years?
- Origins of Racial Discrimination
- Should Modern People Read More?
- Top Effective Promotion Solutions for Startups
- Crowdfunding & Outsourcing
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Top Tips to Writing a Winning Research Paper
Picking up an excellent topic is only about 20% of the job you need to do to compose a flawless research paper. What’s next? Are there any prompts that might help you finish your assignment in no time? Sure! Our experts are ready to share some secrets on composing fantastic essays within the shortest terms.
Double-Check the Professor’s Instructions
The secret truth is that there are many types of research papers you might face during your studies. Consequently, these papers might have different requirements and writing rules you need to follow. How to find out how to compose your essay? The easiest way to discover all details is to read the instructions shared by the professor. Although it is a must step all students need to do before they start writing, many learners often forget about this easy rule. By the way, what information can you find in the college writing instructions? As a rule, you will find these types of data:
- deadlines for completing assignments;
- formatting styles;
- the tone of voice you need to use;
- assignment goals;
- length specifications;
- list of topics;
- key features for your writing;
- submission method;
- most common mistakes you need to avoid.
It is recommended to read the instructions at least a couple of times to make sure you understand all the requirements and specifications of your research paper. Avoid starting to write your essay before you’ve learned its basic rules.
Many students are very confident about their research and writing skills. Therefore, thousands of learners still believe they can effortlessly develop a top-notch research paper in just a couple of hours. However, even professional writers can’t compose a superior 3000-word essay in just an hour.
Therefore, it is vital to be realistic when setting up your individual deadlines and creating writing schedules to cope with your academic assignments. Even if you choose current research topics that are incredibly easy to write about, you will still need to do advanced research, choose trustworthy sources, and pick up the most impressive arguments for your paper. All these tasks might take you plenty of time.
It is also not recommended to write research papers at the last moment. First, you might fail to meet the deadline. Second, you might easily come up with poor quality writing because of being unattentive. Third, you will hardly have enough time to proofread and edit your essay. Fourth, when in a hurry, you might copy and paste data from different sources into your paper. This will inevitably lead to extremely high plagiarism levels. All these issues might lead to receiving low grades for your academic assignment.
Follow the Rules
There are many writing rules you will need to follow. However, the basic one is to choose a traditional structure of an academic paper. In other words, your research paper will need to have an introduction, body paragraphs, and the conclusion. Avoid being creative when choosing the structure of your paper - it is the worst place for showing off your innovation. If you would like to stand out from the crowd of other learners, it is better to select an out-of-the-box topic for your assignment.
Proofread and Edit Your Paper
Many students are so tired of doing the research and writing that they often forget to proofread their papers. However, this is an important step in completing any type of academic assignment. If you proofread your essay, you can easily detect dozens of inconsistencies, mistakes, and typos. Moreover, you can also find some repetitive phrases, sentences, or facts in your paper. All these issues can drastically worsen your quality of writing. Even if you are sure your writing is 100% excellent, make sure to proofread it before passing it to the professor.
Plagiarism is a true nightmare of any diligent student. How to avoid this serious issue when composing your academic paper? First, make sure to share the results of your analysis uniquely and uncommonly. Second, use citations carefully. Third, check your essay for plagiarism online! You can find dozens of plagiarism detecting tools and utilities designed for students on many websites. Feel free to use a couple of solutions to make sure your essay is fresh and original. If you suddenly find out your paper has a high plagiarism level, make sure to make significant modifications and be more original. After that, double-check your essay once again.
The Best Way to Get a Perfect Research Paper
There are plenty of important research topics you can use in your academic writing. But what if you’ve chosen a great idea but fail to compose a unique and flawless paper? Is there any solution if you don’t have enough time to meet the professor's deadline? Sure!
Thousands of students fail to deliver college or university assignments on time. The reasons for this issue might significantly vary. Some learners are not skilled writers, while others might not have a deep understanding of the chosen field. Moreover, many students are trying to build careers or dedicate all their free time to sports. Anyway, failure to meet deadlines might worsen the student’s academic performance and other problems related to studies. The good news is that you can avoid facing all these issues!
Our professional writers are always ready to help you complete any type of research paper within the shortest terms. You don’t need to provide any reasons for asking for writing help - we understand the students’ pain and can provide you with pro assistance anytime. Just place an order on our website, choose the deadline, and forget about all your learning issues. You will get a perfectly written academic paper right when you need it. We have thousands of happy customers and impressive guarantees, so you can always trust our service. We value each customer and always deliver superior papers to each of our clients.
Ultimate List of 265 Research Topics for College Students
How often do you freeze up after receiving an assignment to write a research paper? We know how tough it can be, particularly in a flood of possible research topics for students. Choosing that one idea from plenty of research proposal topics for college students is the foremost step in any academic project.
Lack of inspiration? We made an ultimate list of research topics for college students. You will find art, biology, social science, education, and even more fun research topics for college students. Don’t scour the tons of outdated or dull topics anymore. A much better alternative would be to look at essay examples instead.
What’s more, we prepared three main steps to start converting the chosen topic into a successful research paper. Besides, we will dispel any uncertainty in research importance.
Is Research Important?
- Art Research Topics
- Biology Research Topics
- Educational Topics
- Environmental Topics
Gender Research Topics
- Law Research Topics
Literature Research Topics
- Music Research Topics
- Psychology Topics
- Religion Research Topics
- Science Research Topics
- Social Science Topics
Sports Research Paper Topics
How to start a research paper, top 10 research topics for college students:.
- Human impact on biodiversity loss
- Internet’s effect on freedom of speech
- Is isolation a cause of child abuse?
- Negative effect of pop culture trends on youth
- Pros and cons of free education
- Is AI a threat to humans?
- The impact of modern technology on ecology
- Can nuclear power be safe?
- Economic impact of GMO food
- Negative effect of climate change on economy
Before getting into the importance of research, let’s understand what kind of work it is.
Research is an analysis aimed at discovering of new facts or revising existing theories. It consists of several steps. The most common are:
- Research methodology setting
- Research problem statement
- Data extraction and gathering
- Assessment of the gathered data
- Conclusions summarizing
What Are the Purposes of Research?
The intentions are countless, but here are the general ones:
✨ to accept or reject a hypothesis; ✨ to gather information on a phenomenon or subject; ✨ to initiate further research or to “dig deeper.”
Why Is It important?
Research makes our life easier. The underlying cause of new discoveries is to understand how things work. If we acquire that data, we’ll know how to get practical value out of it.
Think of Maslow’s hierarchy of needs. As we meet our deficiency needs, its level grows. At the same time, the demand for new knowledge increases. That is why discovering new is a never-ending process.
That is all clear. But you may ask: why do I need research skills in my day-to-day life?
After graduation, you will most likely still need research skills at work. No matter what the industry is. Either you decided to excel in science or form a hi-tech startup. If you want to achieve success, you should have strong research skills.
All in all, having research skills is one of the core elements of personal and social growth. It helps to generate additional findings or set new questions around existing knowledge.
Now let’s move on to the list of research topics.
Art Research Paper Topics
We’ll start from the study area, which is difficult to measure. We talk about art. For some, it may seem easier to study than exact sciences. But still, the number of questions about various genres, forms, and art styles is beyond imagination.
Why should we not overestimate the importance of studying art ?
Art is not just something for connoisseurs. It has always been and still is vital for the whole of society. What affected humanity’s development? Of course, the way people express their everyday life or feelings through art.
Besides, thanks to art, we can see things from different perspectives. It makes us open-minded and helps to develop critical thinking. And, most apparently, art fills our lives with beauty and elegance.
Art is so diverse that students may struggle to choose from a myriad of research areas. Here are some of the hottest art research paper topics for you:
- The influence of the internet and social networks on art.
- Researching of Greek mythological painting.
- The comparison of modern art in the United States and Europe.
- The representation of art in Lars von Trier’s films.
- The influence of African-American cultural heritage on modern American art.
- What are the features of contemporary art ?
- Frida Khalo and her sources of inspiration.
- The role of Kazimir Malevich in abstract art development.
- Art in the early renaissance and today’s European society .
- Art therapy techniques: what are they and are they effective?
- The difference of women’s representation in ancient and modern art .
- Comparative analysis of modern and classic cubism .
- The history and main features of abstract expressionism .
- The relationship between art and globalization .
- The influence of art on the fashion industry in Japan.
Biology Research Topics for College Students
Let’s move on to biology. This science deals with vital processes of living organisms. We’ve gathered a list of topics from different biology fields. You’ll find essay ideas from the fields of botany and zoology to genetics.
Research in biology has one distinctive feature. It is the use of research lab equipment. If you don’t use it and base your research on other sources — make sure they are credible.
What are the attributes of a research paper in biology?
Molecular biology, cellular, and other categories of biology imply accurate measurements. There is no place for mistakes here. Otherwise, the relevance of research results would be insignificant. A researcher should be scrupulous in calculations and statements.
So, feel free to pick up any topics from the list below. Study them thoroughly!
- The impact of global warming on marine life.
- Extensive research of photosynthesis aspects and functions.
- Thyroid hormones and their impact on the female body.
- DNA structure, modifications, and genetic disorders .
- Is it ethical to test cosmetics on animals ?
- The ability of living organisms to adapt to changing environments.
- The need for the protection of rare and endangered species .
- The role of sustainability in biology.
- Advantages and disadvantages of organic farming .
- The role of neurobiology in artificial intelligence development.
- The discovery and impact of Darwin’s theory .
- The discovery, history, and importance of vaccination .
- The role of microbes and microbiology in health .
- Neurobiology and its association with emotional trauma .
- Biology: mechanical signals regulating development .
- Cultural variations in environment and biology: AIDS .
- A review of the ecology and biology of the whale shark.
- Performance and quality assessment of methods for detection of point mutations.
- Optical imaging techniques in cell biology .
- Computational methods in molecular biology .
Educational Research Topics for Students
What can be trickier than studying how to study? Education research papers evolve at a rapid pace as the world changes every day. That is why new techniques and approaches are in demand.
No other discipline will answer the milestone questions as well as education. And the most important is about human nature.
What can make a precious contribution to society? The definite answer is — driving innovations in studying .
Want to remain in history as an author of a revolutionary breakthrough? Explore educational research paper topics for college students:
- Language distribution issues in bilingual schooling .
- Critical thinking as the primary goal of the educational process.
- Role-playing games as a learning tool .
- Pay-for-performance scheme for teachers .
- Moving from compliance to performance-based schools .
- Bilingual learning: advantages and disadvantages.
- Educational approaches in retrospective.
- Aspects of multicultural educational practices .
- The importance of inclusivity in teaching .
- Popular modern educational techniques: a comparison.
- Arithmetical problem-solving difficulties .
- Learning methods for blind children.
- The role of technology in lesson planning .
- Role-playing as an educational practice.
- The need for parents’ involvement in the educational process.
- Tools to develop the best teaching strategy .
- The efficiency of gamification .
- Individual approach to students.
- Popular educational mobile apps.
- Peculiarities of teaching disabled children .
- Same-gender and mixed-gender schools: a comparative analysis.
- Understanding the causes of school violence and bullying.
- The importance of sex education at schools.
- The educational system in America : problems and prospects.
- Cloud computing in educational institutions: an impact on the educational environment.
- Ethical behavior in higher educational institutions.
- Cooperation of educational institutions and businesses: successful cases.
- Information technology as a means of educational process improvement.
- Homeschooling and its influence on communication skills.
- Comparative analysis of distance learning and face-to-face education efficiency.
- Individualized versus group learning.
- The necessity of higher education for all students.
- Best practices of top higher education establishments.
- Peculiarities of teacher’s education in America.
- Preschool education versus tertiary education .
- Teacher as a researcher. Cross-age peer tutoring .
- Multicultural and monocultural education programs: a comparison.
- Comparison of advantages and disadvantages of tablets and printed textbooks .
- Should education be free?
- Education unification: reasons to apply in high schools.
Environmental Research Topics
Our day-to-day comfort is an inherent cause of environmental problems. We may drive a car and have no idea how we harm nature.
Eco activism is a growing trend. Ecology issues acquired a more frequent and lucid coverage. Regardless, people tend to overlook the environment. They got the idea that we should protect our planet, but not all of them are ready to act.
That is why we need to be aware of more facts and measures. This can’t be obtained without decent environmental science research papers.
Do you want to be a part of it? Use our list of environmental research topics for college students:
- Risks of climate change and global warming .
- Aspects and perspectives of Kyoto protocol .
- Green hydrogen in automotive industry : is it a great alternative?
- The origin of the carbon tax .
- Amazonian deforestation , its causes, and trends.
- The greenhouse effect : process, components, and risks.
- Types of pollution : air, water, and soil.
- Alternative energy in Europe.
- Water scarcity in the Middle East .
- Wind energy as an alternative source .
- Benefits of sustainable technology and living .
- Vulnerability of hazardville to flooding disasters .
- Environment protection authority and chemical waste .
- Population control in China.
- Geoengineering principles.
- Acid rains : the cause and current measures.
- Radioactive waste disposal.
- The protection of wildlife .
- E-mobility as an environmental protection measure.
- Ecological conservation.
Gender roles and aspects are one of the central social questions nowadays. Studies in this field are as relevant and necessary as never before. It pushes our society forward, eliminating gender inequality and discrimination.
Do you want to contribute to gender knowledge but don’t know where to start? Here is the list of most relevant gender studies essay topics:
- Public policy analysis on gender inequality in education in South Sudan.
- The history of gender concept.
- Gender imbalance in the developing countries.
- Sex reassignment in treating gender dysphoria : a way to psychological well-being.
- Employee issues: gender discrimination, sexual harassment , discrimination.
- Gender roles in couples and sex stereotypes in society.
- The diversity of gender and sexual orientation identities of transgender individuals.
- MeToo movement as sexual harassment fight measure.
- Feminism : the contraception movement in Canada.
- Maternity and paternity leaves .
- The correlation between gender and cognitive abilities .
- Transgender people and healthcare barriers .
- Race and gender in public relations .
- Gender stereotyping in American media .
- The health and well-being of LGBTQA+ young people in Australia.
- Cancel culture in America.
- Transgender healthcare issues.
- Transgender person in professional sports.
- Female genital mutilation.
- Gender roles in media.
Law Research Paper Topics
We cannot imagine a civilized society without law. Even though the fundamental rights and obligations in different countries are mostly similar, there is still a great scope of differences to research.
We gathered the list of law research paper topics to explore:
- Human rights violations in CIS countries.
- A self-enforcing model of corporate law .
- Corporate strategies and environmental regulations : organizing framework.
- The benefits of decriminalization .
- International criminal law and measures .
- Discrimination in the workplace in legal practice.
- Welfare legislation for families .
- Intellectual property law: copyright law, trademark law, patent law.
- Enforcement of civil rights law in private workplaces.
- The establishment of foreign and international law in American courts. A procedural overview.
- Family law : spousal support after a divorce in Canada.
- Employment law and workplace relations in Saudi Arabia.
- Applicable real estate laws and policies for sustainable development in South Africa.
- Retrospective of the immigration crisis in Europe.
- The need for a domestic violence law in Russian Federation.
- Religious crimes and religious laws.
- Terrorism in different countries’ law systems.
- Grievance procedure in the European court of human rights.
- Cybercrimes in legal practice.
- Human trafficking and slavery in the modern world.
When it comes to literature, there is a vast ocean of ideas to research. The topics can be classified into a large number of categories. Those can be literature genres, awards, trends in literature, different social aspects of literature, etc.
To make finding the best fit easier, we conducted a list of the world literature research topics:
- Golden Age writers and their impact on literature.
- Feminist literature authors.
- Y. Zamyatin’s “We” as the origin of dystopian literature.
- Trends of modern literature .
- Ancient Greece literature.
- Is best seller always good literature?
- Tricksters in literature.
- Post-modernism in literature .
- Sexual violence in the “Handmaid’s Tale” by Atwood .
- Children literature.
- The works of J. D. Salinger .
- Social perception of modern literature .
- Philosophy, literature, and religion in society: a comparative analysis of the impact on human life.
- The portrayal of racism in the literature of the 21st century.
- Censorship in literature.
- Professional literature trends.
- Central themes in American literature .
- The impact of digitalization on literature.
- The role of the main character in literature.
- Literature: print versus digitalized?
Music Research Paper Topics
Research is something we can do not only in astronomy or molecular biology. We need it in the music too. Music shapes our life in a way we can’t even imagine. It’s a tremendous social and cultural phenomenon to explore.
These are 20 potential topics for your research in the music industry :
- The effect of music on a human brain .
- The evolution of rap music .
- TikTok as the most efficient promotional channel for new music.
- The origin of music theory.
- The music industry and information technology .
- The influence of Kanye West performances on the music industry.
- Music journalism : the most influential music media.
- Feminism and sex in hip-hop music .
- Opera and instrumental music .
- The origin of music festivals .
- Reggae music and its aspects .
- Latin American women and trap music .
- Streaming services prospects.
- Music as the way of promoting new trends.
- Features of punk music.
Psychology Research Paper Topics
Psychology is a multidisciplinary kind of field. That means there’s a wide range of potential research questions.
Do you need to write a psychology paper? Explore the list of possible topics:
- Cross-cultural psychology : research and application.
- The psychology of self-esteem .
- Aspects of industrial and organizational psychology .
- The psychology of learning and motivation : skill and strategy in memory use.
- Description of remarkable experiments and their results in psychology.
- The influence of meditation on people’s health .
- Analyzing psychological disorders: disorders treatment and research .
- Personality psychology and zen Buddhism .
- Perception of psychology in society .
- Organizational behavior. Emotion and personality .
- Children’s emotional development .
- Predictors of postpartum depression.
- Symptoms, causes, and treatment of schizophrenia .
- The social, political, and religious reasons of homophobia .
- Eating disorders in males: current progress and challenges.
- The side effects of antidepressants .
- Cognitive psychology : best cognitive scientists’ practices.
- Social anxiety as a constraint in learning.
- Alzheimer’s disease : working strategies for disease modification.
- The relation between the aging process and psychology.
Religion Research Paper Topics
Religious institutions, beliefs, and customs also get explored in papers quite often. That is rather a controversial sphere of education, so we gathered the most relevant religion paper topics below to help you.
- The religious significance of the Bible .
- The place of women in Islam .
- The history of Christianity in Indonesia .
- Assessing a crisis of faith and making a pastoral crisis intervention.
- Forced religion: cause and effect on children.
- The problem of creation mythology in the study of Indian religion.
- Existence of God : a philosophical introduction.
- Religion and mythology: concepts, differences.
- The role of religion in attitudes toward LGBT individuals.
- Issues and traditions in western religion .
- Theology in the concepts of nature, time, and the future.
- Religion and government interaction in the US.
- The history of the Christian church in East Europe.
- Religion freedom and its limitation .
- Hinduism and Buddhism: similarities and differences .
- Baptism in Christianity .
- The impact of religion on terrorism .
- The God of Israel and Christian theology .
- Culture and religion: how they interact.
- Religion and social morality.
Science Research Topics for College Students
What is a better way to uncover the mysteries of our universe than through science? As it comprises multiple types and directions, there is a vast number of questions to answer.
We suggest you the following science research paper topics:
- Paris climate agreement perspectives.
- Ethical aspects of cloning .
- Political science in the US: past and present issues.
- Genetic engineering and cloning controversy .
- The development of life on Earth .
- The current state of nuclear energetics in America.
- Nuclear weapon -free zones: a history and assessment.
- Solid earth dynamics and the evolution of the Antarctic ice sheet.
- Natural hazards : local, national, global.
- Geophysical fluid dynamics: atmospheric dynamics, dynamo theory, and climate dynamics.
- Data science as a key element of data-driven decision-making.
- Robotics & mobility systems in agriculture: successful cases.
- Legal models of space resources exploration and utilization.
- The social context of recycling : factors influencing household recycling behavior.
- Trends in consumer attitudes about agricultural biotechnology .
- Theory of turbulence: a mathematical model that illustrates it.
- Dual-mode infrared and radar hardware-in-the-loop test equipment.
- Essentials of computational chemistry: theories and models.
- Genetic algorithms in astronomy and astrophysics.
- A fundamental relation between supermassive black holes and their host galaxies.
Social Science Research Topics
Sociology is an umbrella term that covers dozens of branches. It studies family, social movements, mass media, class theory, race, ethnicity, levels of income. We could go on and on.
As you can see, the options for research are endless. Don’t waste your time trying to understand the peculiarities of each social or cultural branch. Use our list of social science research paper topics for college students.
- Social movements of 21 st century.
- Strauss–howe generational theory in marketing.
- Social media as a “hotbed” of narcissism .
- The nutritional status of vegans and vegetarians .
- Gender identity and community among three transgender groups in the United States: MTFs, FTMs, and genderqueers.
- Social causes of anorexia in young women.
- The civil rights in South America.
- #BlackLivesMatter movement and its influence on society.
- Gay marriage in America : current debates.
- Dependency of the children mortality level on the anti-vaccination movement development.
- Judaism in the first centuries of the Christian era.
- School choice and segregation by race, class, and achievement.
- The correlation between race and wealth.
- Freedom and social status of blacks in America .
- The problem of abortion .
- Causes and effects of drug addiction .
- Horizontal and vertical gender segregation in employment .
- Effects of domestic violence on children.
- The poverty level in the US: a retrospective analysis.
- Women leadership and community development.
We are approaching the end of our ultimate research paper topics list. To wrap it up, let’s take a look at sports research ideas.
It has been present in our lives for a long time and is still developing. That’s why we need to answer new questions and build new knowledge. Explore the list below:
- How does globalization affect sports?
- History of doping scandals in the Olympics .
- Team sports as a socialization tool for children.
- The origin and history of ice hockey.
- Organizational aspects of Paralympic games.
- Aspects of independent Olympians at the Olympic games .
- The unique history of Pelé.
- Risk factors for injuries in football.
- Short interval versus long interval training.
- Sport as a communication medium .
- Nutritional support of young athletes .
- Mental training during competition preparation.
- Philosophical conflicts between the practices of sport and cybersport.
- Running as a treatment for heart diseases .
- Typical traumas of soccer players.
After getting familiar with the list of topics, let’s discuss the essential steps before beginning research.
Narrow Your Topic
Let’s say you selected that one topic from the list. What’s next? It’s time to outline the boundaries of the research. It should not be too broad or narrow . Its scope must strictly correspond to the problem’s scope under exploration.
What is the difference between a narrow and a broad topic?
Let’s look at three research topic examples:
- Eating Disorders. The topic is too general and comprehensive. If your research paper requires to be short, then there is no sense in choosing this topic. You better narrow it down.
- Eating Disorders in Young Females. In this topic, we try to segment the subjected populations to specify the research question. It is still rather broad but more focused.
- Anorexia in Young Females and Its Impact on Society. Here, we distinguish a particular type of eating disorder and leave a population segmentation. That is a perfect example of a narrowed topic. Now, it’s easier to ask specific questions, uncover insights and contribute to further research.
Focus on your narrowed topic and form a central research question. After that, research the existing data and find supporting facts. Don’t let your exploration be one-sided: explore different points of view. Compare and analyze counterpoints and draw conclusions.
After a profound studying, create a thesis statement to support your narrowed topic in a specific way.
To make things clear, use this step-by-step guide on finding and narrowing your topic.
It takes a second to get access to billions of search results on any topic in Google. Most of the time, we jump through the first two or three links, and that’s it. If you seek quality, then it’s not the proper approach. You should acquire the skill of processing the sources.
What are the tips for source evaluation?
- Forget about Wikipedia as a scientific source. Wikipedia is a free platform where any user can make edits. Extracting information from wiki without fact-checking isn’t a good academic practice. Great alternatives to Wikipedia are College e-libraries, scholarly databases, Google Scholar, etc.
- Explore well-respected professional research journals. They contain up-to-date research data and conclusions which shape the most relevant views and understanding of what is going on in the modern world.
- Visit libraries. We tend to overlook them in our digital era. But you can find super valuable sources for research there.
- Avoid personal blogs, opinion articles, and self-published books . There can be heavy use of bias.
3 Main Tips on Writing a Thesis Statement
After you decide on a research topic and sources, it’s time to write a thesis statement.
- Ask a question. Here are two options. In the first one, your professor can assign you a concrete question. If it’s not your case, then ask what interests you. What would you like to explore?
- Give an initial answer. Try to answer the question before in-depth topic exploration. Work out some hypotheses.
- Enrich the initial answer. Prove the initial hypothesis by detailing the research. Use the calculations and quantitative data to make your thesis credible.
To back up these tips, let’s look at a couple of example thesis statements from the StudyCorgi essay database:
You’ve just explored an ultimate list of research paper topic ideas and important steps to turn those topics into excellent research papers.
Did you find our topics compilation helpful? Save it for a future reference or share with friends!
- What Is Research? — Hampshire College
- Definition of Research — Western Sydney University
- The Importance of Research to Students — Cleveland University Kansas City
- Guidelines for Writing Art History Research Papers — UA Little Rock University
- Areas of Research in Biology — Massachusetts Institute of Technology
- Environmental Science: Current Research — Herald Scholarly Open Access
- Thesis Statements — University of North Carolina
- Thesis Statement Tips — Purdue University
- What Is Education Research — National Center for Education Research
- Research in the Faculty of Music — University of Cambridge
- Research: Religion and Society Specialism — University of Birmingham
- Sociology Research Areas — Cornell University
- Narrowing a Topic Idea — UCS Libraries
- Developing a Research Question — The University of Arizona
- Organizing Academic Research Paper — Sacred Heart University
- Conclusions and Recommendations — Monash University
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Research Paper Examples
Research paper examples are of great value for students who want to complete their assignments timely and efficiently. If you are a student in the university, your first stop in the quest for research paper examples will be the campus library where you can get to view the research sample papers of lecturers and other professionals in diverse fields plus those of fellow students who preceded you in the campus. Many college departments maintain libraries of previous student work, including large research papers, which current students can examine. Our collection of research paper examples includes:
Browse Sample Research Papers
Anthropology research paper examples.
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Culture Research Paper Examples
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Thousands of students turn to our service every day for help. It does not mean that they cannot do their assignments on their own. They can, but the reason is different. Writing a research paper demands so much time and energy that asking for assistance seems to be a perfect solution. As the matter of fact, it is a perfect solution, especially, when you need to work to pay for your studying as well.
Firstly, if you search for research paper examples before you start writing, you can save your time significantly. You look at the example and you understand the gist of your assignment within several minutes. Secondly, when you examine some sample paper, you get to know all the requirements. You analyze the structure, the language, and the formatting details. Finally, reading examples helps students to overcome writer’s block, as other people’s ideas can motivate you to discover your own ideas.
A Sample Research Paper on Child Abuse
A research paper is an academic piece of writing, so you need to follow all the requirements and standards. Otherwise, it will be impossible to get the high results. To make it easier for you, we have analyzed the structure and peculiarities of a sample research paper on the topic ‘Child Abuse’.
The paper includes 7300+ words, a detailed outline, citations are in APA formatting style, and bibliography with 28 sources.
To write any paper you need to write a great outline. This is the key to a perfect paper. When you organize your paper, it is easier for you to present the ideas logically, without jumping from one thought to another.
In the outline, you need to name all the parts of your paper. That is to say, an introduction, main body, conclusion, bibliography, some papers require abstract and proposal as well.
A good outline will serve as a guide through your paper making it easier for the reader to follow your ideas.
Ii. estimates of child abuse: methodological limitations, iii. child abuse and neglect: the legalities, iv. corporal punishment versus child abuse, v. child abuse victims: the patterns, vi. child abuse perpetrators: the patterns, vii. explanations for child abuse, viii. consequences of child abuse and neglect, ix. determining abuse: how to tell whether a child is abused or neglected, x. determining abuse: interviewing children, xi. how can society help abused children and abusive families, introduction.
An introduction should include a thesis statement and the main points that you will discuss in the paper.
A thesis statement is one sentence in which you need to show your point of view. You will then develop this point of view through the whole piece of work:
‘The impact of child abuse affects more than one’s childhood, as the psychological and physical injuries often extend well into adulthood.’
Child abuse is a very real and prominent social problem today. The impact of child abuse affects more than one’s childhood, as the psychological and physical injuries often extend well into adulthood. Most children are defenseless against abuse, are dependent on their caretakers, and are unable to protect themselves from these acts.
Childhood serves as the basis for growth, development, and socialization. Throughout adolescence, children are taught how to become productive and positive, functioning members of society. Much of the socializing of children, particularly in their very earliest years, comes at the hands of family members. Unfortunately, the messages conveyed to and the actions against children by their families are not always the positive building blocks for which one would hope.
In 2008, the Children’s Defense Fund reported that each day in America, 2,421 children are confirmed as abused or neglected, 4 children are killed by abuse or neglect, and 78 babies die before their first birthday. These daily estimates translate into tremendous national figures. In 2006, caseworkers substantiated an estimated 905,000 reports of child abuse or neglect. Of these, 64% suffered neglect, 16% were physically abused, 9% were sexually abused, 7% were emotionally or psychologically maltreated, and 2% were medically neglected. In addition, 15% of the victims experienced “other” types of maltreatment such as abandonment, threats of harm to the child, and congenital drug addiction (National Child Abuse and Neglect Data System, 2006). Obviously, this problem is a substantial one.
In the main body, you dwell upon the topic of your paper. You provide your ideas and support them with evidence. The evidence include all the data and material you have found, analyzed and systematized. You can support your point of view with different statistical data, with surveys, and the results of different experiments. Your task is to show that your idea is right, and make the reader interested in the topic.
In this example, a writer analyzes the issue of child abuse: different statistical data, controversies regarding the topic, examples of the problem and the consequences.
Several issues arise when considering the amount of child abuse that occurs annually in the United States. Child abuse is very hard to estimate because much (or most) of it is not reported. Children who are abused are unlikely to report their victimization because they may not know any better, they still love their abusers and do not want to see them taken away (or do not themselves want to be taken away from their abusers), they have been threatened into not reporting, or they do not know to whom they should report their victimizations. Still further, children may report their abuse only to find the person to whom they report does not believe them or take any action on their behalf. Continuing to muddy the waters, child abuse can be disguised as legitimate injury, particularly because young children are often somewhat uncoordinated and are still learning to accomplish physical tasks, may not know their physical limitations, and are often legitimately injured during regular play. In the end, children rarely report child abuse; most often it is an adult who makes a report based on suspicion (e.g., teacher, counselor, doctor, etc.).
Even when child abuse is reported, social service agents and investigators may not follow up or substantiate reports for a variety of reasons. Parents can pretend, lie, or cover up injuries or stories of how injuries occurred when social service agents come to investigate. Further, there is not always agreement about what should be counted as abuse by service providers and researchers. In addition, social service agencies/agents have huge caseloads and may only be able to deal with the most serious forms of child abuse, leaving the more “minor” forms of abuse unsupervised and unmanaged (and uncounted in the statistical totals).
While most laws about child abuse and neglect fall at the state levels, federal legislation provides a foundation for states by identifying a minimum set of acts and behaviors that define child abuse and neglect. The Federal Child Abuse Prevention and Treatment Act (CAPTA), which stems from the Keeping Children and Families Safe Act of 2003, defines child abuse and neglect as, at minimum, “(1) any recent act or failure to act on the part of a parent or caretaker which results in death, serious physical or emotional harm, sexual abuse, or exploitation; or (2) an act or failure to act which presents an imminent risk or serious harm.”
Using these minimum standards, each state is responsible for providing its own definition of maltreatment within civil and criminal statutes. When defining types of child abuse, many states incorporate similar elements and definitions into their legal statutes. For example, neglect is often defined as failure to provide for a child’s basic needs. Neglect can encompass physical elements (e.g., failure to provide necessary food or shelter, or lack of appropriate supervision), medical elements (e.g., failure to provide necessary medical or mental health treatment), educational elements (e.g., failure to educate a child or attend to special educational needs), and emotional elements (e.g., inattention to a child’s emotional needs, failure to provide psychological care, or permitting the child to use alcohol or other drugs). Failure to meet needs does not always mean a child is neglected, as situations such as poverty, cultural values, and community standards can influence the application of legal statutes. In addition, several states distinguish between failure to provide based on financial inability and failure to provide for no apparent financial reason.
Statutes on physical abuse typically include elements of physical injury (ranging from minor bruises to severe fractures or death) as a result of punching, beating, kicking, biting, shaking, throwing, stabbing, choking, hitting (with a hand, stick, strap, or other object), burning, or otherwise harming a child. Such injury is considered abuse regardless of the intention of the caretaker. In addition, many state statutes include allowing or encouraging another person to physically harm a child (such as noted above) as another form of physical abuse in and of itself. Sexual abuse usually includes activities by a parent or caretaker such as fondling a child’s genitals, penetration, incest, rape, sodomy, indecent exposure, and exploitation through prostitution or the production of pornographic materials.
Finally, emotional or psychological abuse typically is defined as a pattern of behavior that impairs a child’s emotional development or sense of self-worth. This may include constant criticism, threats, or rejection, as well as withholding love, support, or guidance. Emotional abuse is often the most difficult to prove and, therefore, child protective services may not be able to intervene without evidence of harm to the child. Some states suggest that harm may be evidenced by an observable or substantial change in behavior, emotional response, or cognition, or by anxiety, depression, withdrawal, or aggressive behavior. At a practical level, emotional abuse is almost always present when other types of abuse are identified.
Some states include an element of substance abuse in their statutes on child abuse. Circumstances that can be considered substance abuse include (a) the manufacture of a controlled substance in the presence of a child or on the premises occupied by a child (Colorado, Indiana, Iowa, Montana, South Dakota, Tennessee, and Virginia); (b) allowing a child to be present where the chemicals or equipment for the manufacture of controlled substances are used (Arizona, New Mexico); (c) selling, distributing, or giving drugs or alcohol to a child (Florida, Hawaii, Illinois, Minnesota, and Texas); (d) use of a controlled substance by a caregiver that impairs the caregiver’s ability to adequately care for the child (Kentucky, New York, Rhode Island, and Texas); and (e) exposure of the child to drug paraphernalia (North Dakota), the criminal sale or distribution of drugs (Montana, Virginia), or drug-related activity (District of Columbia).
One of the most difficult issues with which the U.S. legal system must contend is that of allowing parents the right to use corporal punishment when disciplining a child, while not letting them cross over the line into the realm of child abuse. Some parents may abuse their children under the guise of discipline, and many instances of child abuse arise from angry parents who go too far when disciplining their children with physical punishment. Generally, state statutes use terms such as “reasonable discipline of a minor,” “causes only temporary, short-term pain,” and may cause “the potential for bruising” but not “permanent damage, disability, disfigurement or injury” to the child as ways of indicating the types of discipline behaviors that are legal. However, corporal punishment that is “excessive,” “malicious,” “endangers the bodily safety of,” or is “an intentional infliction of injury” is not allowed under most state statutes (e.g., state of Florida child abuse statute).
Most research finds that the use of physical punishment (most often spanking) is not an effective method of discipline. The literature on this issue tends to find that spanking stops misbehavior, but no more effectively than other firm measures. Further, it seems to hinder rather than improve general compliance/obedience (particularly when the child is not in the presence of the punisher). Researchers have also explained why physical punishment is not any more effective at gaining child compliance than nonviolent forms of discipline. Some of the problems that arise when parents use spanking or other forms of physical punishment include the fact that spanking does not teach what children should do, nor does it provide them with alternative behavior options should the circumstance arise again. Spanking also undermines reasoning, explanation, or other forms of parental instruction because children cannot learn, reason, or problem solve well while experiencing threat, pain, fear, or anger. Further, the use of physical punishment is inconsistent with nonviolent principles, or parental modeling. In addition, the use of spanking chips away at the bonds of affection between parents and children, and tends to induce resentment and fear. Finally, it hinders the development of empathy and compassion in children, and they do not learn to take responsibility for their own behavior (Pitzer, 1997).
One of the biggest problems with the use of corporal punishment is that it can escalate into much more severe forms of violence. Usually, parents spank because they are angry (and somewhat out of control) and they can’t think of other ways to discipline. When parents are acting as a result of emotional triggers, the notion of discipline is lost while punishment and pain become the foci.
In 2006, of the children who were found to be victims of child abuse, nearly 75% of them were first-time victims (or had not come to the attention of authorities prior). A slight majority of child abuse victims were girls—51.5%, compared to 48% of abuse victims being boys. The younger the child, the more at risk he or she is for child abuse and neglect victimization. Specifically, the rate for infants (birth to 1 year old) was approximately 24 per 1,000 children of the same age group. The victimization rate for children 1–3 years old was 14 per 1,000 children of the same age group. The abuse rate for children aged 4– 7 years old declined further to 13 per 1,000 children of the same age group. African American, American Indian, and Alaska Native children, as well as children of multiple races, had the highest rates of victimization. White and Latino children had lower rates, and Asian children had the lowest rates of child abuse and neglect victimization. Regarding living arrangements, nearly 27% of victims were living with a single mother, 20% were living with married parents, while 22% were living with both parents but the marital status was unknown. (This reporting element had nearly 40% missing data, however.) Regarding disability, nearly 8% of child abuse victims had some degree of mental retardation, emotional disturbance, visual or hearing impairment, learning disability, physical disability, behavioral problems, or other medical problems. Unfortunately, data indicate that for many victims, the efforts of the child protection services system were not successful in preventing subsequent victimization. Children who had been prior victims of maltreatment were 96% more likely to experience another occurrence than those who were not prior victims. Further, child victims who were reported to have a disability were 52% more likely to experience recurrence than children without a disability. Finally, the oldest victims (16–21 years of age) were the least likely to experience a recurrence, and were 51% less likely to be victimized again than were infants (younger than age 1) (National Child Abuse and Neglect Data System, 2006).
Child fatalities are the most tragic consequence of maltreatment. Yet, each year, children die from abuse and neglect. In 2006, an estimated 1,530 children in the United States died due to abuse or neglect. The overall rate of child fatalities was 2 deaths per 100,000 children. More than 40% of child fatalities were attributed to neglect, but physical abuse also was a major contributor. Approximately 78% of the children who died due to child abuse and neglect were younger than 4 years old, and infant boys (younger than 1) had the highest rate of fatalities at 18.5 deaths per 100,000 boys of the same age in the national population. Infant girls had a rate of 14.7 deaths per 100,000 girls of the same age (National Child Abuse and Neglect Data System, 2006).
One question to be addressed regarding child fatalities is why infants have such a high rate of death when compared to toddlers and adolescents. Children under 1 year old pose an immense amount of responsibility for their caretakers: they are completely dependent and need constant attention. Children this age are needy, impulsive, and not amenable to verbal control or effective communication. This can easily overwhelm vulnerable parents. Another difficulty associated with infants is that they are physically weak and small. Injuries to infants can be fatal, while similar injuries to older children might not be. The most common cause of death in children less than 1 year is cerebral trauma (often the result of shaken-baby syndrome). Exasperated parents can deliver shakes or blows without realizing how little it takes to cause irreparable or fatal damage to an infant. Research informs us that two of the most common triggers for fatal child abuse are crying that will not cease and toileting accidents. Both of these circumstances are common in infants and toddlers whose only means of communication often is crying, and who are limited in mobility and cannot use the toilet. Finally, very young children cannot assist in injury diagnoses. Children who have been injured due to abuse or neglect often cannot communicate to medical professionals about where it hurts, how it hurts, and so forth. Also, nonfatal injuries can turn fatal in the absence of care by neglectful parents or parents who do not want medical professionals to possibly identify an injury as being the result of abuse.
Estimates reveal that nearly 80% of perpetrators of child abuse were parents of the victim. Other relatives accounted for nearly 7%, and unmarried partners of parents made up 4% of perpetrators. Of those perpetrators that were parents, over 90% were biological parents, 4% were stepparents, and 0.7% were adoptive parents. Of this group, approximately 58% of perpetrators were women and 42% were men. Women perpetrators are typically younger than men. The average age for women abusers was 31 years old, while for men the average was 34 years old. Forty percent of women who abused were younger than 30 years of age, compared with 33% of men being under 30. The racial distribution of perpetrators is similar to that of victims. Fifty-four percent were white, 21% were African American, and 20% were Hispanic/Latino (National Child Abuse and Neglect Data System, 2006).
There are many factors that are associated with child abuse. Some of the more common/well-accepted explanations are individual pathology, parent–child interaction, past abuse in the family (or social learning), situational factors, and cultural support for physical punishment along with a lack of cultural support for helping parents here in the United States.
The first explanation centers on the individual pathology of a parent or caretaker who is abusive. This theory focuses on the idea that people who abuse their children have something wrong with their individual personality or biological makeup. Such psychological pathologies may include having anger control problems; being depressed or having post-partum depression; having a low tolerance for frustration (e.g., children can be extremely frustrating: they don’t always listen; they constantly push the line of how far they can go; and once the line has been established, they are constantly treading on it to make sure it hasn’t moved. They are dependent and self-centered, so caretakers have very little privacy or time to themselves); being rigid (e.g., having no tolerance for differences—for example, what if your son wanted to play with dolls? A rigid father would not let him, laugh at him for wanting to, punish him when he does, etc.); having deficits in empathy (parents who cannot put themselves in the shoes of their children cannot fully understand what their children need emotionally); or being disorganized, inefficient, and ineffectual. (Parents who are unable to manage their own lives are unlikely to be successful at managing the lives of their children, and since many children want and need limits, these parents are unable to set them or adhere to them.)
Biological pathologies that may increase the likelihood of someone becoming a child abuser include having substance abuse or dependence problems, or having persistent or reoccurring physical health problems (especially health problems that can be extremely painful and can cause a person to become more self-absorbed, both qualities that can give rise to a lack of patience, lower frustration tolerance, and increased stress).
The second explanation for child abuse centers on the interaction between the parent and the child, noting that certain types of parents are more likely to abuse, and certain types of children are more likely to be abused, and when these less-skilled parents are coupled with these more difficult children, child abuse is the most likely to occur. Discussion here focuses on what makes a parent less skilled, and what makes a child more difficult. Characteristics of unskilled parents are likely to include such traits as only pointing out what children do wrong and never giving any encouragement for good behavior, and failing to be sensitive to the emotional needs of children. Less skilled parents tend to have unrealistic expectations of children. They may engage in role reversal— where the parents make the child take care of them—and view the parent’s happiness and well-being as the responsibility of the child. Some parents view the parental role as extremely stressful and experience little enjoyment from being a parent. Finally, less-skilled parents tend to have more negative perceptions regarding their child(ren). For example, perhaps the child has a different shade of skin than they expected and this may disappoint or anger them, they may feel the child is being manipulative (long before children have this capability), or they may view the child as the scapegoat for all the parents’ or family’s problems. Theoretically, parents with these characteristics would be more likely to abuse their children, but if they are coupled with having a difficult child, they would be especially likely to be abusive. So, what makes a child more difficult? Certainly, through no fault of their own, children may have characteristics that are associated with child care that is more demanding and difficult than in the “normal” or “average” situation. Such characteristics can include having physical and mental disabilities (autism, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder [ADHD], hyperactivity, etc.); the child may be colicky, frequently sick, be particularly needy, or cry more often. In addition, some babies are simply unhappier than other babies for reasons that cannot be known. Further, infants are difficult even in the best of circumstances. They are unable to communicate effectively, and they are completely dependent on their caretakers for everything, including eating, diaper changing, moving around, entertainment, and emotional bonding. Again, these types of children, being more difficult, are more likely to be victims of child abuse.
Nonetheless, each of these types of parents and children alone cannot explain the abuse of children, but it is the interaction between them that becomes the key. Unskilled parents may produce children that are happy and not as needy, and even though they are unskilled, they do not abuse because the child takes less effort. At the same time, children who are more difficult may have parents who are skilled and are able to handle and manage the extra effort these children take with aplomb. However, risks for child abuse increase when unskilled parents must contend with difficult children.
Social learning or past abuse in the family is a third common explanation for child abuse. Here, the theory concentrates not only on what children learn when they see or experience violence in their homes, but additionally on what they do not learn as a result of these experiences. Social learning theory in the context of family violence stresses that if children are abused or see abuse (toward siblings or a parent), those interactions and violent family members become the representations and role models for their future familial interactions. In this way, what children learn is just as important as what they do not learn. Children who witness or experience violence may learn that this is the way parents deal with children, or that violence is an acceptable method of child rearing and discipline. They may think when they become parents that “violence worked on me when I was a child, and I turned out fine.” They may learn unhealthy relationship interaction patterns; children may witness the negative interactions of parents and they may learn the maladaptive or violent methods of expressing anger, reacting to stress, or coping with conflict.
What is equally as important, though, is that they are unlikely to learn more acceptable and nonviolent ways of rearing children, interacting with family members, and working out conflict. Here it may happen that an adult who was abused as a child would like to be nonviolent toward his or her own children, but when the chips are down and the child is misbehaving, this abused-child-turned-adult does not have a repertoire of nonviolent strategies to try. This parent is more likely to fall back on what he or she knows as methods of discipline.
Something important to note here is that not all abused children grow up to become abusive adults. Children who break the cycle were often able to establish and maintain one healthy emotional relationship with someone during their childhoods (or period of young adulthood). For instance, they may have received emotional support from a nonabusing parent, or they received social support and had a positive relationship with another adult during their childhood (e.g., teacher, coach, minister, neighbor, etc.). Abused children who participate in therapy during some period of their lives can often break the cycle of violence. In addition, adults who were abused but are able to form an emotionally supportive and satisfying relationship with a mate can make the transition to being nonviolent in their family interactions.
Moving on to a fourth familiar explanation for child abuse, there are some common situational factors that influence families and parents and increase the risks for child abuse. Typically, these are factors that increase family stress or social isolation. Specifically, such factors may include receiving public assistance or having low socioeconomic status (a combination of low income and low education). Other factors include having family members who are unemployed, underemployed (working in a job that requires lower qualifications than an individual possesses), or employed only part time. These financial difficulties cause great stress for families in meeting the needs of the individual members. Other stress-inducing familial characteristics are single-parent households and larger family size. Finally, social isolation can be devastating for families and family members. Having friends to talk to, who can be relied upon, and with whom kids can be dropped off occasionally is tremendously important for personal growth and satisfaction in life. In addition, social isolation and stress can cause individuals to be quick to lose their tempers, as well as cause people to be less rational in their decision making and to make mountains out of mole hills. These situations can lead families to be at greater risk for child abuse.
Finally, cultural views and supports (or lack thereof) can lead to greater amounts of child abuse in a society such as the United States. One such cultural view is that of societal support for physical punishment. This is problematic because there are similarities between the way criminals are dealt with and the way errant children are handled. The use of capital punishment is advocated for seriously violent criminals, and people are quick to use such idioms as “spare the rod and spoil the child” when it comes to the discipline or punishment of children. In fact, it was not until quite recently that parenting books began to encourage parents to use other strategies than spanking or other forms of corporal punishment in the discipline of their children. Only recently, the American Academy of Pediatrics has come out and recommended that parents do not spank or use other forms of violence on their children because of the deleterious effects such methods have on youngsters and their bonds with their parents. Nevertheless, regardless of recommendations, the culture of corporal punishment persists.
Another cultural view in the United States that can give rise to greater incidents of child abuse is the belief that after getting married, couples of course should want and have children. Culturally, Americans consider that children are a blessing, raising kids is the most wonderful thing a person can do, and everyone should have children. Along with this notion is the idea that motherhood is always wonderful; it is the most fulfilling thing a woman can do; and the bond between a mother and her child is strong, glorious, and automatic—all women love being mothers. Thus, culturally (and theoretically), society nearly insists that married couples have children and that they will love having children. But, after children are born, there is not much support for couples who have trouble adjusting to parenthood, or who do not absolutely love their new roles as parents. People look askance at parents who need help, and cannot believe parents who say anything negative about parenthood. As such, theoretically, society has set up a situation where couples are strongly encouraged to have kids, are told they will love kids, but then society turns a blind or disdainful eye when these same parents need emotional, financial, or other forms of help or support. It is these types of cultural viewpoints that increase the risks for child abuse in society.
The consequences of child abuse are tremendous and long lasting. Research has shown that the traumatic experience of childhood abuse is life changing. These costs may surface during adolescence, or they may not become evident until abused children have grown up and become abusing parents or abused spouses. Early identification and treatment is important to minimize these potential long-term effects. Whenever children say they have been abused, it is imperative that they be taken seriously and their abuse be reported. Suspicions of child abuse must be reported as well. If there is a possibility that a child is or has been abused, an investigation must be conducted.
Children who have been abused may exhibit traits such as the inability to love or have faith in others. This often translates into adults who are unable to establish lasting and stable personal relationships. These individuals have trouble with physical closeness and touching as well as emotional intimacy and trust. Further, these qualities tend to cause a fear of entering into new relationships, as well as the sabotaging of any current ones.
Psychologically, children who have been abused tend to have poor self-images or are passive, withdrawn, or clingy. They may be angry individuals who are filled with rage, anxiety, and a variety of fears. They are often aggressive, disruptive, and depressed. Many abused children have flashbacks and nightmares about the abuse they have experienced, and this may cause sleep problems as well as drug and alcohol problems. Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and antisocial personality disorder are both typical among maltreated children. Research has also shown that most abused children fail to reach “successful psychosocial functioning,” and are thus not resilient and do not resume a “normal life” after the abuse has ended.
Socially (and likely because of these psychological injuries), abused children have trouble in school, will have difficulty getting and remaining employed, and may commit a variety of illegal or socially inappropriate behaviors. Many studies have shown that victims of child abuse are likely to participate in high-risk behaviors such as alcohol or drug abuse, the use of tobacco, and high-risk sexual behaviors (e.g., unprotected sex, large numbers of sexual partners). Later in life, abused children are more likely to have been arrested and homeless. They are also less able to defend themselves in conflict situations and guard themselves against repeated victimizations.
Medically, abused children likely will experience health problems due to the high frequency of physical injuries they receive. In addition, abused children experience a great deal of emotional turmoil and stress, which can also have a significant impact on their physical condition. These health problems are likely to continue occurring into adulthood. Some of these longer-lasting health problems include headaches; eating problems; problems with toileting; and chronic pain in the back, stomach, chest, and genital areas. Some researchers have noted that abused children may experience neurological impairment and problems with intellectual functioning, while others have found a correlation between abuse and heart, lung, and liver disease, as well as cancer (Thomas, 2004).
Victims of sexual abuse show an alarming number of disturbances as adults. Some dislike and avoid sex, or experience sexual problems or disorders, while other victims appear to enjoy sexual activities that are self-defeating or maladaptive—normally called “dysfunctional sexual behavior”—and have many sexual partners.
Abused children also experience a wide variety of developmental delays. Many do not reach physical, cognitive, or emotional developmental milestones at the typical time, and some never accomplish what they are supposed to during childhood socialization. In the next section, these developmental delays are discussed as a means of identifying children who may be abused.
There are two primary ways of identifying children who are abused: spotting and evaluating physical injuries, and detecting and appraising developmental delays. Distinguishing physical injuries due to abuse can be difficult, particularly among younger children who are likely to get hurt or receive injuries while they are playing and learning to become ambulatory. Nonetheless, there are several types of wounds that children are unlikely to give themselves during their normal course of play and exploration. These less likely injuries may signal instances of child abuse.
While it is true that children are likely to get bruises, particularly when they are learning to walk or crawl, bruises on infants are not normal. Also, the back of the legs, upper arms, or on the chest, neck, head, or genitals are also locations where bruises are unlikely to occur during normal childhood activity. Further, bruises with clean patterns, like hand prints, buckle prints, or hangers (to name a few), are good examples of the types of bruises children do not give themselves.
Another area of physical injury where the source of the injury can be difficult to detect is fractures. Again, children fall out of trees, or crash their bikes, and can break limbs. These can be normal parts of growing up. However, fractures in infants less than 12 months old are particularly suspect, as infants are unlikely to be able to accomplish the types of movement necessary to actually break a leg or an arm. Further, multiple fractures, particularly more than one on a bone, should be examined more closely. Spiral or torsion fractures (when the bone is broken by twisting) are suspect because when children break their bones due to play injuries, the fractures are usually some other type (e.g., linear, oblique, compacted). In addition, when parents don’t know about the fracture(s) or how it occurred, abuse should be considered, because when children get these types of injuries, they need comfort and attention.
Head and internal injuries are also those that may signal abuse. Serious blows to the head cause internal head injuries, and this is very different from the injuries that result from bumping into things. Abused children are also likely to experience internal injuries like those to the abdomen, liver, kidney, and bladder. They may suffer a ruptured spleen, or intestinal perforation. These types of damages rarely happen by accident.
Burns are another type of physical injury that can happen by accident or by abuse. Nevertheless, there are ways to tell these types of burn injuries apart. The types of burns that should be examined and investigated are those where the burns are in particular locations. Burns to the bottom of the feet, genitals, abdomen, or other inaccessible spots should be closely considered. Burns of the whole hand or those to the buttocks are also unlikely to happen as a result of an accident.
Turning to the detection and appraisal of developmental delays, one can more readily assess possible abuse by considering what children of various ages should be able to accomplish, than by noting when children are delayed and how many milestones on which they are behind schedule. Importantly, a few delays in reaching milestones can be expected, since children develop individually and not always according to the norm. Nonetheless, when children are abused, their development is likely to be delayed in numerous areas and across many milestones.
As children develop and grow, they should be able to crawl, walk, run, talk, control going to the bathroom, write, set priorities, plan ahead, trust others, make friends, develop a good self-image, differentiate between feeling and behavior, and get their needs met in appropriate ways. As such, when children do not accomplish these feats, their circumstances should be examined.
Infants who are abused or neglected typically develop what is termed failure to thrive syndrome. This syndrome is characterized by slow, inadequate growth, or not “filling out” physically. They have a pale, colorless complexion and dull eyes. They are not likely to spend much time looking around, and nothing catches their eyes. They may show other signs of lack of nutrition such as cuts, bruises that do not heal in a timely way, and discolored fingernails. They are also not trusting and may not cry much, as they are not expecting to have their needs met. Older infants may not have developed any language skills, or these developments are quite slow. This includes both verbal and nonverbal means of communication.
Toddlers who are abused often become hypervigilant about their environments and others’ moods. They are more outwardly focused than a typical toddler (who is quite self-centered) and may be unable to separate themselves as individuals, or consider themselves as distinct beings. In this way, abused toddlers cannot focus on tasks at hand because they are too concerned about others’ reactions. They don’t play with toys, have no interest in exploration, and seem unable to enjoy life. They are likely to accept losses with little reaction, and may have age-inappropriate knowledge of sex and sexual relations. Finally, toddlers, whether they are abused or not, begin to mirror their parents’ behaviors. Thus, toddlers who are abused may mimic the abuse when they are playing with dolls or “playing house.”
Developmental delays can also be detected among abused young adolescents. Some signs include the failure to learn cause and effect, since their parents are so inconsistent. They have no energy for learning and have not developed beyond one- or two-word commands. They probably cannot follow complicated directions (such as two to three tasks per instruction), and they are unlikely to be able to think for themselves. Typically, they have learned that failure is totally unacceptable, but they are more concerned with the teacher’s mood than with learning and listening to instruction. Finally, they are apt to have been inadequately toilet trained and thus may be unable to control their bladders.
Older adolescents, because they are likely to have been abused for a longer period of time, continue to get further and further behind in their developmental achievements. Abused children this age become family nurturers. They take care of their parents and cater to their parents’ needs, rather than the other way around. In addition, they probably take care of any younger siblings and do the household chores. Because of these default responsibilities, they usually do not participate in school activities; they frequently miss days at school; and they have few, if any, friends. Because they have become so hypervigilant and have increasingly delayed development, they lose interest in and become disillusioned with education. They develop low self-esteem and little confidence, but seem old for their years. Children this age who are abused are still likely to be unable to control their bladders and may have frequent toileting accidents.
Other developmental delays can occur and be observed in abused and neglected children of any age. For example, malnutrition and withdrawal can be noticed in infants through teenagers. Maltreated children frequently have persistent or untreated illnesses, and these can become permanent disabilities if medical conditions go untreated for a long enough time. Another example can be the consequences of neurological damage. Beyond being a medical issue, this type of damage can cause problems with social behavior and impulse control, which, again, can be discerned in various ages of children.
Once child abuse is suspected, law enforcement officers, child protection workers, or various other practitioners may need to interview the child about the abuse or neglect he or she may have suffered. Interviewing children can be extremely difficult because children at various stages of development can remember only certain parts or aspects of the events in their lives. Also, interviewers must be careful that they do not put ideas or answers into the heads of the children they are interviewing. There are several general recommendations when interviewing children about the abuse they may have experienced. First, interviewers must acknowledge that even when children are abused, they likely still love their parents. They do not want to be taken away from their parents, nor do they want to see their parents get into trouble. Interviewers must not blame the parents or be judgmental about them or the child’s family. Beyond that, interviews should take place in a safe, neutral location. Interviewers can use dolls and role-play to help children express the types of abuse of which they may be victims.
Finally, interviewers must ask age-appropriate questions. For example, 3-year-olds can probably only answer questions about what happened and who was involved. Four- to five-year-olds can also discuss where the incidents occurred. Along with what, who, and where, 6- to 8-year-olds can talk about the element of time, or when the abuse occurred. Nine- to 10-year-olds are able to add commentary about the number of times the abuse occurred. Finally, 11-year-olds and older children can additionally inform interviewers about the circumstances of abusive instances.
A conclusion is not a summary of what a writer has already mentioned. On the contrary, it is the last point made. Taking every detail of the investigation, the researcher makes the concluding point. In this part of a paper, you need to put a full stop in your research. You need to persuade the reader in your opinion.
Never add any new information in the conclusion. You can present solutions to the problem and you dwell upon the results, but only if this information has been already mentioned in the main body.
Child advocates recommend a variety of strategies to aid families and children experiencing abuse. These recommendations tend to focus on societal efforts as well as more individual efforts. One common strategy advocated is the use of public service announcements that encourage individuals to report any suspected child abuse. Currently, many mandatory reporters (those required by law to report abuse such as teachers, doctors, and social service agency employees) and members of communities feel that child abuse should not be reported unless there is substantial evidence that abuse is indeed occurring. Child advocates stress that this notion should be changed, and that people should report child abuse even if it is only suspected. Public service announcements should stress that if people report suspected child abuse, the worst that can happen is that they might be wrong, but in the grander scheme of things that is really not so bad.
Child advocates also stress that greater interagency cooperation is needed. This cooperation should be evident between women’s shelters, child protection agencies, programs for at-risk children, medical agencies, and law enforcement officers. These agencies typically do not share information, and if they did, more instances of child abuse would come to the attention of various authorities and could be investigated and managed. Along these lines, child protection agencies and programs should receive more funding. When budgets are cut, social services are often the first things to go or to get less financial support. Child advocates insist that with more resources, child protection agencies could hire more workers, handle more cases, conduct more investigations, and follow up with more children and families.
Continuing, more educational efforts must be initiated about issues such as punishment and discipline styles and strategies; having greater respect for children; as well as informing the community about what child abuse is, and how to recognize it. In addition, Americans must alter the cultural orientation about child bearing and child rearing. Couples who wish to remain child-free must be allowed to do so without disdain. And, it must be acknowledged that raising children is very difficult, is not always gloriously wonderful, and that parents who seek help should be lauded and not criticized. These kinds of efforts can help more children to be raised in nonviolent, emotionally satisfying families, and thus become better adults.
When you write a paper, make sure you are aware of all the formatting requirements. Incorrect formatting can lower your mark, so do not underestimate the importance of this part.
Organizing your bibliography is quite a tedious and time-consuming task. Still, you need to do it flawlessly. For this reason, analyze all the standards you need to meet or ask professionals to help you with it. All the comas, colons, brackets etc. matter. They truly do.
- American Academy of Pediatrics: https://www.aap.org/
- Bancroft, L., & Silverman, J. G. (2002). The batterer as parent. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
- Child Abuse Prevention and Treatment Act, 42 U.S.C.A. § 5106g (1998).
- Childhelp: Child Abuse Statistics: https://www.childhelp.org/child-abuse-statistics/
- Children’s Defense Fund: https://www.childrensdefense.org/
- Child Stats.gov: https://www.childstats.gov/
- Child Welfare League of America: https://www.cwla.org/
- Crosson-Tower, C. (2008). Understanding child abuse and neglect (7th ed.). Boston: Allyn & Bacon.
- DeBecker, G. (1999). Protecting the gift: Keeping children and teenagers safe (and parents sane). New York: Bantam Dell.
- Family Research Laboratory at the University of New Hampshire: https://cola.unh.edu/family-research-laboratory
- Guterman, N. B. (2001). Stopping child maltreatment before it starts: Emerging horizons in early home visitation services. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
- Herman, J. L. (2000). Father-daughter incest. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
- Medline Plus, Child Abuse: https://medlineplus.gov/childabuse.html
- Myers, J. E. B. (Ed.). (1994). The backlash: Child protection under fire. Newbury Park, CA: Sage.
- National Center for Missing and Exploited Children: https://www.missingkids.org/home
- National Child Abuse and Neglect Data System. (2006). Child maltreatment 2006: Reports from the states to the National Child Abuse and Neglect Data System. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Administration for Children and Families.
- New York University Silver School of Social Work: https://socialwork.nyu.edu/
- Pitzer, R. L. (1997). Corporal punishment in the discipline of children in the home: Research update for practitioners. Paper presented at the National Council on Family Relations Annual Conference, Washington, DC.
- RAND, Child Abuse and Neglect: https://www.rand.org/topics/child-abuse-and-neglect.html
- Richards, C. E. (2001). The loss of innocents: Child killers and their victims. Wilmington, DE: Scholarly Resources.
- Straus, M. A. (2001). Beating the devil out of them: Corporal punishment in American families and its effects on children. Edison, NJ: Transaction.
- Thomas, P. M. (2004). Protection, dissociation, and internal roles: Modeling and treating the effects of child abuse. Review of General Psychology, 7(15).
- U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Administration for Children and Families: https://www.acf.hhs.gov/
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Campus Life Unplugged: Finding Mindfulness Amidst Student Chaos
By mountainwestwire October 31, 2023 11:26 am
By mountainwestwire | October 31, 2023 11:26 am MT
In the sprawling ecosystem of college campuses, students often find themselves navigating a whirlwind of experiences, both exciting and daunting. With lectures to attend, papers to write, social events to participate in, and personal challenges to overcome, it’s no wonder many students feel overwhelmed. The constant buzz of notifications, the never-ending news cycle, and the pressure to be perpetually “online” only add to this cacophony.
Enter the concept of mindfulness, an ancient practice with contemporary relevance, especially for the student body. As the stresses and strains of academic life mount, mindfulness offers a way to ground oneself, to pause and breathe amidst the chaos. It serves as a bridge to inner peace, helping individuals cultivate a more centered, focused, and balanced approach to life’s challenges.
So, if you’re feeling swamped, wondering who will assist with your project or how you’ll handle all these responsibilities, keep reading. Explore how mindfulness, even in its simplest forms, can offer relief and understanding in the bustling realm of campus life, much like turning to a write my assignment online service for academic help.
The Physical and Psychological Benefits of Mindfulness
Stress reduction and emotional well-being.
Perhaps the most touted benefit of mindfulness is its ability to reduce stress. In the maelstrom of campus life, where assignments, social commitments, and personal challenges can weigh heavily, mindfulness serves as an anchor. By fostering a moment-to-moment awareness, students can prevent themselves from spiraling into anxiety or succumbing to overwhelming pressures. Beyond stress, mindfulness promotes emotional well-being by helping individuals identify, process, and manage their emotions more effectively.
Enhanced Cognitive Abilities
It’s not just the emotional realm that stands to gain from mindfulness. The student brain, always on the go, processing, analyzing, and creating, can benefit immensely. Mindfulness has been linked to improved concentration, better decision-making capabilities, and enhanced memory retention. For a student, this could mean the difference between a night of effective studying and hours spent in fruitless effort.
Boost in Physical Health
Mindfulness can also have tangible physical benefits. Regular practice can lead to a reduction in blood pressure, better sleep, and an improved immune response. For students burning the midnight oil or those navigating the rigors of college athletics, the ability to physically recuperate better can be invaluable.
Mindfulness as an Antidote to Campus Chaos
The vibrancy of campus life is a double-edged sword. While it offers diverse experiences, it can also lead to sensory and information overload. Mindfulness acts as a counterbalance. By training the mind to focus on the present, students can effectively shut out non-essential noise, making space for genuine experiences and deeper learning.
Mindfulness doesn’t only serve as a tool for better mental health; it can also positively influence academic and personal growth. By developing traits like patience, focus, and clarity, students can approach academic tasks more effectively. On the personal front, being present can improve relationships, leading to more meaningful connections and a richer campus life.
Simple Ways to Integrate Mindfulness into Daily Campus Life
One doesn’t need to allocate hours for mindfulness. Something as simple as focused breathing can have immediate benefits. When faced with daunting tasks like a looming exam, students can take a few moments to focus on their breath, grounding themselves and clarifying their minds before diving in.
Daily Meditation Routines
Starting or ending the day with a short meditation can help in creating a balanced mindset. Even just 5 minutes dedicated to scanning one’s body or concentrating on the breath can make a difference. Over time, this can become a cherished routine, offering solace in the campus hustle.
Mindful Eating and Walking
Everyday activities offer opportunities for mindfulness. Eating without distractions allows students to savor their meals, aiding digestion and offering a break from constant stimuli. Similarly, walking between classes can be an exercise in mindfulness. Instead of rushing, one can take in the surroundings, the sensation of each step, and the rhythm of the breath.
In an age of constant online connectivity, occasionally unplugging can be revolutionary. Setting aside dedicated periods without screens—be it an hour before bed or during meals—can help students reconnect with themselves and their immediate environment, making way for a more mindful existence.
Campus Resources and Opportunities for Mindfulness Practices
Many educational institutions, recognizing the importance of mental well-being, have introduced campus-led initiatives focusing on mindfulness and meditation. Students can attend workshops, join weekly meditation sessions, or participate in courses specifically designed to promote mental clarity and resilience.
Clubs and Meet-Ups
Outside of official channels, passionate students have formed clubs and groups dedicated to mindfulness practices. These offer a dual advantage: learning from peers and creating a community of like-minded individuals. Such gatherings can serve as a sanctuary, a place to unplug, share experiences, and grow together.
For those looking to delve deeper, some campuses offer retreats—intensive periods dedicated to mindfulness, away from the usual campus environment. Such experiences allow students to immerse themselves fully, often leading to profound personal insights and lasting practices.
Personal Stories: How Mindfulness Changed Campus Lives
Across campuses, numerous students have shared anecdotes of how mindfulness has transformed their college experience. From battling anxiety before major exams to managing personal relationships better, the stories are varied but echo a common theme—the profound impact of staying present.
It’s not just about the highs; many students have turned to mindfulness during personal lows, using it as a tool to process grief, confront personal challenges, or navigate the complexities of identity and self-worth. These stories serve as testimonials to the resilience-building aspect of mindfulness.
Potential Challenges and Misconceptions about Mindfulness
Addressing the myths.
Mindfulness, despite its growing popularity, is still plagued by misconceptions. Some believe it requires a deep spiritual inclination or vast amounts of free time. In reality, mindfulness is adaptable, fitting into various lifestyles and belief systems. It’s more about the approach than the duration or setting.
Overcoming Initial Hurdles
Starting a new practice, especially one that involves introspection, can be challenging. Students might grapple with restlessness, doubt, or impatience. Recognizing these as natural parts of the journey, and not deterrents, is crucial. With time and persistence, the initial discomfort often gives way to a deeper connection and understanding.
In a campus life dominated by deadlines, notifications, and societal pressures, the art of mindfulness shines as a beacon of hope. It’s akin to pausing in the middle of writing a complex paper to glance at a “WritePaper review,” gaining clarity and guidance to forge ahead effectively. Mindfulness doesn’t promise an escape from challenges but offers tools to face them with poise and clarity.
The journey from chaos to mindfulness isn’t about drastic changes but small, intentional steps. As students weave through the intricate tapestry of college life, integrating mindfulness ensures they don’t just survive but truly thrive, embracing each moment with awareness and gratitude.
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Yes, ChatGPT can help with your college admissions essay. Here's what you need to do to stay within the rules.
- Students who use tools like ChatGPT to write their college essays need to walk a fine line.
- Colleges will likely penalize students who submit completely AI-generated applications.
- Using AI to edit or draft the essays may be acceptable though, a tutoring company founder says.
The education sector has had a rough ride with generative AI.
After the release of ChatGPT, some colleges and schools were quick to put a blanket ban on the bot when students began using it to write their essays. Professors and teachers were left with the difficult task of navigating the new concept of AI plagiarism.
Now, several colleges have changed their tune and are encouraging students and staff to use generative AI as a tool — as long as they don't use it to cheat. However, the guidance is still pretty vague, especially when it comes to admissions and college essays.
"The landscape is shifting, but colleges are not unified in their approach to GPT," Adam Nguyen, founder of tutoring company Ivy Link , told Insider. "If you look across the landscape of college admissions, especially elite college admissions, there are no clear rules on whether you could use GPT or not."
In February, I tested the chatbot's ability to write college application essays . The results were relatively successful , with two private admissions tutors agreeing the essays definitely passed for ones written by a real student and probably would have had a shot at most colleges, but probably not the most selective institutions.
There are telltale signs when an entire essay is AI-generated, Nguyen said. For example, there tends to be a lot of repetition, and the essays are generally mediocre.
"If an essay is clearly written by AI, I think they will penalize the student and that application," Nguyen said.
While it's clear students should be writing their own work, it's less clear if students are allowed to use the tech to help them draft or edit essays.
As colleges grudgingly accept that AI is not going anyway, Nguyen said there's a fine line for students to walk.
"If you fill in the details, restructure the essay, and provide the specific language and sentences, that will make the essay your own," he said. "I think many colleges would be fine with that."
He continued, "I would suggest not using it as a default. If you're really stuck, you could use it to start." He suggested that, as a general rule, at least 80% of the essays needed to be edited and changed to be on the safe side.
"If an essay's really good, it won't raise any suspicion, and I don't think most colleges will care that you use GPT to start, as long as they can't tell either," he added.
Watch: What is ChatGPT, and should we be afraid of AI chatbots?
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Learn Legal and Public Policy Writing for WI Credit
Take writing for the professions.
New York Stock Exchange
The Department of Writing invites students to enroll in Writing for the Professions (WRTG-31100, CRN 41174) in Spring 2024. Designated Writing Intensive (WI) for the Integrated Core Curriculum (ICC), this legal, public policy, and administrative writing course will be offered 9:25 AM to 11:05 AM, Tuesday-Thursday, in Smiddy 108.
Writing from the Professions teaches ethics and argumentation within various institutional contexts. It is ideal, therefore, for majors and minors seeking careers in corporate communications; grassroots activism; government and law; investigative journalism and documentary film-making; management and marketing; medical, educational, and nonprofit administration; political and environmental lobbying; public policy and public relations; social work and human services. The course also prepares undergraduates for the rigors of graduate school.
Students produce such specialized documents as policy and mission statements, position papers, dossiers, legal research memos, briefs, and long reports. Bridging the public and private sectors, these assignments teach young professionals how to define issues, propose changes, judge actions, and promote values within their chosen field. Besides tackling case studies from within their own profession, students debate peers from other professions about controversies involving business, government, law, and medicine.
Download a past course syllabus at:
Course prerequisites: One 200-level course in Liberal Arts (LA) and WRTG 10600 or ICSM 10800. These prerequisites allow easy access to students who are not Writing majors and minors. Should you experience problems enrolling online, however, contact Dr. Anthony Di Renzo at [email protected] .
Writing for the Professions will not be offered again until Spring 2026, so please take advantage of this opportunity.