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Tables and Figures
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Note: This page reflects the latest version of the APA Publication Manual (i.e., APA 7), which released in October 2019. The equivalent resources for the older APA 6 style can be found at this page as well as at this page (our old resources covered the material on this page on two separate pages).
The purpose of tables and figures in documents is to enhance your readers' understanding of the information in the document; usually, large amounts of information can be communicated more efficiently in tables or figures. Tables are any graphic that uses a row and column structure to organize information, whereas figures include any illustration or image other than a table.
Visual material such as tables and figures can be used quickly and efficiently to present a large amount of information to an audience, but visuals must be used to assist communication, not to use up space, or disguise marginally significant results behind a screen of complicated statistics. Ask yourself this question first: Is the table or figure necessary? For example, it is better to present simple descriptive statistics in the text, not in a table.
Relation of Tables or Figures and Text
Because tables and figures supplement the text, refer in the text to all tables and figures used and explain what the reader should look for when using the table or figure. Focus only on the important point the reader should draw from them, and leave the details for the reader to examine on their own.
If you are using figures, tables and/or data from other sources, be sure to gather all the information you will need to properly document your sources.
Integrity and Independence
Each table and figure must be intelligible without reference to the text, so be sure to include an explanation of every abbreviation (except the standard statistical symbols and abbreviations).
Organization, Consistency, and Coherence
Number all tables sequentially as you refer to them in the text (Table 1, Table 2, etc.), likewise for figures (Figure 1, Figure 2, etc.). Abbreviations, terminology, and probability level values must be consistent across tables and figures in the same article. Likewise, formats, titles, and headings must be consistent. Do not repeat the same data in different tables.
Data in a table that would require only two or fewer columns and rows should be presented in the text. More complex data is better presented in tabular format. In order for quantitative data to be presented clearly and efficiently, it must be arranged logically, e.g. data to be compared must be presented next to one another (before/after, young/old, male/female, etc.), and statistical information (means, standard deviations, N values) must be presented in separate parts of the table. If possible, use canonical forms (such as ANOVA, regression, or correlation) to communicate your data effectively.
A generic example of a table with multiple notes formatted in APA 7 style.
Elements of Tables
Number all tables with Arabic numerals sequentially. Do not use suffix letters (e.g. Table 3a, 3b, 3c); instead, combine the related tables. If the manuscript includes an appendix with tables, identify them with capital letters and Arabic numerals (e.g. Table A1, Table B2).
Like the title of the paper itself, each table must have a clear and concise title. Titles should be written in italicized title case below the table number, with a blank line between the number and the title. When appropriate, you may use the title to explain an abbreviation parenthetically.
Comparison of Median Income of Adopted Children (AC) v. Foster Children (FC)
Keep headings clear and brief. The heading should not be much wider than the widest entry in the column. Use of standard abbreviations can aid in achieving that goal. There are several types of headings:
- Stub headings describe the lefthand column, or stub column , which usually lists major independent variables.
- Column headings describe entries below them, applying to just one column.
- Column spanners are headings that describe entries below them, applying to two or more columns which each have their own column heading. Column spanners are often stacked on top of column headings and together are called decked heads .
- Table Spanners cover the entire width of the table, allowing for more divisions or combining tables with identical column headings. They are the only type of heading that may be plural.
All columns must have headings, written in sentence case and using singular language (Item rather than Items) unless referring to a group (Men, Women). Each column’s items should be parallel (i.e., every item in a column labeled “%” should be a percentage and does not require the % symbol, since it’s already indicated in the heading). Subsections within the stub column can be shown by indenting headings rather than creating new columns:
The body is the main part of the table, which includes all the reported information organized in cells (intersections of rows and columns). Entries should be center aligned unless left aligning them would make them easier to read (longer entries, usually). Word entries in the body should use sentence case. Leave cells blank if the element is not applicable or if data were not obtained; use a dash in cells and a general note if it is necessary to explain why cells are blank. In reporting the data, consistency is key: Numerals should be expressed to a consistent number of decimal places that is determined by the precision of measurement. Never change the unit of measurement or the number of decimal places in the same column.
There are three types of notes for tables: general, specific, and probability notes. All of them must be placed below the table in that order.
General notes explain, qualify or provide information about the table as a whole. Put explanations of abbreviations, symbols, etc. here.
Example: Note . The racial categories used by the US Census (African-American, Asian American, Latinos/-as, Native-American, and Pacific Islander) have been collapsed into the category “non-White.” E = excludes respondents who self-identified as “White” and at least one other “non-White” race.
Specific notes explain, qualify or provide information about a particular column, row, or individual entry. To indicate specific notes, use superscript lowercase letters (e.g. a , b , c ), and order the superscripts from left to right, top to bottom. Each table’s first footnote must be the superscript a .
a n = 823. b One participant in this group was diagnosed with schizophrenia during the survey.
Probability notes provide the reader with the results of the tests for statistical significance. Asterisks indicate the values for which the null hypothesis is rejected, with the probability ( p value) specified in the probability note. Such notes are required only when relevant to the data in the table. Consistently use the same number of asterisks for a given alpha level throughout your paper.
* p < .05. ** p < .01. *** p < .001
If you need to distinguish between two-tailed and one-tailed tests in the same table, use asterisks for two-tailed p values and an alternate symbol (such as daggers) for one-tailed p values.
* p < .05, two-tailed. ** p < .01, two-tailed. † p <.05, one-tailed. †† p < .01, one-tailed.
Tables should only include borders and lines that are needed for clarity (i.e., between elements of a decked head, above column spanners, separating total rows, etc.). Do not use vertical borders, and do not use borders around each cell. Spacing and strict alignment is typically enough to clarify relationships between elements.
Example of a table in the text of an APA 7 paper. Note the lack of vertical borders.
Tables from Other Sources
If using tables from an external source, copy the structure of the original exactly, and cite the source in accordance with APA style .
(Taken from the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association , 7th ed., Section 7.20)
- Is the table necessary?
- Does it belong in the print and electronic versions of the article, or can it go in an online supplemental file?
- Are all comparable tables presented consistently?
- Are all tables numbered with Arabic numerals in the order they are mentioned in the text? Is the table number bold and left-aligned?
- Are all tables referred to in the text?
- Is the title brief but explanatory? Is it presented in italicized title case and left-aligned?
- Does every column have a column heading? Are column headings centered?
- Are all abbreviations; special use of italics, parentheses, and dashes; and special symbols explained?
- Are the notes organized according to the convention of general, specific, probability?
- Are table borders correctly used (top and bottom of table, beneath column headings, above table spanners)?
- Does the table use correct line spacing (double for the table number, title, and notes; single, one and a half, or double for the body)?
- Are entries in the left column left-aligned beneath the centered stub heading? Are all other column headings and cell entries centered?
- Are confidence intervals reported for all major point estimates?
- Are all probability level values correctly identified, and are asterisks attached to the appropriate table entries? Is a probability level assigned the same number of asterisks in all the tables in the same document?
- If the table or its data are from another source, is the source properly cited? Is permission necessary to reproduce the table?
Figures include all graphical displays of information that are not tables. Common types include graphs, charts, drawings, maps, plots, and photos. Just like tables, figures should supplement the text and should be both understandable on their own and referenced fully in the text. This section details elements of formatting writers must use when including a figure in an APA document, gives an example of a figure formatted in APA style, and includes a checklist for formatting figures.
In preparing figures, communication and readability must be the ultimate criteria. Avoid the temptation to use the special effects available in most advanced software packages. While three-dimensional effects, shading, and layered text may look interesting to the author, overuse, inconsistent use, and misuse may distort the data, and distract or even annoy readers. Design properly done is inconspicuous, almost invisible, because it supports communication. Design improperly, or amateurishly, done draws the reader’s attention from the data, and makes him or her question the author’s credibility. Line drawings are usually a good option for readability and simplicity; for photographs, high contrast between background and focal point is important, as well as cropping out extraneous detail to help the reader focus on the important aspects of the photo.
Parts of a Figure
All figures that are part of the main text require a number using Arabic numerals (Figure 1, Figure 2, etc.). Numbers are assigned based on the order in which figures appear in the text and are bolded and left aligned.
Under the number, write the title of the figure in italicized title case. The title should be brief, clear, and explanatory, and both the title and number should be double spaced.
The image of the figure is the body, and it is positioned underneath the number and title. The image should be legible in both size and resolution; fonts should be sans serif, consistently sized, and between 8-14 pt. Title case should be used for axis labels and other headings; descriptions within figures should be in sentence case. Shading and color should be limited for clarity; use patterns along with color and check contrast between colors with free online checkers to ensure all users (people with color vision deficiencies or readers printing in grayscale, for instance) can access the content. Gridlines and 3-D effects should be avoided unless they are necessary for clarity or essential content information.
Legends, or keys, explain symbols, styles, patterns, shading, or colors in the image. Words in the legend should be in title case; legends should go within or underneath the image rather than to the side. Not all figures will require a legend.
Notes clarify the content of the figure; like tables, notes can be general, specific, or probability. General notes explain units of measurement, symbols, and abbreviations, or provide citation information. Specific notes identify specific elements using superscripts; probability notes explain statistical significance of certain values.
A generic example of a figure formatted in APA 7 style.
(Taken from the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association , 7 th ed., Section 7.35)
- Is the figure necessary?
- Does the figure belong in the print and electronic versions of the article, or is it supplemental?
- Is the figure simple, clean, and free of extraneous detail?
- Is the figure title descriptive of the content of the figure? Is it written in italic title case and left aligned?
- Are all elements of the figure clearly labeled?
- Are the magnitude, scale, and direction of grid elements clearly labeled?
- Are parallel figures or equally important figures prepared according to the same scale?
- Are the figures numbered consecutively with Arabic numerals? Is the figure number bold and left aligned?
- Has the figure been formatted properly? Is the font sans serif in the image portion of the figure and between sizes 8 and 14?
- Are all abbreviations and special symbols explained?
- If the figure has a legend, does it appear within or below the image? Are the legend’s words written in title case?
- Are the figure notes in general, specific, and probability order? Are they double-spaced, left aligned, and in the same font as the paper?
- Are all figures mentioned in the text?
- Has written permission for print and electronic reuse been obtained? Is proper credit given in the figure caption?
- Have all substantive modifications to photographic images been disclosed?
- Are the figures being submitted in a file format acceptable to the publisher?
- Have the files been produced at a sufficiently high resolution to allow for accurate reproduction?
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APA Format for Tables and Figures | Annotated Examples
Published on November 5, 2020 by Jack Caulfield . Revised on June 2, 2022.
A table concisely presents information (often numbers) in rows and columns. A figure is any other image or illustration you include in your text—anything from a bar chart to a photograph.
Table of contents
Apa table format, apa figure format, numbering and titling tables and figures, formatting table and figure notes, where to place tables and figures, referring to tables and figures in the text, frequently asked questions about apa tables and figures.
Tables will vary in size and structure depending on the data you’re presenting, but APA gives some general guidelines for their design. To correctly format an APA table, follow these rules:
- Table number in bold above the table.
- Brief title, in italics and title case, below the table number.
- No vertical lines.
- Horizontal lines only where necessary for clarity.
- Clear, concise labels for column and row headings.
- Numbers consistently formatted (e.g. with the same number of decimal places).
- Any relevant notes below the table.
An example of a table formatted according to APA guidelines is shown below.
The table above uses only four lines: Those at the top and bottom, and those separating the main data from the column heads and the totals.
Create your tables using the tools built into your word processor. In Word, you can use the “ Insert table ” tool.
Prevent plagiarism. Run a free check.
Any images used within your text are called figures. Figures include data visualization graphics—e.g. graphs, diagrams, flowcharts—as well as things like photographs and artworks.
To correctly format an APA figure, follow these rules:
- Figure number in bold above the figure.
- Brief title, in italics and title case, under the figure number.
- If necessary, clear labels and legends integrated into the image.
- Any relevant notes below the figure.
An example of a figure formatted according to APA guidelines is shown below.
Keep the design of figures as simple as possible. Use colors only where necessary, not just to make the image look more appealing.
For text within the image itself, APA recommends using a sans serif font (e.g. Arial) with a size between 8 and 14 points.
For other figures, such as photographs, you won’t need a legend; the figure consists simply of the image itself, reproduced at an appropriate size and resolution.
Each table or figure is preceded by a number and title.
Tables and figures are each numbered separately, in the order they are referred to in your text. For example, the first table you refer to is Table 1; the fourth figure you refer to is Figure 4.
The title should clearly and straightforwardly describe the content of the table or figure. Omit articles to keep it concise.
The table or figure number appears on its own line, in bold, followed by the title on the following line, in italics and title case.
Where a table or figure needs further explanation, notes should be included immediately after it. These are not your analysis of the data presented; save that for the main text.
There are three kinds of notes: general , specific , and probability . Each type of note appears in a new paragraph, but multiple notes of the same kind all appear in one paragraph.
Only include the notes that are needed to understand the table or figure. It may be that it is clear in itself, and has no notes, or only probability notes; be as concise as possible.
General notes come first. They are preceded by the word “ Note ” in italics, followed by a period. They include any explanations that apply to the table or figure as a whole and a citation if it was adapted from another source, and they end with definitions of any abbreviations used.
Specific notes refer to specific points in the table or figure. Superscript letters (a, b, c …) appear at the relevant points in the table or figure and at the start of each note to indicate what they refer to. They are used when it’s necessary to comment on a specific data point or term.
Probability notes give p -values for the data in the table or figure. They correspond to asterisks (and/or other symbols) in the table or figure.
You have two options for the placement of tables and figures in APA Style:
- Option 1: Place tables and figures throughout your text, shortly after the parts of the text that refer to them.
- Option 2: Place them all together at the end of your text (after the reference list) to avoid breaking up the text.
If you place them throughout the text, note that each table or figure should only appear once. If you refer to the same table or figure more than once, don’t reproduce it each time—just place it after the paragraph in which it’s first discussed.
Align the table or figure with the text along the left margin. Leave a line break before and after the table or figure to clearly distinguish it from the main text, and place it on a new page if necessary to avoid splitting it across multiple pages.
If you place all your tables and figures at the end, you should have one table or figure on each page. Begin with all your tables, then place all your figures afterwards.
Avoid making redundant statements about your tables and figures in your text. When you write about data from tables and figures, it should be to highlight or analyze a particular data point or trend, not simply to restate what is already clearly shown in the table or figure:
- As Table 1 shows, there are 115 boys in Grade 4, 130 in Grade 5, and 117 in Grade 6 …
- Table 1 indicates a notable preponderance of boys in Grade 5. It is important to take this into account because …
Additionally, even if you have embedded your tables and figures in your text, refer to them by their numbers, not by their position relative to the text or by description:
- The table below shows…
- Table 1 shows…
- As can be seen in the image on page 4…
- As can be seen in Figure 3…
- The photograph of a bald eagle is an example of…
- Figure 1 is an example of…
In an APA Style paper , use a table or figure when it’s a clearer way to present important data than describing it in your main text. This is often the case when you need to communicate a large amount of information.
Before including a table or figure in your text, always reflect on whether it’s useful to your readers’ understanding:
- Could this information be quickly summarized in the text instead?
- Is it important to your arguments?
- Does the table or figure require too much explanation to be efficient?
If the data you need to present only contains a few relevant numbers, try summarizing it in the text (potentially including full data in an appendix ). If describing the data makes your text overly long and difficult to read, a table or figure may be the best option.
APA doesn’t require you to include a list of tables or a list of figures . However, it is advisable to do so if your text is long enough to feature a table of contents and it includes a lot of tables and/or figures.
A list of tables and list of figures appear (in that order) after your table of contents , and are presented in a similar way.
If you adapt or reproduce a table or figure from another source, you should include that source in your APA reference list . You should also acknowledge the original source in the note or caption for the table or figure.
Tables and figures you created yourself, based on your own data, are not included in the reference list.
In most styles, the title page is used purely to provide information and doesn’t include any images. Ask your supervisor if you are allowed to include an image on the title page before doing so. If you do decide to include one, make sure to check whether you need permission from the creator of the image.
Include a note directly beneath the image acknowledging where it comes from, beginning with the word “ Note .” (italicized and followed by a period). Include a citation and copyright attribution . Don’t title, number, or label the image as a figure , since it doesn’t appear in your main text.
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Caulfield, J. (2022, June 02). APA Format for Tables and Figures | Annotated Examples. Scribbr. Retrieved November 22, 2023, from https://www.scribbr.com/apa-style/tables-and-figures/
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APA 7th Referencing Style Guide
- Referencing & APA style
- In-text citation
- Elements of a reference
- Format & examples of a reference list
- Reports & grey literature
- Figures (graphs and images)
From a book, from an article, from a library database, from a website, citing your own table.
- Theses and dissertations
- Audio works
- Films, TV & video
- Visual works
- Computer software, games & apps
- Lecture notes & Intranet resources
- Legal resources
- Personal communications
- PowerPoint slides
- Social media
- Specific health examples
- Standards & patents
- Websites & webpages
- Footnotes and appendices
- Frequently asked questions
Tables usually show numerical values or text, in columns and rows
- Anything other than a table is a Figure
- Number: The table number (e.g. Table 1 ) appears above the table in bold (no italics, no period ending)
- Title : The table title appears one double-spaced line below the table number, using non-bolded Italic Title Case (no period ending)
- Headings : All tables should include column headings, including a heading for the leftmost column (stub heading)
- Body: The table body includes all the rows and columns of a table. The body may be single space, one and a half spaced, or double spaced, which ever is clearer. Limit the use of borders or lines in a table to those needed for clarity. Do not use vertical borders to separate data (see APA Manual, s. 7.17, pp. 205-206 for more details)
- Note: A note can appear below the table to describe the contents of the table that cannot be understood from the table title or body alone, (e.g. definitions of abbreviations, copyright attribution). Notes are double-spaced and flush left. Not all tables include table notes
- In the text, refer to every table by its number. For example, "As shown in Table 1, ..." (no italics, capital "T" for "Table")
- There are two options for the placement of tables in a paper. The first option is to place all tables on separate pages after the reference list. The second option is to embed each table within the text
- If you reprint or adapt a table from another source in your paper (e.g. a table from a published work), you must include a copyright attribution in the table note indicating the origin of the reprinted or adapted material in addition to a reference list entry for the work
- Important notes: When reproducing or adapting copyrighted tables/data sets in your thesis or dissertation or other publications - you must get permission from the copyright holder/s for using the material in your thesis or dissertation or other publications. You may not need permission when a reprinted or adapted figure is obtained from the public domain. Works used Creative Commons licences should be cited accordingly.
Check the APA Style website for an illustration of the basic table component and placement of tables in a text
More information & examples from the APA Style Manual , s. 7.8-7.21, pp. 199–224 224)
Table reproduced in your text
Note format - for notes below the table
If copyright permission was required (eg. reproduced in a thesis/dissertation/exegeses), the note would instead read:
In-text citation:, table referred to, but not reproduced in text.
If you simply refer to a table, format the in-text citation and the reference list entry as for books
Table reproduced in the text, example: .
The Ratio of the Value of Newly Acquired Loans to Acquisition Target
Note. Reprinted from “When Salespeople Manage Customer
Relationships: Multidimensional Incentives and Private Information,”
by M. Kim, K. Sudhir, K. Uetake, and R. Caneles, 2019, Journal of
Marketing, 56 (5), p. 765. Copyright 2019 by the American Marketing Association.
Table referred to but not reproduced or included in the text
If you simply refer to a table, format the in-text citation and the reference list entry as for articles.
Table reproduced in your text
Note format - below the table
Percentage of Men and Women Who Have Bought Fruit and Vegetable Products in the Last Four Weeks
Note. wc = weighted count, shown in thousands; v% =vertical percentage,
showing which % of the column group also belongs to the row group;
h% = horizontal percentage. Roy Morgan Single Source
New Zealand. Copyright 2015 by Roy Morgan Single Source New Zealand.
Table referred to but not reproduced in the text
Note format - for notes below the table.
Percentage of New Zealand Population Who Have Never Worked by Age Group.
June 2016 quarter
Note . Adapted from http://www.stats.govt.nz/browse_for_stats/income-and-work/employment_
and_unemployment/people-never-worked.aspx. Copyright 2016 by Statistics New Zealand.
Use the reference style for websites
If you refer to a table but don’t provide a copy of it in your assessment, simply give an in-text citation as for websites.
If your table has been included in a formally published work reference the work.
If your table is available on a website reference the webpage (see examples in the webpage section ).
For your own tables in an assignment:
- Include a title
- Add a note explaining the content
- You can, if you wish, add a statement that it is your own work.
- You do not need to add an in-text citation or add it to your reference list.
An example of a table (not real data):
Data from a survey of engineering students and staff
Note. Data collected by author on the 26th of October 2022.
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Citing tables, figures & images: APA (7th ed.) citation guide
On this page, introduction, general guidelines, examples for citing figures & images, examples for citing tables.
This guide is based on the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association, 7th ed. It provides selected citation examples for common types of sources. For more detailed information consult directly a print copy of the style manual.
Check out APA's Guide to what's new for APA 7 .
Keep track of your document references/citations and format your reference lists easily with Citation management software .
Tables and figures (includes images) follow similar set up and formatting. The guidelines below focus on common examples used by students for academic papers . For details on creating tables or figures for submission to journals or graduate theses, see APA's Tables and figures or consult the guide directly (Section 7, pp. 195–250).
Wondering if you can use that image you found online? Refer to SFU's Copyright and your coursework or the FAQ What is fair dealing? for guidelines on use.
- All figures and tables must be mentioned in the text (a "callout") by their number. Do not refer to the table/figure using either "the table above" or "the figure below."
- Assign table/figure # in the order as it appears, numbered consecutively, in your paper - not the figure # assigned to it in its original resource.
- A note is added when further description, for example, definitions or copyright attribution, is necessary to explain the figure or table. Most student papers will require a general note for copyright attribution and acknowledgement whether it is reprinted or adapted from another source. Consult the guide directly for detailed instructions on formatting notes (Section 7.14, pp. 203–205).
- For copyright attribution templates , consult Table 12.1 on page 390 of the guide (Section 12.18, pp. 389-390).
- If permission is required for reprinting or adapting, at the end of the citation place: Reprinted with permission or Adapted with permission followed by a period.
- All the sources must have a full bibliographic entry in your Reference List .
- Review your figure/table against the appropriate checklist found only in the guide (Sections 7.20, Table, p. 206 and 7.35, Figure, p. 232).
Order of components
Above the figure/table.
- Write " Figure " or " Table " in bold font, flush left, followed by the number, for example, Figure 1 .
- Write the figure/table title using italic case below the figure/table number,
- Double-space the figure/table number and title,
- Embed image.
Below the figure/table
- On a new line below the figure/table, flush left, place Note. Provide further details/explanation about the information in the figure/table only if necessary. State if material is reprinted or adapted —use " From " if reprinted or " Adapted from " if adapted. Followed directly by the copyright attribution —this is basically the same information as found in the reference list entry but in a different order.
- Separate figure/table from the text with one blank double-spaced line.
Placement in paper
- embed in the text after it is first mentioned or,
- place on a separate page after the reference list (an appendix).
- When embedding all figures and tables are aligned with the left margin .
- All examples in this guide show embedded figures and tables.
Refer directly to the guide for more detailed notes on placement (Section 7.6, p. 198).
Figures include: images found online, maps , graphs , charts, drawings, and photographs, or any other illustration or non-textual depiction in printed or electronic resources.
See APA's Figure set up for detailed information on the basic components of a figure, principles of creation, and placement in papers with formatting requirements, or consult the guide directly (Section 7.22–7.36, pp. 225–250).
Review APA's guide for Accessible use of colour in table/figures for best practices.
Exact copy from a single source (aka reprinted)
The following example is when it is reproduced in your paper exactly as it appears in another source : Same format or state, no reconfiguration or new analysis.
Compiled from variety of sources
The following example is for citing a figure that you have created by compiling information from a variety of sources. For example, if you combined data from a database, a website , and a government report to create a new chart. Each source requires a copyright attribution in a general note and full bibliographic entry in the Reference List.
See APA's Clip art or stock image references , Image with no attribution required , Image requires an attribution , or consult the guide directly (Section 12.14–12.18, pp. 384–390 ).
Citing but not reproducing the image? See Visual: Artwork in museum, PowerPoint slides, photographs, clipart/stock image, maps retrieved online in this guide for examples or consult the guide directly (Section 10.14, pp. 346–347).
Image with attribution
Reference list examples
Beletsky, Y. (2013). Three planets dance over La Silla [Photograph]. European Southern Observatory. https://www.eso.org/public/images/potw1322a/
Euromonitor International. (2020). [Statistical data on market sizes of fresh food]. Passport . Retrieved January 21, 2021, from https://go.euromonitor.com/passport.html
FranceAgriMer. (2020, September). Consommation des produits carnes en 2019 . https://www.franceagrimer.fr/content/download/64994/document/STA-VIA-Consommation%20des%20produits%20carn%C3%A9s%20en%202019.pdf
Natural Resources Institute Finland. (2020). Consumption of food commodities per capita by year and commodity [Statistics database]. http://statdb.luke.fi/PXWeb/sq/d1b368d7-9c07-4efd-b727-13e57db90ee6
Okemasim–Sicotte, D. R., Gingell, S., & Bouvier, R. (2018). Iskwewuk E–wichiwitochik. In K. Anderson, M. Campbell, & C. Belcourt (Eds.), Keetsahnak /Our missing and murdered Indigenous sisters (pp. 243–269). University of Alberta Press.
Irish, J. (2019). Sequoia National Park. [Photograph]. National Geographic. https://www.nationalgeographic.com/travel/destinations/north-america/united-states/61-national-parks-photos/#/giant-tree-trail-sequoia-national-park.jpg
Drewes, W. (n.d.). Frog and insects (no.200) . [Painting]. The Smithsonian Institution. https://www.si.edu/object/saam_1968.9.50
- See the General Notes in this guide for help with creating citations with missing information , e.g. using a description if no title—see Euromonitor International in the reference list above.
- For figures compiled from multiple sources, identify individual source information using the following format in the "From" statement: Note . The data for Country Name are from [copyright attribution according to source]. End each copyright attribution with a period.
- Use author-date in-text citation when the data is transformed (reconfigured or reanalyzed) to produce different numbers. (Section 12.15 Data subsection, p. 385).
- If work is published or read online, use live links—check with your instructor for their preference.
Tables are characterized by a row-column structure. See APA's Table set up for detailed information on the basic components of a table, principles of creation, and placement in papers with formatting requirements, or consult the guide directly (Section 7.8–7.21, pp. 199–224).
Exact copy from a single source (aka reprint)
If you have compiled data from a variety of different sources and put it together to form your own table, you still need to cite where you got the information from. Each source requires a copyright attribution in a general note and full bibliographic entry in the Reference List.
British Columbia Ministry of Health. (2019). Baby’s most chosen names in British Columbia, 2019 . https://connect.health.gov.bc.ca/babynames?year=2019
eHealth Saskatchewan. (2019). Most popular baby names for 2019 . https://www.ehealthsask.ca/health-data/babynames/Pages/mostpopular2019.aspx
Government of Alberta. (2019). Alberta’s top baby names . https://www.alberta.ca/top-baby-names.aspx
Manitoba Vital Statistics Agency . (2020). Annual report 2019-2020 . https://vitalstats.gov.mb.ca/pdf/2020_vs_annual_report_en.pdf
Williams, C. L. (1992). The glass escalator: Hidden advantages for men in the "female" professions. Social Problems , 39 (3), 253-267. https://doi.org/10.2307/3096961
- For tables compiled from multiple sources, in the "From" statement, identify each individual source information. e.g.: Note . The data for Country Name are from [copyright attribution according to source]. End each copyright attribution with a period.
- If you have multiple kinds of data (population figures, consumer information, etc...) in one table you would describe each set of data. e.g.: Note. Population figures for XYZ are from [ copyright attribution according to source ] and for ABC are from [ copyright attribution according to source ]. Data for pet ownership for XYZ are from [ copyright attribution according to source ] and for ABC are from [ copyright attribution according to source ]. End each copyright attribution with a period.
- Use an author-date in-text citation when the data is transformed (reconfigured or reanalyzed) to produce different numbers. (Section 12.15 Data subsection, p. 385).
- All the sources must have a full bibliographic entry in your Reference List even though the information in the Note field uses a lot of the same information.
- If work is published or read online, APA recommends using live links— check with your instructor for their preference.
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Tables and Figures
Learn about the components of a figure, including how to create an effective image, use a legend, and write a caption.
© 2021 American Psychological Association.
Learn about the components of a table, including how to number and title a table, use table headings, construct the table itself, write table notes, and use other marks or spacing.
Table and Figure Basics
- Use tables to simplify text and to show a large amount of information in a concise way. If a table has less than two rows, use text instead.
- Refer to every table in the text by Arabic numbers (e.g., As shown in Table 1) or with a citation (see Table 1). Summarize the main points of the table as an introduction.
- Number tables in the order they are mentioned.
- If you abbreviate a word in one table, you must do it in all tables.
- Titles should be brief but explain the main function or purpose.
- Use title case for table titles, which means to capitalize all nouns, verbs, proper nouns, and major words.
- Minor words less than four letters should be lowercased.
- The word “Table” and the number should be bolded.
- Italicize the table title
Definitions of Variables and Sample Items
- You can use standard abbreviations and symbols such as percents (%) and numbers (no.) in headings without explanation.
- Ensure each column has a heading.
- See a quick guide on tables below for the different heading types.
- The contents of the table may be single-spaced, one-and-a-half-spaced, or double-spaced.
- Use 12-point if possible and only use 10-point if this font ensures the table fits on one page instead of two.
- Notes are single-spaced.
- Any type of illustration (chart, graph, photograph, drawing) should be cited as a figure instead of a table.
- Figures should complement the information in the text or to simplify the text.
- Number figures in the order they are mentioned.
- 12-pt Courier is often used for figure font
- Also, keep vocabulary and abbreviations consistent between figures and tables.
- Make sure data are plotted accurately and proportioned.
- Place labels close to identified items.
- Axis labels on graphs must be parallel to their axes.
- The word “Figure” and the Figure number should be bolded
- The figure title is in title case and italics.
- When included, Figure notes should begin with the word “ Note ” in italics, followed by a period and space. The note is placed below the figure.
Note: For both tables and figures, put them as close to where they are first mentioned as possible without interrupting the text. Usually, a table or figure will appear after the paragraph in which they are first mentioned.
Additional Table and Figure Resources
- APA Table Setup
- Sample Tables
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APA (7th ed.) Citation Style Guide: Tables and Figures
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Citing Tables and Figures in the Text
If you use a table or figure from another source, then you must acknowledge this original source in a note placed underneath the table or figure within the text of your paper.
Include the word Note . before your citation.
The format for citations placed underneath tables and figures is different to those used for the reference list.
Note . Adapted from “Sampling and Recruitment in Studies of Cultural Influences on Adjustment: A Case Study With Mexican Americans,” by M.W. Roosa , F.F. Liu, M. Torres, N.A. Gonzales, G.P. Knight, and D. Saenz , 2008, Journal of Family Psychology , 22, p. 300.
" In the text, refer to every table and figure by its number - known as a callout. ..When you call out a table or figure, also tell readers what to look for in that table or figure.
As shown in Table 1, the demographic characteristics...
Figure 2 shows that the event-related potentials ...
...of the results of the testing (see Table 3).
...of the comparisons (see Figures 4 and 7).
Do not write "the table above" (or "below") or "the figure on page 32. Page numbers often shift during the writing process, which can lead to errors" Publication manual of the American Psychological Association, 7th ed., 2020, p. 197).
APA Style - Table Example
The example below is how to create your own table in an APA format paper or assignment.
Tables usually show numerical values or textual information arranged in columns or rows.
Number: The table number goes above the table in bold . (e.g. Table 1)
Title: The table title goes one double-spaced line below the table number in italics in title case. (In title case the first letter of major words are capitalized).
Headings: All tables should include column headings including a heading for the left most column (aka stub heading).
Body: The table body includes all the rows and columns of a table. The body can be single spaced, one-and-a-half spaced, or double spaced.
Notes: Notes describing the contents of the table appear below the table. Not all table include table notes. Notes are double-spaced and flush left.
For further information on figures please refer to pages 199-224 of the Publication manual of the American Psychological Association , 7th ed., 2020.
What are Figures
APA considers figures "all types of graphical displays other than tables." This includes photographs, drawings, charts, graphs, or any other illustration or non-textual portrayal of information.
Number: The figure number goes above the figure in bold (e.g. Figure 1)
Title: The figure title appears one double-spaced line below the figure number in italics in title case . In title case the first letter of major words are capitalized.
Image: The image part of the figure is the chart, graph, photograph, drawing or other illustration itself
Legend: The figure legend (also know as a key), if used, should be positioned within the borders of the figure and explain any symbols used in the figure image.
Note : figure notes can appear below the figure to explain, describe, clarify or supplement information in the image. Not all figures include notes. Notes are double-spaced and flush left.
For further information on figures please refer to pages 225 - 250 of the Publication manual of the American Psychological Association , 7th ed., 2020.
APA Style - Figure Example
The example below is how to create your own figure in an APA format paper or assignment.
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How to Format Tables per APA Style
23rd May 2014
This article will show you the basics of how to format tables per APA style . Please note that it is far from comprehensive, but it should get you started on the right track!
Introduction to APA Style Tables
Tables function as a supplement to your content and are considered nonessential and separate elements from your paper. This means several things: your reader should be able to understand your paper without looking at your table, your paper must refer to and briefly discuss the table within the narrative, and the reader must be able to look at the table and understand it without reading your text. To that end, all abbreviations must be defined within the table and all probability values should be defined and easily located by the reader.
Where to Place Your Table Per APA Style
The location of your tables will depend on the specifications given by your instructor. Per APA, tables can appear in the back matter after references (before figures and appendices) or within the body of your text. If placing a table within the body of the text, position it as close as possible to where you refer to it in the text. If possible, do not have your table span more than one page.
Tables from Another Source
If your table is from another source or based on information from another source, you must cite this source below the table. Below your table, write “ Note.” followed by any descriptive notes, if applicable, and then provide the source information. Note that the format for citing a table differs slightly from the APA reference list. The format is as follows: Note. Descriptive note. Adapted from Title of Book (p. xx), by F. M. Author and C. D. Author, year, Place of Publication: Publisher. Copyright year by the Name of Copyright Holder. Adapted [or Reprinted] with permission.
Table Formatting Tips
Take into consideration the following points when formatting your table:
- Numbering: Tables are numbered with sequential Arabic figures: Table 1, Table 2, and so on. Do not number your tables with references to chapter number or with letters (i.e. Table 2.4).
- Title: The title of each table appears below the table number. The title should be flush left, in italics, title cased, and not bolded, underlined, or in quotation marks. For example, this will appear directly above your table:
Table 1 Participants’ Income by Age Bracket and Gender
- Font choice: Text in your table should be Times New Roman. Numerical data should be in a Sans Serif (such as Arial) font. Table font size should be 12 point, though the font for the header and any notes may be 10 or 12 point.
- Gridlines: APA tables never use vertical lines. Horizontal lines are the only lines permitted, and they should appear below column headings and the table itself. Do not use a full table grid to produce your table—instead, use Word’s table function to hide all vertical lines.
- Column alignment: Each column should be aligned. You may align columns by decimal point, commas, or number places. Note that each column with numerical data should be displayed consistently: use the same number of decimal places and unit of measurement for each column. Each column heading should have a brief and title.
- Spacing: Your table may be single-spaced or double-spaced, but consistency across all tables in your paper is required. The optional “note” that appears below your table should be single-spaced.
- Notes: To provide additional information, including explanatory details and probability notes, add a line below the table that begins with “Note.” Asterisks may be used to indicate which findings are statistically significant.
Below is an example of a properly formatted table, which has been reprinted from APA’s blog .
Your APA manual will be an excellent resource for how to format specific types of tables that you may encounter. Purdue’s OWL website has helpful information on overall table formatting, as well as how to set up common types of data in a table, including regression and ANOVA tables.
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