How To Write A High-Impact Executive Summary
By Derek Jansen | January 2018
In this post, I’ll deconstruct the often-misunderstood executive summary and show you how to develop a high-impact executive summary for your assignment, research report or even your dissertation or thesis.
So, what is an executive summary?
An executive summary (sometimes called an abstract ) is quite simply a summary of summaries. In other words, an executive summary provides a concise summary of each of your assignment or report chapters/sections . More specifically, it should communicate the key points/insights/findings/suggestions from the following chapters:
- Implementation (if applicable)
- Reflection (if applicable)
I’ll discuss which key points from each section need to be addressed a bit later. On a separate note – if you’re writing an executive summary for a dissertation or thesis, all of the concepts described in this post will still apply to you, however, you’ll include an additional paragraph about your methodology, and you’ll likely spend more word count discussing your analysis findings.
The 4 Important Attributes Of An Exec Summary
Before I discuss what goes into the executive summary, let’s quickly look at 4 attributes that make for a strong executive summary:
#1 – It should be able to stand alone.
The executive summary should be able to stand independently as an informative document . In other words, the reader should be able to grasp your broad argument without having to read the full document. Further reading should be purely for attaining more detail. Simply put, the executive summary should be a “Mini-Me” of the assignment.
This independence means that anything you write in the executive summary will need to be re-stated in the body of your assignment. A common mistake that students make is to introduce key points in the executive summary and then not discuss them again in the document – accordingly, the marker must view the main document as missing these key points. Simply put – make sure you discuss key points in both the executive summary and the main body . It will feel repetitive at times – this is normal.
#2 – It should be written for the intelligent layman.
When crafting your executive summary, its useful to keep the intelligent layman front of mind. What I mean by this is that you should write your summary assuming that your reader (i.e. the marker) will be intelligent but won’t be familiar with your topic and/or industry. This means that you should explain any technical concepts, avoid jargon and explain acronyms before using them.
#3 – It should be concise.
Typically, your executive summary should be a one-pager (one and a half pages at worst). To summarise a 3000 – 5000-word document into one page is no easy task, so you’ll need to:
- Present only the most important information (key insights, recommendations, etc).
- Write concisely – i.e. with brevity and completeness.
To the first point, I’ll explain what the “most important” information is for each chapter shortly. To the second point (writing concisely), there are various ways to do this, including:
- Using simple, straightforward language.
- Using the active voice.
- Removing bloaty adverbs and adjectives.
- Reducing prepositional phrases.
- Avoiding noun strings.
Does this sound like gibberish to you? Don’t worry! The Writing Center at the University of Wisconson-Madison provides a practical guide to writing more concisely, which you can download here.
On a related note, you typically would not include headings, citations or bulleted/numbered lists in your executive summary. These visual components tend to use a lot of space, which comes at a premium, as you know.
#4 – It should be written last.
Given that your executive summary is a summary of summaries, it needs to be written last , only once you’ve identified all your key insights, recommendations and so on. This probably sounds obvious, but many students start writing the summary first (potentially because of its position in the document) and then end up re-writing it multiple times, or they don’t rewrite it and consequently end up with an executive summary which is misaligned with the main document.
Simply put, you should leave this section until everything else is completed. Once your core body content is completed, you should read through the entire document again and create a bullet-point list of all the key points . From this list, you should then craft your executive summary . The approach will also help you identify gaps, contradictions and misalignments in your main document.
So, what goes into an executive summary?
Right, let’s get into the meat of it and consider what exactly should go into your executive summary. As I’ve mentioned, you need to present only the absolutely key point points from each of your chapters, but what does this mean exactly?
Each chapter will typically take the form of 1 paragraph (with no headings) in your executive summary. So, 5 chapters means 5 paragraphs. Naturally, some will be longer than others (let this be informed by the mark allocation), but assuming one page contains 500 words, you’re aiming for roughly 100 words per paragraph (assuming a 5-paragraph structure). See why conciseness is key!
Now, let’s look at what the key points are for each chapter in the case of a typical MBA assignment or report. In the case of a dissertation or thesis, the paragraph structure would still mimic the chapter structure – you’d just have more chapters, and therefore, more paragraphs.
Paragraph 1: Introduction
This paragraph should cover the following points:
- A very brief explanation of the business (what does it do, for whom and where?).
- Clear identification and explanation of the problem or opportunity that will be the focus of the assignment/report.
- A clear statement of the purpose of the assignment (i.e. what research questions will you seek to answer?).
- Brief mention of what data sources were utilised (i.e. secondary research) and any fieldwork undertaken (i.e. primary research ).
In other words, your first paragraph should introduce the business, the problem/opportunity to be addressed, why it’s important, and how you approached your analysis. This paragraph should make it clear to the reader what the assignment is all about at a broad level. Here’s a practical example:
This assignment focuses on ABC Ltd, a XXX business based in XXX, which provides XXX to XXX customers. To date, the firm has relied almost exclusively on XXX marketing channel. Consequently, ABC Ltd has little understanding of consumer segments, wants, and needs. This marketing channel is now under regulatory threat due to XXX. The core challenge, therefore, is that whilst ABC Ltd seeks to grow its market share, it has little understanding of its market characteristics or competitive set, and its sole marketing channel under regulatory threat. Accordingly, the objective of this assignment is XXX. The assignment draws on survey, interview, and industry data.
Paragraph 2: Analysis and findings
In this paragraph, you should discuss the following:
- What exactly did you analyse? For example, you might have analysed the macro context (i.e. PESTLE analysis), followed by the meso (i.e. competitor or industry analysis) and then the micro (i.e. internal organisational analysis).
- What were your key findings in relation to the purpose of the assignment? For example, you may have identified 4 potential causes of a problem and would then state them.
In other words, your second paragraph should concisely explain what you analysed and what your main findings were . An example of this:
Segmentation analysis, consisting of macro, industry and firm-level analyses, revealed a strong segmentation variable in the form of XXX, with distinct needs in each segment. Macro analysis revealed XXX, while industry and firm-level analyses suggested XXX. Subsequently, three potential target segments were established, namely XXX, XXX and XXX. These were then evaluated using the Directional Policy Matrix, and the results indicated XXX.
From a presentation perspective, you might structure this section as:
- Analysis 1, findings from analysis 1.
- Analysis 2, findings from analysis 2.
- Analysis 3, findings from analysis 3.
Importantly, you should only discuss the findings that are directly linked to the research questions (i.e. the purpose of the assignment) – don’t digress into interesting but less relevant findings. Given that the analysis chapter typically counts for a large proportion of marks, you could viably write 2-3 paragraphs for this. Be guided by the mark allocation.
Lastly, you should ensure that the findings you present here align well with the recommendations you’ll make in the next paragraph. Think about what your recommendations are, and, if necessary, reverse engineer this paragraph to create a strong link and logical flow from analysis to recommendations.
Paragraph 3: Recommendations
With the key findings from your analysis presented in the preceding paragraph, you should now discuss the following:
- What are your key recommendations?
- How do these solve the problems you found in your analysis?
- Were there any further conclusions?
Simply put, this paragraph (or two) should present the main recommendations and justify their use (i.e. explain how they resolve the key issue). As mentioned before, it’s critically important that your recommendations tightly align with (and resolve) the key issues that you identified in the analysis. An example:
Based on the Directional Policy Matrix analysis, it is recommended that the firm target XXX segment, because of XXX. On this basis, a positioning of XXX is proposed, as this aligns with the segment’s key needs. Furthermore, a provisional high-level marketing mix is proposed. The key aspects of the marketing mix include XXX, XXX and XXX, as these align with the firm’s positioning of XXX. By adopting these recommendations, the key issue of XXX will be resolved.
Also, note that (typically) the tone changes from past to present tense when you get to the recommendations section.
Paragraph 4: Implementation
If your assignment brief requires an implementation/project plan-type section, this paragraph will typically include the following points:
- Time requirements (how long will it take?)
- People requirements (what skills are needed and where do you find them?)
- Money requirements (what budget is required?)
- How will the project or change be managed? (i.e. project management plan)
- What risks exist and how will these be managed?
Depending on what level of detail is required by your assignment brief, you may need to present more, less or other details in this section. As always, be guided by the assignment brief.
A practical example:
A high-level implementation plan is proposed, including a stakeholder analysis, project plan and business case. Resource requirements are presented, detailing XXX, XXX and XXX requirements. A risk analysis is presented, revealing key risks including XXX, XXX and XXX. Risk management solutions are proposed, including XXX and XXX.
Paragraph 5: Reflection
As with the implementation chapter, the need for a reflection chapter/section will vary between assignments and universities. If your assignment has this requirement, it’s typically good to cover the following points:
- What were your key learnings? What were your ah-ha moments?
- What has changed in the real world as a consequence of these learnings? I.e. how has your actual behaviour and approach to “X” changed, if any?
- What are the benefits and/or disadvantages of this change, if any?
This section is very personal, and so each person’s reflections will be different. Don’t take the above points as gospel.
Time to test it out.
Once you’ve written up your executive summary and feel confident that it’s in good shape, it’s time to test it out on an unsuspecting intelligent layman. This is a critically important step, since you, as the writer, are simply too close to the work to judge whether it all makes sense to a first-time reader. In fact, you are the least suitable person on the planet!
So, find someone who is not familiar with your assignment topic (and ideally, not familiar with your industry), and ask them to have a read through your executive summary. Friends and family will usually tell you its great, regardless of the quality, so you need to test them on their understanding. Do this by asking them to give the details back to you in their own words. Poke and prod – can they tell you what the key issues and recommendations were (in their own words!). You’ll quickly spot the gaps this way, and be able to flesh out any weak areas.
In this post, I’ve discussed how to write the all too often undercooked executive summary. I’ve discussed some important attributes of a strong executive summary, as well as the contents that typically go into it. To recap on the key points:
The key attributes of a high-impact executive summary:
- It should be able to stand alone.
- It should be written for the intelligent layman.
- It should be concise.
- It should be written last.
The key contents of a high-impact executive summary:
Each paragraph should cover a chapter from the document. For example, In the case of a typical assignment, it would be something like:
- Summary of the introduction chapter.
- Summary of the analysis chapter.
- Summary of the recommendations and/or conclusions chapter.
- Depending – summary of the implementation and reflection.
Lastly, don’t forget to test out your executive summary on an unsuspecting layman or two. This is probably the most important step of them all!
If you have any questions or suggestions, we’d love to hear from you. Please get in touch here or leave a comment below.
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Thanks so much for your methodical process and explanation of Executive Summary. It is exactly what I was researching for.
It’s a pleasure!
This was really helpful with how to structure my assignment.
Thank you so much for the step by step process. It’s so helpful for beginners like me.
Great! This post is very informative and gives clear guidance on to write an executive summary. Thanks very much for sharing this information, it’s very helpful.
Thanks for the feedback, Anna. Best of luck with your writing 🙂
Thank you for the great article, really helped explain what was needed.
Great insight and tips . Thanks
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An executive summary is a thorough overview of a research report or other type of document that synthesizes key points for its readers, saving them time and preparing them to understand the study's overall content. It is a separate, stand-alone document of sufficient detail and clarity to ensure that the reader can completely understand the contents of the main research study. An executive summary can be anywhere from 1-10 pages long depending on the length of the report, or it can be the summary of more than one document [e.g., papers submitted for a group project].
Bailey, Edward, P. The Plain English Approach to Business Writing . (New York: Oxford University Press, 1997), p. 73-80.
Importance of a Good Executive Summary
Although an executive summary is similar to an abstract in that they both summarize the contents of a research study, there are several key differences. With research abstracts, the author's recommendations are rarely included, or if they are, they are implicit rather than explicit. Recommendations are generally not stated in academic abstracts because scholars operate in a discursive environment, where debates, discussions, and dialogs are meant to precede the implementation of any new research findings. The conceptual nature of much academic writing also means that recommendations arising from the findings are distributed widely and not easily or usefully encapsulated. Executive summaries are used mainly when a research study has been developed for an organizational partner, funding entity, or other external group that participated in the research . In such cases, the research report and executive summary are often written for policy makers outside of academe, while abstracts are written for the academic community. Professors, therefore, assign the writing of executive summaries so students can practice synthesizing and writing about the contents of comprehensive research studies for external stakeholder groups.
When preparing to write, keep in mind that:
- An executive summary is not an abstract.
- An executive summary is not an introduction.
- An executive summary is not a preface.
- An executive summary is not a random collection of highlights.
Christensen, Jay. Executive Summaries Complete The Report. California State University Northridge; Clayton, John. "Writing an Executive Summary that Means Business." Harvard Management Communication Letter (July 2003): 2-4; Keller, Chuck. "Stay Healthy with a Winning Executive Summary." Technical Communication 41 (1994): 511-517; Murphy, Herta A., Herbert W. Hildebrandt, and Jane P. Thomas. Effective Business Communications . New York: McGraw-Hill, 1997; Vassallo, Philip. "Executive Summaries: Where Less Really is More." ETC.: A Review of General Semantics 60 (Spring 2003): 83-90 .
Structure and Writing Style
Writing an Executive Summary
Read the Entire Document This may go without saying, but it is critically important that you read the entire research study thoroughly from start to finish before you begin to write the executive summary. Take notes as you go along, highlighting important statements of fact, key findings, and recommended courses of action. This will better prepare you for how to organize and summarize the study. Remember this is not a brief abstract of 300 words or less but, essentially, a mini-paper of your paper, with a focus on recommendations.
Isolate the Major Points Within the Original Document Choose which parts of the document are the most important to those who will read it. These points must be included within the executive summary in order to provide a thorough and complete explanation of what the document is trying to convey.
Separate the Main Sections Closely examine each section of the original document and discern the main differences in each. After you have a firm understanding about what each section offers in respect to the other sections, write a few sentences for each section describing the main ideas. Although the format may vary, the main sections of an executive summary likely will include the following:
- An opening statement, with brief background information,
- The purpose of research study,
- Method of data gathering and analysis,
- Overview of findings, and,
- A description of each recommendation, accompanied by a justification. Note that the recommendations are sometimes quoted verbatim from the research study.
Combine the Information Use the information gathered to combine them into an executive summary that is no longer than 10% of the original document. Be concise! The purpose is to provide a brief explanation of the entire document with a focus on the recommendations that have emerged from your research. How you word this will likely differ depending on your audience and what they care about most. If necessary, selectively incorporate bullet points for emphasis and brevity. Re-read your Executive Summary After you've completed your executive summary, let it sit for a while before coming back to re-read it. Check to make sure that the summary will make sense as a separate document from the full research study. By taking some time before re-reading it, you allow yourself to see the summary with fresh, unbiased eyes.
Common Mistakes to Avoid
Length of the Executive Summary As a general rule, the correct length of an executive summary is that it meets the criteria of no more pages than 10% of the number of pages in the original document, with an upper limit of no more than ten pages [i.e., ten pages for a 100 page document]. This requirement keeps the document short enough to be read by your audience, but long enough to allow it to be a complete, stand-alone synopsis. Cutting and Pasting With the exception of specific recommendations made in the study, do not simply cut and paste whole sections of the original document into the executive summary. You should paraphrase information from the longer document. Avoid taking up space with excessive subtitles and lists, unless they are absolutely necessary for the reader to have a complete understanding of the original document. Consider the Audience Although unlikely to be required by your professor, there is the possibility that more than one executive summary will have to be written for a given document [e.g., one for policy-makers, one for private industry, one for philanthropists]. This may only necessitate the rewriting of the introduction and conclusion, but it could require rewriting the entire summary in order to fit the needs of the reader. If necessary, be sure to consider the types of audiences who may benefit from your study and make adjustments accordingly. Clarity in Writing One of the biggest mistakes you can make is related to the clarity of your executive summary. Always note that your audience [or audiences] are likely seeing your research study for the first time. The best way to avoid a disorganized or cluttered executive summary is to write it after the study is completed. Always follow the same strategies for proofreading that you would for any research paper. Use Strong and Positive Language Don’t weaken your executive summary with passive, imprecise language. The executive summary is a stand-alone document intended to convince the reader to make a decision concerning whether to implement the recommendations you make. Once convinced, it is assumed that the full document will provide the details needed to implement the recommendations. Although you should resist the temptation to pad your summary with pleas or biased statements, do pay particular attention to ensuring that a sense of urgency is created in the implications, recommendations, and conclusions presented in the executive summary. Be sure to target readers who are likely to implement the recommendations.
Bailey, Edward, P. The Plain English Approach to Business Writing . (New York: Oxford University Press, 1997), p. 73-80; Christensen, Jay. Executive Summaries Complete The Report. California State University Northridge; Executive Summaries. Writing@CSU. Colorado State University; Clayton, John. "Writing an Executive Summary That Means Business." Harvard Management Communication Letter , 2003; Executive Summary. University Writing Center. Texas A&M University; Green, Duncan. Writing an Executive Summary. Oxfam’s Research Guidelines series ; Guidelines for Writing an Executive Summary. Astia.org; Markowitz, Eric. How to Write an Executive Summary. Inc. Magazine, September, 15, 2010; Kawaski, Guy. The Art of the Executive Summary. "How to Change the World" blog; Keller, Chuck. "Stay Healthy with a Winning Executive Summary." Technical Communication 41 (1994): 511-517; The Report Abstract and Executive Summary. The Writing Lab and The OWL. Purdue University; Writing Executive Summaries. Effective Writing Center. University of Maryland; Kolin, Philip. Successful Writing at Work . 10th edition. (Boston, MA: Cengage Learning, 2013), p. 435-437; Moral, Mary. "Writing Recommendations and Executive Summaries." Keeping Good Companies 64 (June 2012): 274-278; Vassallo, Philip. "Executive Summaries: Todorovic, Zelimir William, PhD. and Frye, Marietta Wolczacka,B.A., B.B.A. "Writing Effective Executive Summaries: An Interdisciplinary Examination." United States Association for Small Business and Entrepreneurship, 2009; " Where Less Really is More." ETC.: A Review of General Semantics 60 (Spring 2003): 83-90 .
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" T he executive summary is usually no longer than 10% of the original document. It can be anywhere from 1-10 pages long, depending on the report's length. Executive summaries are written literally for an executive who most likely DOES NOT have the time to read the original.
- Executive summaries make a recommendation
- Accuracy is essential because decisions will be made based on your summary by people who have not read the original
- Executive summaries frequently summarize more than one document"
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Writing an executive summary for a research paper can be a daunting task for many students. Fortunately, there are some steps you can take to make the process easier. By following some simple tips and using a template, you can write an effective executive summary for your research paper.
First, it is important to understand what an executive summary is. An executive summary is a short overview of a research paper’s main points. It should provide readers with a brief description of the paper’s purpose, main findings, and conclusions. The executive summary should not include any new information or data; instead, it should serve as a summary of the paper’s key points.
When writing the executive summary, it is important to use the same language and tone that was used in the research paper. This will ensure that the executive summary is a cohesive and effective summary of the paper’s main points.
It is also important to keep the executive summary brief. You should strive to make the executive summary no longer than one page long. This will ensure that readers are able to quickly understand the main points of your paper without having to read through a long and complex document.
Before writing the executive summary, you should read through the entire research paper. This will ensure that you have a clear understanding of the paper’s main points and that you capture them effectively in the executive summary.
To help you write an effective executive summary, you might find it helpful to use a template. Below is an example of an executive summary template for a research paper:
This paper examines [brief description of paper’s main points]. The research found that [main finding]. It was concluded that [conclusion].
Based on these findings, it is recommended that [recommendation].
Overall, the research shows that [summary of main findings]. This paper provides valuable insight into [brief description of research’s purpose].
By following these guidelines and using a template, you can write an effective executive summary for your research paper. Writing an executive summary can be a daunting task, but with the right steps and guidance, it can be a simple and straightforward process.
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Executive summaries and abstracts both capture the essence of a project in a shorter form, but with differing levels of detail: an abstract is a highly condensed overview of the document, while an executive summary is a standalone version of the thesis in miniature.
See our handout on " What Goes in a Thesis Abstract? An Executive Summary? " for an overview of standard content and length—then, for more information and examples, read on!
For a more detailed explanation of abstracts, check out our infographics, tailored to your discipline:
- Defense management
- Social sciences
An abstract is a brief encapsulation of a document. Abstracts are quite limited in length (often about 200 words) and thus must be very concise, clear statements that convey a few key ideas:
- The topic and significance of the research
- The research question driving the inquiry
- The methods used to answer the question
- The findings and implications of the research
Understanding how an abstract is structured can also help you as a researcher. When conducting research , get in the habit of reading abstracts carefully to determine which documents closely fit your research needs.
Not all documents require an abstract, and most of your class papers won't. However, all NPS theses must have an abstract, and abstracts are often required for conference papers and articles submitted for publication .
Executive summaries are longer than abstracts, often running 2–5 pages. They summarize a larger document's purpose, methods, results, conclusions, and recommendations such that someone who reads only the summary can glean a solid understanding of the research as a whole. Unlike abstracts, executive summaries can include citations and references .
Not all theses require an executive summary, so check with your advisor or department for guidance. The links below contain further information on the differences between abstracts and executive summaries.
In order to make your research easier to find by other researchers, it is a good idea to think about what searchable keywords are associated with your project. Make sure to include them in your abstract and executive summary!
Executive Summaries and Abstracts Links
- " What Goes in a Thesis Abstract? An Executive Summary? , " GWC and TPO
- " Abstracts ," University of North Carolina Chapel Hill Writing Center
- " How to Write an Abstract ," Phil Koopman, Carnegie Mellon University
- " Executive Summaries ," Colorado State University
- Layering Reports: The Executive Summary 1 " (6:35), Zachery Koppleman, Purdue OWL
- Layering Reports: The Executive Summary A Closer Look Part 1 " (5:53), Zachery Koppleman, Purdue OWL
- Chapter from a book: " Technical Reports, Executive Summaries, and Abstracts , " Robert Shenk, The Naval Institute Guide to Naval Writing
Writing Topics A–Z
This index makes findings topics easy and links to the most relevant page for each item. Please email us at [email protected] if we're missing something!
A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z
Executive Summaries are much like any other summary in that their main goal is to provide a condensed version of the content of a longer report.
The executive summary is usually no longer than 10% of the original document. It can be anywhere from 1-10 pages long, depending on the report's length. Executive summaries are written literally for an executive who most likely DOES NOT have the time to read the original.
- Executive summaries make a recommendation
- Accuracy is essential because decisions will be made based on your summary by people who have not read the original
- Executive summaries frequently summarize more than one document
The Mountain Resort charges below average rental rates. ( concise statement of findings ) The attached report recommends a 20% increase in price for the following equipment: 1. downhill skis, 2. telemark skis, 3. boots/shoes for downhill, telemark, and cross-country skis.( specific recommendation for action )
Based on average rental business for 1992-1995, these increases would generate an annual rental profit for Mountainview of $750,000. This figure represents an overall gain of $150,000 over current rental profits. ( justification for proposed action )
Types of Summaries
Summaries written in order to recommend a specific course of action are executive summaries.
Summaries that highlight the major points of a long piece are called abstracts. The purpose of an abstract is to allow readers to decide whether or not they want to read the longer text.
Standard summary only refers to a summary of someone else's published work and is written for a variety of purposes.
Processes for Writing an Executive Summary
Executive summaries are typically written for longer reports. They should not be written until after your report is finished. Before writing your summary, try:
- Summarizing the major sections of your report. You might even copy text from your report into the summary and then edit it down.
- Talking aloud or even tape recording yourself summarizing sections of your report.
Questions to Ask Yourself as You Write
- What is your report about?
- Why is it important?
- What is included in the report?
- What is included in each section?
As a cover sheet to your document, an executive summary need not go into ANY mention of how you conducted your analysis and/or what you're basing your conclusion on. Instead, begin with a concise statement of the conclusion you reached after conducting your analysis and/or research is the paper that will be attached. For example, after a comparison of what other schools like CSU do about personal calls for faculty, you conclude that the CSU is charging for calls most other institutions do not.
How you word the conclusion will differ depending on your audience and what they care most about. The following examples illustrate how the wording must change given an audience's needs.
Colorado State should discontinue the practice of charging faculty for personal calls.
This is a good example if the people you work for are only interested in this issue. It begins with a summary of conclusions regarding only the CSU population.
Because I have found that over 75% of comparable institutions do not charge for personal calls, I have concluded that our faculty is justified in objecting to this practice which should be seen as a "perk" for our faculty.
This sentence provides unnecessary information about other institutions and/or why the faculty think they deserve to have these calls paid for. Your readers can get that information from the report. Further, the use of "I" is unnecessary since your readers already know who wrote the report.
After beginning with a summary statement of your findings, the executive summary should go on to provide a specific recommendation for action geared toward your audience. For example, the report on charging for personal calls was requested by the president's office, not the individual departments and colleges who actually determine policy. As a result, the recommendation for action is geared toward what the president's office should do, not the other departments involved. To learn more about writing recommendations:
After summarizing the entire article and/or research report(s), an executive summary ends with a one or two line recommendation for action.
Executive summaries frequently make use of transitional phrases to encapsulate the preceding information in the same sentence as the recommendation. The format can almost be envisioned as a formula:
[transitional word] + [concise statement of information provided in summary], I recommend that [corporation, office, person in question] do [recommendations].
More Complex Recommendations
In other cases, the recommendation might be complicated enough to justify a summary of causes for the recommendation. In this case, the recommendation paragraph usually begins with a summary of how the writer reached the recommendation.
Susie's Cookies began as a small business in Cleveland, Ohio which has expanded to include 45 stores throughout the Midwest. Plans have already been instituted to expand sales nationwide, using the same "mall-concept" marketing strategy which has proven successful in the Midwest. Despite these plans, Susie's Cookies may be in danger of bankruptcy.
Susie's quadrupled its sales in the last two quarters, realizing a profit of $750,000 in the current year, an increase of $250,000 over the previous year, due to its increase in advertising. To realize equivalent sale figures nationwide, however, it is projected that advertising costs will increase by 200% for the first two years of the national expansions. Further, construction costs for the new stores are estimated to be 20 million dollars.
The result of increased advertising and construction costs will put a substantial debt burden on Susie's cookies, an estimated $750,00 to 1 million a year. Given that sales did not reach current levels in the Midwest until the 45 stores had been operating for five years, projected sales nationally will not cover expansion costs. As a result, Susie's Cookies is likely to show a loss of almost $2 million for at least the next five years.
Due to the high advertisement and development costs of national expansion. Susie's Cookies may not be able to continue doing business in the future. Therefore, I recommend that Mrs. Field's does not participate in the hostile takeover under consideration because the threat of competition will not be realized.
Finally, an executive summary provides an analysis and/or justification for the proposed action in terms the audience will consider important. In many cases, this might involve a monetary analysis as in the example to the right, but actions can be justified many ways, depending on the concerns of the audience and the topic of the report (e.g. for CSU these might include increase in student learning, better relationship with the community, etc.).
- Example : Based on the current number and length of long-distance personal calls by faculty, such a proposal would cost the university $150,000 annually. In comparison to the overall budget, this is a small amount, but one which might "pay for itself" in terms of faculty satisfaction and possible recruitment benefits.
justification for the recommendation by referring to information summarized. A recommendations justification is usually based on a reference to material already provided in the summary.
In other cases, the justification for the recommendation might be complicated enough to justify a summary of causes for the justification. In this case, the recommendation paragraph usually begins with a summary of how the writer reached the conclusion that leads to the justification.
Donna LeCourt. (1994-2023). Executive Summaries. The WAC Clearinghouse. Colorado State University. Available at https://wac.colostate.edu/repository/resources/writing/guides/.
Copyright © 1994-2023 Colorado State University and/or this site's authors, developers, and contributors . Some material displayed on this site is used with permission.
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A typical Executive Summary gives a complete overview of the entire report. It should state the subject matter of the report, and it should explain the methods used to gather data. In explaining the methods, indicate what kinds of primary and secondary research were used in the paper. An Executive Summary usually also includes a brief statement of the paper's findings and conclusions. It may also include recommendations based on the findings and limitations of the research.
The Executive Summary should be written in the present tense, except when discussing the methods used and findings, which should be in the past tense.
The Executive Summary should be placed
on a separate page and
immediately after the Table of Contents and before the body.
The title of your Executive summary should be centered and bold using a level 1 heading.
The format of the Executive Summary should
have double spaced lines and
be usually no longer than one page.
Remember to check with your instructor for any specific requirements for a particular assignment.
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An executive summary is one of the most crucial parts of a report. It represents a chance for the author to grab the reader’s attention and draw them into the main document.
When readers are pressed for time, it may be the only part of the report they read, so a well-written summary is vital. Unfortunately, summaries are often an afterthought for authors and are frequently written in haste.
Part of Oxfam’s Research Guidelines series, this guideline gives a short overview of how to write an engaging executive summary that conveys the most important information from the main report in a clear, concise way.
It provides tools for thinking about how to get the most out of your summary, as well as examples from academia and business, plus tips on things to avoid. This guide was originally written in 2015 and was updated in 2019.
- Green, Duncan
- Walsh, Martin
How to cite this resource
Citation styles vary so we recommend you check what is appropriate for your context. You may choose to cite Oxfam resources as follows:
Author(s)/Editor(s). (Year of publication). Title and sub-title . Place of publication: name of publisher. DOI (where available). URL
Our FAQs page has some examples of this approach.
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How to Write an Executive Summary for a Research Paper
26 August 2023
When people work on organizing their research papers, they need effective guidelines on how to write an executive summary. This article provides insights students should grasp to create high-standard texts, including defining what is an executive summary, its meaning, and its basic structure. About the structure, the guideline teaches students all the sections of an executive summary (introduction, purpose statement, methods, findings, recommendations, limitations, implementation, and conclusion), the contents of each part, and how to write each element. Other insights include 20 tips for producing a high-standard executive summary, including 10 dos and 10 don’ts. Lastly, the article gives a sample outline template for writing a good executive summary and a practical example of this section of a research paper.
How to Write an Outstanding Executive Summary for a Research Paper & Examples
A habit of reading different types of papers is helpful to students’ mental preparation for course assessments but, more importantly, to their intellectual development. Reading various types of essays , reports, and research papers also induces the mental faculties of intellect, reason, imagination, and intuition, which are essential for academic discourse. Indeed, one can tell a writer who reads habitually by how they construct and defend arguments and ideas in their works. Basically, this guideline for writing an effective executive summary includes essential insights into what students should and should not do when writing this type of academic document. The article also defines what is an executive summary and its meaning, outlines its distinctive features, shows how to write each part of this section of a research paper , explains concepts, and gives helpful tips for producing a high-standard document. In turn, this guideline gives a sample outline of a project paper and an example of an executive summary.
Definition of What Is an Executive Summary and Its Meaning
From a simple definition, an executive summary is a text that accounts for the main points of a longer text, mainly a market study report, project report, and business proposal. In this respect, it serves the same purpose as an abstract , the only difference being that it is not used in research papers. Ideally, an abstract is a short and descriptive section of the essential details of a research paper, such as background, methodology, results , and conclusion . In contrast, an executive summary means writing a comprehensive overview of a report, research proposal , or project that explains the main points, including recommendations. Practically, an abstract is between 0.5-1 page, while an executive summary is about 5-10% of the document’s total word count. Since the purpose of an executive summary is to summarize the entire research paper comprehensively, it precedes the introduction of a report, proposal, or business plan.
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Distinctive Features of an Executive Summary
An executive summary is identifiable by specific features that distinguish it from other texts, including essays and research papers. Essentially, all scholarly documents require the same level of mental preparation by writers to produce high-quality work. However, students must understand that some papers are demanding because of their contents, which underscore the basic essay outline . The main contents that earmark the distinctive features of an executive summary are an introduction, a purpose statement, methods, findings, recommendations, limitations, an implementation plan, and a conclusion.
The introduction of an executive summary highlights the document’s topic, which emphasizes the type of paper it is, such as a business proposal, project report, or market research report. In this respect, it must be short and precise. Because the focus is the topic, one should use a bridge sentence or short paragraph for the introduction.
2️⃣ Purpose Statement
The purpose statement of an executive summary communicates the document’s primary objective. In this respect, it provides a brief background of the topic to enhance the reader’s understanding of the essence of the document. The language in this part reflects an expected end, while common terms include ‘aim,’ ‘goal,’ ‘purpose,’ or ‘objective.’
In an executive summary, methods outline the writer’s approach to achieving the primary objective, such as examining official data, conducting a field study, reviewing the literature, or interviewing stakeholders. Students need to understand that this component differs from the research methodology of research papers. In this respect, it does not detail the methods one has used to complete the work. In essence, it outlines the strategies that help writers to better understand critical issues, such as challenges to a sector, stakeholder sentiments, industry insights, or potential barriers.
Findings in an executive summary are the outcomes of the methods, meaning it is what the writer has discovered about an issue, such as an industry, stakeholders, or a project. This component is crucial to readers because it offers a sneak peek into the outcomes that underscore the primary purpose of the entire document: project report, market research report, or business proposal.
Recommendations in an executive summary underscore the writer’s perspective regarding the issues that a research paper addresses as a challenge or problem. For example, if the paper is a report about healthcare status, the challenges or problems it identifies may be nursing shortages or medical errors. The recommendations should highlight what stakeholders, like the government and health institutions, must do to overcome these challenges or problems. In other words, the recommendations address what must be done to rectify a situation or make it possible to achieve specific outcomes.
Like a research paper, an executive summary must point out the limitations that the document’s author encountered in reporting about a project or business plan. For example, these limitations may include a lack of goodwill among stakeholders, sufficient time to investigate a matter, or resources to execute the task. This information is essential to the audience because it indicates the dynamics influencing the primary objective.
7️⃣ Implementation Plan
The implementation plan is the component in an executive summary that provides a framework for adopting and implementing the recommendations. Typically, this information includes claims and activities, people responsible, the timeframe, and budget allocation. Sometimes, an evaluation plan is also part of the implementation plan.
The conclusion part of an executive summary is a call to action about the project report, market research report, or business proposal. Unlike conclusion examples in other academic papers and essays that summarize the paper’s main points, the conclusion of an executive summary gives a direction about the document. Essentially, writers use this component to call to action the audience to adopt the recommendations or compel stakeholders to adopt a particular perspective. In turn, it persuades the audience to adopt a particular stance regarding the report or proposal.
The Length of an Executive Summary
Students should know the length of each of the above sections, except the introduction and conclusion parts, depending on the document’s total length, which determines the word count of an executive summary. For example, a long and robust project report or business proposal requires a long executive summary with an extended purpose statement, methods, findings, recommendations, limitations, and implementation, which means the length of 4-10 double spaced pages, or 2-5 single spaced pages, or 1000–2500 words, depending on the volume of the work. Typically, the introduction and conclusion sections take a statement or short paragraph of 0.5-1 double spaced page or 125-250 words, irrespective of a research paper or executive summary’s length. However, if a research paper is a long work of more than 10 double spaced pages, 5 single spaced page, or 2500 words, the introduction and conclusion parts should not exceed 5-10% of the whole word count. Besides, the body section of an executive summary must take 80-90% of the total word count of a research paper, not less. The word count of a title page, a table of contents , an abstract, a reference page, and appendix is not considered since these parts are technical and do not mean writing itself.
How to Write Each Section of an Executive Summary for a Research Paper
Writing an executive summary requires students to demonstrate an understanding of its purpose. This understanding means students should know when to write it, what to talk about, and how to write each of the sections above. Therefore, writing an executive summary is essential to approach carefully and with the utmost focus.
1️⃣ Writing an Executive Summary as a Last Action
Because an executive summary overviews the entire research paper, students should write this part after finishing their market research reports, project reports, or business proposals. However, one should read and reread the whole research paper to know the most significant points forming part of the summary. By writing an executive summary as a last item, one can have a mental picture of what to address to give the audience a comprehensive sneak peek into a research paper document.
2️⃣ Making Notes of Important Aspects
While reading and rereading a research paper, students should take notes of the most critical aspects of their work that must appear in an executive summary. These aspects must address each section above. Moreover, one should identify crucial information in an introduction, a purpose statement, methods, findings, recommendations, limitations, an implementation plan, and a conclusion.
A. Writing an Introduction Part of an Executive Summary
When writing a college essay introduction , students must refrain from going into details about the purpose of the text because they will have an opportunity to do so later. While one may mention the document’s background, one should make it concise to contextualize the topic. The most crucial detail is that the introduction part of an executive summary should be a sentence or brief paragraph.
B. Writing a Purpose Statement Part of an Executive Summary
When writing the research paper’s purpose, students should communicate the type of document, such as a business proposal, a market research report, or a project report. The next thing is to state the background; provide the reason for writing, like sourcing funds; recommend solutions; or report progress and challenges. However, one should avoid going into detail because they will do so later in an executive summary of a research paper.
C. Writing a Methods Part of an Executive Summary
When writing a methods section, one should focus on giving the audience a sense of the strategy that helps achieve the outcomes. However, writers should approach this part differently than the methodology section of a research paper. Instead, they should mention what they did to execute the work, such as interviewing stakeholders or analyzing official data. The best way to approach this section is to list everything one did to make a research paper.
D. Writing a Findings Part of an Executive Summary
Since the purpose of the findings section in a research paper is to narrate outcomes, students should write it in the past tense. Therefore, when writing this section of an executive summary, authors should see themselves as reporters educating the audience about what they have learned in executing the task. An essential detail students should note when writing the section is to refer to credible sources of information that lead to the findings. These reliable sources can be documents, organizations, individuals in leadership, or industry experts.
E. Writing a Recommendations Part of an Executive Summary
When writing a recommendations section in an executive summary for a research paper, students should focus on giving a clear summary of what should happen after the findings. Essentially, one should address the key decision-makers or stakeholders because they are responsible for creating change through policy. The best approach to writing recommendations is to interrogate each challenge or problem and related findings to understand what must happen to create positive outcomes.
F. Writing a Limitations Part of an Executive Summary
The best approach to writing a limitations section in an executive summary for a research paper is to interrogate the challenges one has faced in the project, such as a lack of goodwill among stakeholders or sufficient time, resources, or support. Ideally, writers aim to inform the audience of the factors that have complicated their work or may complicate the implementation of the recommendations.
G. Writing an Implementation Plan Part of an Executive Summary
When writing an implementation plan in an executive summary, students should focus on telling the audience the procedure for actualizing the recommendations. In this respect, the best approach to writing this section is to interrogate the recommendations to determine what must happen to actualize each. For example, some issues to consider may include people in charge of implementation, such as an organization’s human resource director, the time it would take to actualize (timeline), the budget, and how to measure success (evaluation).
H. Writing a Conclusion Part of an Executive Summary
When writing a conclusion part, students should aim to persuade the audience to adopt a particular stance regarding a research paper or proposal. Although one might reiterate the topic, it is not necessary to mention each of the preceding sections. Instead, writers should focus on sending a strong communication regarding it. The best approach to writing the conclusion section is to influence the audience’s perspective on the topic and the recommendations and implementation.
3️⃣ Explaining Acronyms, Abbreviations, and Key Terms
Since an executive summary is an overview of a market research paper, project report, or business plan, authors should write it clearly and precisely. The best approach is to use simple language and define all acronyms, abbreviations, and key terms. In turn, students should not assume that readers know what each acronym, abbreviation, and key term means when they read research papers.
4️⃣ Proofreading, Revising, and Editing an Executive Summary Section of a Research Paper
After completing writing a research paper, students should proofread it to identify grammatical and formatting mistakes and inconsistent arguments and ideas. For example, the best way to fix these mistakes and flaws is to revise the whole research paper by fixing mistakes, like missing punctuation and wrong citations, and editing it by adding or deleting words and sentences to create a logical order of thoughts and ideas. In turn, writers must be factual, not use word count fillers, and avoid unnecessary repetitions. Besides, students should know that the audience is not interested in stories but in factual communication that makes logical sense.
Sample Paper Template for Writing a Good Executive Summary
Like essays, executive summaries have a specific structure students should demonstrate in their writing. The sections above underscore this outline template, meaning students should know what each section of writing an executive summary for a research paper entails and how to write it. The best way to write a high-quality executive summary is to create a template and populate it with ideas for a project, a business plan, a proposal, or a report. This preparation helps writers to have a mental picture of the kind of document they want to have and the right attitude when writing.
I. Introduction: [Introduce the topic and state the kind of document, such as a market research paper, project report, or business plan].
II. Purpose Statement: [Explain the primary objective of a research paper, such as investigating a problem, souring some funds, or reporting its progress].
III. Methods: [Enumerate how the task is accomplished, such as examining official data, interviewing stakeholders, or reviewing the literature].
IV. Findings: [Provide the outcomes of the methods, such as what official data reveals, stakeholders’ sentiments, or what research says].
V. Recommendations: [State clearly what stakeholders or key decisions must do to address the challenges or problems that the findings reveal].
VI. Limitations: [Discuss the challenges or problems that were encountered in completing the task, such as poor time management, a lack of support, or absent goodwill by stakeholders].
VII. Implementation Plan: [Include what stakeholders or key decision-makers must do to actualize the recommendations, such as identifying a person responsible and establishing a budget and timeline].
VIII. Conclusion: [Persuade the audience to adopt the recommendations and work toward creating change by facilitating an implementation plan].
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Example of an Executive Summary for an 8000-Word Research Paper
Topic: A Need for Proactive Climate Change Initiatives
I. Example of an Introduction Section in an Executive Summary
Stakeholders in the climate change discourse must shift focus from discourse to practical, proactive measures to demonstrate seriousness in tackling the biggest threat of the millennium.
II. Example of a Purpose Statement Section in an Executive Summary
The purpose of writing this executive study is to examine the status of the climate change discourse, interrogate dynamics that make it unpromising as a practical solution to the crisis, and recommend what stakeholders must do to restore hope to millions globally who are afraid that climate change poses the biggest threat to the existence of current and future generations.
III. Example of a Methods Section in an Executive Summary
An executive report employs several data-gathering methods to achieve these objectives, including examining the climate change discourse over the decades to identify key themes: environmental policies, greenhouse gases, industrial pollution, natural disasters, weather forecasts, and others. Another method is interrogating research and official data on climate change by government agencies in the last three decades. The report also considers interviews with environmentalists, social justice advocates, government officials, and leaders of organizations that dedicate their mission to creating awareness about the need for environmental conservation and preservation.
IV. Example of a Findings Section in an Executive Summary
Overall, the methods above reveal worrying findings about the climate change discourse:
- Human activities, including industries and deforestation, have increased global warming to 1.1 degrees C, triggering unprecedented changes to the Earth’s climate. The lack of consensus on reversing human-induced global warming among the most industrialized countries suggests that the trend will worsen in the coming decades.
- The impacts of climate change are evident on people and ecosystems. Without urgent practical interventions, these impacts will become more widespread and severe with every additional degree of global warming.
- Developing and implementing adaptation measures in communities can effectively build and foster the resilience of people and ecosystems. However, stakeholders must interrogate their climate change funding priorities for effective proactive interventions.
- Communities will continue recording climate-induced losses and damages as long as communities cannot adapt to some impacts of this global problem. An example is 1.1 degrees C of global warming.
- Projections indicate global greenhouse gas (GHC) emissions will peak at 1.5 degrees C before 2025 in selected at-risk pathways.
- Burning fossil fuels remains the leading cause of the global climate crisis.
- Carbon removal is the most effective and practical solution to limiting global warming from peaking at 1.5 degrees C.
- There is a lack of commitment by key stakeholders to finance climate change mitigation and adaptation.
- Climate change and the collective efforts to mitigate and adapt to its impacts will exacerbate global inequity if stakeholders do not prioritize just transition.
These findings of a research paper confirm that the climate change discourse is alive to the threat the global problem poses to people and ecosystems and the weaknesses in the current interventions.
V. Example of a Recommendations Section in an Executive Summary
This executive report recommends that key stakeholders, including governments, communities, policy experts, and financiers, must adopt to prioritize practical solutions to the global climate crisis.
- Stakeholders must target a net-zero climate-resilient future through urgent, systemwide transformations.
- Adopt policies that enhance access to fresh produce by establishing a relationship between farmers and consumers.
- Improve awareness about the critical benefits of organic foods.
- Consider policies that promote regenerative farm practices to eliminate toxins and revitalize soils.
- Create infrastructures for transforming waste into compost manure for farm use.
- Develop policies that encourage communities to embrace a green neighborhood.
VI. Example of a Limitations Section in an Executive Summary
This executive report recognizes several limitations that have made the fight against climate change unproductive and threaten current and future endeavors to arrest the crisis. For example, stakeholders need to note that these limitations may undermine the implementation of the recommendations in this report. One limitation is a lack of goodwill among key stakeholders. The four leading industrial powers, namely the United States, China, India, and Brazil, contribute to significant global atmospheric temperature increases. Traditionally, these countries have refused to agree on how to cut back on industries primarily because they are the main drivers of their economies. Another limitation is the mis-prioritization of financing, where much focus is on theoretical interventions, such as agreements and seminars, at the expense of practical solutions like building infrastructures for transforming waste into usable products. While stakeholders agree on the essence of the 3R (reuse, reduce, and recycle) framework, there is little practical implementation at the community level.
VII. Example of an Implementation Plan Section in an Executive Summary
The implementation plan for the recommendations above recognizes government agencies as the most suitable implementers because official bodies are the key stakeholders who finance climate change initiatives. The business plan considers that, to shift the climate change fight from mere discourse to practical evidence, stakeholders must prioritize the following:
- A budget of at least $50 million annually at the country level;
- A period of between 2-5 years; and
- Periodic evaluation of progress through at least one annual seminar or conference.
VIII. Example of a Conclusion Section in an Executive Summary
This executive research paper calls on all stakeholders in the climate change discourse to reconsider the current focus by recognizing its failure to create meaningful change as evidence shows the crisis continues to worsen. Instead, they should focus on practical, proactive interventions focusing on communities because that is where much environmental damage happens. It is also where the adversities of the crisis manifest most powerfully.
4 Easy Steps for Writing an Executive Summary
Writing an executive summary is a technical undertaking requiring writers to consider each section’s basic structure and essential details. When writing a research paper, one must know when to write each section and what to say. In this respect, preparation, stage setup, writing a first draft of an executive section, and wrap-up are essential steps students should follow to produce a research paper document that meets quality standards.
Step 1: Preparation
As the first step in writing an executive summary, preparation helps writers to develop a proper mindset that involves knowing the basic structure and what to write in each section of a research paper. Therefore, the critical task for students in this stage is constructing the basic structure and stating what must happen in each section.
Step 2: Stage Setup
Setting up the stage is the second step in writing an executive summary. It involves reading and rereading the document to identify critical details to address in each section of the basic structure. The best approach to achieve this outcome is to make notes of the most vital data when reading a research paper.
Step 3: Writing a First Draft of an Executive Summary
The third step is to create a first draft of an executive summary by putting all the critical data into relevant sections. Ideally, people must start with a clear introduction where they point out the focal point of a research paper and then move to a study’s purpose statement, methods, findings, recommendations, limitations, implementation plan, and conclusion. Each research section must summarize and not explain the most critical data.
Step 4: Wrap-Up
Wrapping a first draft into a final version of a research paper is the last step in writing an executive summary. This stage involves proofreading, revising, and editing a first version of an executive summary to eliminate grammar mistakes and inconsistent statements. As a result, authors must perfect their executive summaries of research papers by fixing errors and flaws that affect the logical progression of ideas and thoughts and the overall quality of the text.
20 Tips for Writing an Effective Executive Summary
Writing an executive summary can be demanding, particularly for students who do not prepare well or do not know what is most important. The following tips can be helpful: begin an executive summary by explaining why the topic is important; state the purpose of a research paper by outlining the problem and why it is essential or relevant to the audience; explain the methods that help to execute the task; state the findings; enumerate the limitations by addressing dynamics that undermine the implementation of solutions; consider the recommendations and list them using numbers or bullet points; outline an implementation plan that identifies the person or entity that oversee the implementation, the budget allocation, and how to evaluate progress; and write a conclusion that persuades the audience to adopt a particular perspective about the topic. In turn, 10 dos and 10 don’ts that writers should consider when writing their executive summaries in their research papers are:
10 things to do when writing an executive summary include:
- reading a research paper thoroughly to identify the primary objective, methods for collecting data, key findings, recommendations, significant limitations, and an implementation strategy;
- considering the audience of an executive summary to determine whether to use simple or technical language;
- writing formally and avoiding jargon;
- outlining the structure that considers all the main sections (introduction, purpose statement, methods, key findings, recommendations, limitations, implementation, and conclusion);
- organizing an executive summary in a summary format;
- using a short, clear, precise, and captivating opening statement to hook readers;
- including each section to state the most critical details;
- focusing on summarizing a research paper rather than explaining its contents;
- reviewing a research paper for incorrect information;
- proofreading, revising, and editing an executive summary to eliminate all mistakes.
10 things not to do when writing an executive summary include:
- using jargon to simplify complex terms and phrases;
- explaining rather than summarizing a research paper;
- creating too many grammar mistakes, such as missing punctuation and confusing words with a similar pronunciation;
- ignoring the basic outline of an executive summary;
- writing a lengthy introduction;
- concentrating on some sections more than others;
- explaining ideas or concepts not discussed in the main research paper;
- providing a very short or long summary that does not align with the document’s total word count;
- beginning an executive summary with anecdote or irrelevant information;
- placing an executive summary at the end of a research paper.
Summing Up on How to Write a Perfect Executive Summary
- Tell an interesting story. Writers should approach an executive summary as a platform for inducing the reader’s interest in reading a research paper. As such, one should use each section to tell what is most crucial to the audience.
- Highlight critical data. Writers should focus on what is most critical in each section of an executive summary, emphasizing statistical data because it is visually captivating.
- Maintain a formal tone from beginning to end. Writers should avoid using jargon to simplify complex concepts or terminologies.
- Write an executive summary after completing an actual research paper. Writing an executive summary as the last element of a research paper helps one to approach this paper as a final summary of the main points. In turn, the mistake of starting an executive summary before writing an actual research paper is that authors can write about details they fail to address in the final version of a document.
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How to Write an Executive Summary for a Research Paper
Published 25 August 2021
It is necessary to file an executive summary along with the documents for business purposes. Students need to write an executive summary (sometimes known as a management summary) of their content to give a brief description to the readers about their work.
It must cover every significant point of your research but in short. So that the audience would get an accurate idea of your work and can decide whether they should read further your larger paperwork or not. Students must not skip any key idea and essential points while giving a precise summary of their work. The executive summary doesn’t contain an introduction, conclusion, or any new idea of your research paper.
It is challenging and complicates the task for the students to cover each argument, idea and the main point of their research work within the possible minimum number of words. However, you have to do it smartly to convince the readers of the purpose of the research.
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What is an executive summary.
An executive summary gives a concise view of a prodigious document. It is generally the first most or only thing which readers need to consider so it must be able to communicate every key point, Research findings , and Results of your research.
It is a brief synopsis of your research work. So to maintain its length, you can’t skip any vital point to describe in it as hardly any reader goes through the entire report. You must write a compelling executive summary to grab the attention of your readers and allure them to go into the depth of your paper.
Executive summaries Components
There are mainly four components of the executive summary, shown below:
- Purpose: You must clearly define the very purpose you need to address and ways to analyze them.
- Key points: Every vital aspect, along with the central idea of your research, you should describe in the exact order as the main paper.
- Results: The outcomes yield from the research.
- Recommendations: You should recommend your suggestions to improve the issues found while researching.
Though it is a very tough task to write a compelling executive summary, yet you can achieve your goal by giving due consideration to the above components.
Importance of executive summary
- The executive summary is a condensed version of the main document, such as a business plan, that grabs the attention of your audience. It contains information on what needs to be done and how you will do it in order for success to come about.
- Filing a useful executive summary with the main document is a way for the students to grab the attention of their professors and to attract them with the content so that they would agree to go through the entire research work.
- If the college students are struggling with their low grades, then they can accelerate them by impressing their supervisors with their quality work. Students can confidently update their resume for the job with their research activity if they got kind remarks from the professors for their hard work.
- Similarly, an excellent executive summary can entice the investors to read the entire business document and go into its dept. It helps them to make an accurate decision about whether they should invest in the proposed business plan or not.
Read Also: Defining Hypothesis in Research
How to write a fantastic Executive summary?
There are essential suggestions that can help the students to write a useful executive summary.
1. Write it up to last
When it is about to inform innovative business decisions and strategies, then students need to do valuable research.
Once the students can do educational research, then they have to start working in terms of packaging findings that can easily communicate the need and value for an altered strategy to leadership. The most significant and effective way to do this is to create an appropriate business plan, including all of the findings, research, and suggestions. This type of creative business plan requires an executive summary.
It can be the best practice to craft the executive summary of an appropriate business plan after every other part of the report. This gives the surety to the students that they can build out a review representing the final remnants of the plan as accurately as it is possible.
2. Try to capture the reader’s attention.
There is no doubt that a well-format executive summary must be informative in nature. However, it should also capture the attention of the audience. If the audience found the content interesting, then they can decide whether they want to read the remaining document or not.
The main objective of the presentation direction should be to inspire the audience with the research findings and the structurally proposed trends. Admittedly, at the end of the practical executive summary, readers might be eager to know whether they would be an advisor, banker, investor, or executive.
The right executive summary should be thorough, but the review should not reveal everything immediately. The audience would get encouraged to read out the complete story by reading the fantastic summary of a report.
3. Make sure an executive summary can stand extraordinarily
An executive summary with a clearly defined structure can become efficient. Without involving the practical review, any of the reports can appear dull and unclaimed. If the students are not able to make the executive summary that can stand on its own, then they have to revise it again and again until they get succeeded.
A useful and informative introduction paragraph, central body part, and conclusion should allow the audience who does not know the business to read the executive summary and understand the key findings from the student’s research, and the primary elements which you have mentioned in the business plan.
4. Think of an executive summary to make a condensed business plan
Students have to create a compelling executive summary to align it with more critical business strategies and plans. While writing about the executive summary, students have to read thoroughly business plan and can take the crucial information from each critical section. All the facts, evidence, numbers, and goals mentioned in the business plan must fit in the executive summary.
5. Make and include supporting research
Make the supportive claims to the executive summary for which the students have done high research and use it to create an appropriate business plan.
6. Boil it down as much as possible
Students have to use precise words and a succinct style to make a unique executive summary. By getting all the necessary information onto one page, students can condense the executive research effectively. The more succinct research students make, the more apparent their message received to the audience plus readers will get more confidence to understand the business strategies.
7. Start impressively with a BANG
If the students include a thought-provoking quote or an inspiring paragraph at the beginning of the executive summary, then it can attract the reader’s attention and can make the readers think like the students want to.
8. Keep things innovative and decisive
Try to focus the executive summary only on the positive elements of the business plan and the research done. Students have to leave all the negative discussions, obstacles, risks, and challenges for the body section of the business plan.
Necessary five-paragraph steps for making an executive summary
Students can break down a compelling executive summary into five paragraphs.
Paragraph 1: Provide a mandatory overview of a business plan
Students can capture the attention of readers by writing attractive statistics and quotes at the beginning of the summary. The first paragraph should include relevant information about business plans and insight information about the industry.
Paragraph 2: Discuss target competition, market, and business strategy
The second paragraph should include a concise and precise definition of the target market and the point of the business plan which the students want to solve. In the next step, outline the strategies with efficiency and the essential information that the specific business possesses.
The marketing strategy should focus on the three primary ways to achieve the plan of the target market. When the students focus on three forms of the market strategy, then they can maintain precision, and make the readers interested to read about their plan.
Paragraph 3: Provide an overview of highlights
The third paragraph of the executive summary should reflect operational highlights like where the office of the company is located and how long one can work there.
Paragraph 4: Make forecasting
Here students have to create sales forecasting projections after their business plan gets implemented. Students can calculate the breakeven point, and then inform the audience how they can turn a business plan into profit.
Paragraph 5: Detail the needs of investors
If any business requires finance, then one has to understand that it is time to invest in it. Students have to clear every information and point to make the current projections.
Appropriate length of an executive summary for a research paper?
There is no rule or secret of writing an executive summary of the research paper by using the words, but if the students understand the basic guidelines, they can make it useful. However, if the students are making it huge, then there is no need to write it. The real of the executive summary is to grab the attention of the reader as well as to reduce the time of the students.
For example, if the students have written ten pages of a research paper, then the executive summary will not be much larger than one page. The length of the executive summary should be as small as is possible by mentioning all the necessary points. When the students can put all the informative data in their review by making it shorter, then it means they had made an effective paper.
Instructions for writing an executive summary
We’ve compiled a list of executive summary tips to help you get started. These include general and more specific instructions for how best to approach your document so that readers can quickly understand its purpose, content, and value proposition
- Students must understand that an executive summary of any business report or research paper is a short review of the document: Short and review are two keywords here. Students should not make a comprehensive executive summary in any way. The executive summary should not be a substitute for the paperwork. You should keep the executive summary less than 10% of the original document. Students can keep it between 5% and 10%, not more than this.
- An executive summary of a business document has adhered to specific structural and stylistic guidelines: Students should apply specific structural and stylistic guidelines while writing an executive summary for the document like; Paragraph of the summary should be kept short The executive summary should make some sense even if you do not read the paper You should write an executive summary in a language that is appropriate for the readers.
- Students must define the problem: A problem should be clearly defined in an executive summary. Students should make sure that they are describing the problem clearly in simple and understandable terms because the documents and original reports are written based on Requests for proposals.
- Students must provide a solution while writing an executive summary: A solution must be written for the stated problem. Students need to write the solution to deliver a claim statement of purpose so that the solution can effectively tackle the problem. The solution will not make any sense if you have not clearly defined the problem.
- Graduate students must use bullet points, graphics, and headings: It is not an easy and simple task to write an executive summary. It would help if you did not write long blocks of text in the executive summary. If students enhance understanding of the fact or writing more skimmable summary then it is good to use the following; Graphics: The use of graphics in the executive summary illustrates the precise nature of the problem of the client, which can drive the point of the summary. Stimulating the visual sense by using graphics is very useful as the logical sense. Bullets: students can break down the long list of information in the desirable bullets. Headings: students should organize the theme of the summary in headings if necessary. It will help to orient the reader as readers always drive into the summary.
- College students must write fresh and Jargon free content in an executive summary: Jargon is trendy in the business world. Students should avoid the words like interface, core competency, leverage, and burning platform in the executive summary.
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- Start with an original document: students should be familiar with the original paper to include it down to the information version. Review your document correctly whether it is a business plan, report, or manual to include the main ideas of it in an executive summary.
- Write a brief review: define the purpose and scope of the company which sponsors the document. It is the main section of the executive summary of the paper. You have to write about the specialty of your business in two or three lines. Mention why your business deserves the scrutiny of the people who are reading the summary.
- Define the problem: discussion about the problem is the foremost step of writing an executive summary of the paper. So, students here need to explain the issue of the topic. The problem should be defined in a clear and precise manner. The ill-defined problem will not sound convincing to the readers and will not let you describe the solution of the problem.
- Write a unique solution: Defining the problem is a secure part of the summary. Now, in this next step, you have to convince the readers for reading your paper by providing them with a unique solution to the defined problem. It will be a great idea for your summary if you clearly define the problem as well as a solution in it.
- Talk about the market potential: According to this tip, you have to elaborate on the stated problem by providing the stats of your business. Do not give too much extra about your business than your company has.
- Incorporate your USP: At this point, you can elaborate on the unique selling proposition of your business.
- If necessary, talk about your business model: Describe the business modal clearly and easily if needed. Some executive summaries do not need to define a business modal. However, if your summary needs it, then explain it clearly.
- If necessary, discuss your management team: If there is a need, then present your management team. It can be an essential part to be written in a summary depending upon the type of your industry.
- Provide business financial projections to support informative claims: Based on the market skills, business strategy model, and historical performance, students have to develop a bottom-up executive economic forecast. The primary purpose of the projections is to demonstrate competence as well as the ability to build financial projections based on a set of predictions or assumptions.
- Ease in to make a request: Now the time comes to request either a loan or an investment, which mainly depends on the purpose of the executive summary. Students should restate the term that why the business company requires a value. Remind the audience about the pain and business strategies that you are going through. Finally, recognize the team about doing the job excellently. One can ask for the major plans and amount that can help make a business successful. It is not worth disclosing any of the statements, yet instead, it can be effective through face-to-face negotiation.
- Recheck the entire summary: When one had written all the essential terms then rereading it can be useful. Carefully proofread the review by considering the audience for the presentation of the documents. Make sure that the language is concise and clear to the audience who is new to the topic.
How is an executive summary of a research paper different from the abstract?
The process of writing an executive summary of your paper is entirely different from a research paper abstract . For writing an of your paper, you cannot follow the same format of writing an abstract. An abstract and an executive summary of the research paper serve different purposes.
An abstract is a glimpse of what the students are going to do in the research paper whereas for the summary; students need to discuss everything and every part of the research paper in brief without missing any fact and crucial point.
So while writing an executive of your research paper, you have o write everything from the aim of the paper to the solutions of the problem along with the references. On the other hand, while writing an abstract of the paper, there is no need to write all these.
Now, you should have the knowledge to draft a compelling summary for your document. From the above content, you would have learned everything about writing an executive summary.
If even you lack somewhere while writing a useful summary of your paper, the helpers of MyResearchTopics.com can assist in writing an executive summary of the paper.
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Tips How to Write an Executive Summary Properly
- Review the article by reading through it thoroughly and focus on understanding what the author is saying.
- As you read, make sure you highlight the major points and ideas. for example, you can look up for the topic sentence, words that are repeated severally and even transition words.
- Write the summary in your own words. As you write the summary start with the source of information i.e., start with the name of the book and that of the other by doing so someone else will be able to know you are writing about what somebody else had written. You should also use your memory to present the main ideas and also present it to the idea from the author’s point of view.
- Remember to use a language that is appropriate to a summary. That is, you want whoever is reading to understand that it is someone else’s argument you writing about,so use phrases like “the author says”
- Reread the what you’ve written from your memory against the notes you had made. If there is something important you had forgotten, you can addit. You also need to present the summary in the order of events rather than jumping from one point to another and eliminate any kind of repetition.
- Check for any errors.
- How to start the executive summary is very important. Executive summaries need to start by the specifics. Identify your company or business name, the contact information and the location.
- You need to know that an executive summary is a short and brief review of the whole business document. The words “brief” and “review” are the main words here. The executive summary should not in any way be detailed nor should it be a substitute for the original document. Here an abstract gives the reader an overview; the latter gives the reader more of a summary. Keep in mind that each executive summary should be unique in its own way.
- The paragraphs should be kept short, simple and precise without leaving out any essential and important information.
- It should make sense even without reading the original report itself. It should start with what you need to capture the reader’s attention and should be followed by factors in chronological order.
- When writing an executive summary use the language that is best appropriate for the target audience. It should always be kept professional and free from grammatical and spelling errors.
- State the big problem. An executive summary needs a clearly stated problem. Ensure that a clear definition of the problem has been stated and it should be in understandable terms. If the problem you defined is not so convincing, you will not be able to provide a solution that has an impact.
- Provide the solution. Any problem needs a solution this applies on writing an executive summary. After you have stated your problem provide a solution. Otherwise, the problem you had first created will not make any sense. You need to provide a solution that solves or tackles the problem.
- Talk about the target market. In some cases, the product you are providing definesthe market. If not, you can give a short description of the target market. You should provide a realistic market potential.
- If the information you are presenting is long, you can break it down into short, understandable bullets.
- When writing an executive summary, you can organize the main idea inform of a heading. This will help the reader familiarize with summary as they get to read it.
- A well-presented graphic can illustrate the precise nature of the main problem and could help bring out the whole point of the summary.
- Avoid using any claims or clichés that cannot be supported. Avoid using word s such as “groundbreaking,” “core competency”. This is because they hinder the real meaning and they eventually tend to lose meaning and makes the summary appear vague.
What is an executive summary?
Proper use of executive summary format.
- It should have a captivating introduction. The first paragraph should capture the reader’s attention. This is where you explain about the company, so it needs to be strong.
- Identify the problem. Any business founded is aimed at solving certain problems. Point out the and explain the issue you intend to solve.
- Provide a unique solution. Propose solutions to question like, how does your company solve the problem? How is your company different from any other company providing the same services? Explain why your idea is better and how it can solve a problem by making things easier.
- Prove your claim with evidence. Provide support to how your business will solve the problem.
- Ask for what you need. Give detailed logistics, for example, how much will itcost? Here you can include the amount you need plus the benefits and returns on investment and over what period.
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Some executive summary examples
- It will improve your workflow- the flow of points in your summary is key, and once you get exposed to different samples you will be able to understand how to encrypt your summary to meet the needs of your readers.
- It improves your grammar command- once you get to read the work of other authors you will be able to know all the grammar rules, and you will be able to avoid the common grammar errors when it comes to your summary.
- Improvement of vocabulary- different business plans require different terms in the expression of its points, once you get exposed to different examples you will be able to know the right terms to apply in summary given.
- The examples also help you to come up with the right format for your work. Executive summary samples help you to know the right formats to be used for different situations as the format is what makes your work impressive.
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What is an Executive Summary (with Example): The 5 Mistakes You Should Avoid
- March 14, 2022
An executive summary is a concise overview of what something is about.
As a business professional, you know that an excellent executive summary can make a big difference in how well a document gets read and understood by others.
Whether you’re writing a proposal or report or just trying to get someone interested in your idea, having a clear and concise summary makes a huge difference.
Table of Contents
What is an Executive Summary?
An executive summary (ES) or executive outline is a condensed version of a longer document.
The ES should contain the main points of the report. In addition, it should include information such as the purpose of the study, the methodology used, the findings, the conclusions, and recommendations.
An executive summary is usually written for senior executives unfamiliar with the topic at hand.
This type of writing is often found in reports, presentations, proposals, and other documents where the writer has limited time to convey important information.
An executive summary should always begin with the title; then immediately follow with a concise sentence stating the purpose of the study.
Next, present a brief overview of the project and its goals. After that, summarize the significant findings of the research. Finally, provide a conclusion that summarizes the key takeaways from the study.
- Every time you sit down to write an executive summary, you have to reinvent the wheel and make it 100% tailored to that one customer, that one investor, or that one board member. ( storydoc.com )
How to Write an Executive Summary and Why to Write it?
Executive summary writing is similar to writing a business plan.
The main difference between the two is that a business plan focuses on financial projections, whereas an executive summary focuses on what you’re going to do about something.
When you write an executive summary, you’re writing about a specific project that you’ve decided to take on.
For example, you could write an executive summary for a research paper, a proposal, or a thesis.
But most people use them when they prepare their annual reports and/or quarterly reports for stockholders.
Writing an executive summary takes some practice, but if you work hard enough, you’ll eventually get better at this skill.
Whether you’re preparing a report for school or work, a cover letter, or a proposal, an executive summary can help communicate your ideas to others more effectively.
1. Start With the Title – Include the Project Purpose
The first step in creating an executive summary is to decide on the overall purpose of the document.
This could be anything from summarizing a lengthy report to giving feedback to a client. If you’re working on a particular project, you may want to explain why you chose this specific project and how it fits into your more extensive portfolio.
2. State Your Objectives – Define What You Want to Achieve
Now that you know what you want to achieve through your project think about the objectives of writing your executive summary.
How will this particular piece benefit your audience? Are there any questions you need to be answered by the end of the project? What key findings does this project produce?
You might also consider using these questions as a checklist to ensure your executive summary meets all your project’s requirements.
For example, “Why did I choose this project?” and “What was my goal with this project?” can help you assess whether your project fulfills the stated purposes of the project outline.
3. Summarize the Results
An executive summary should always start with a title and a short summary of the results. This should include the following elements:
• A brief description of the project
• Any technical terms used in the research
• Key findings, such as recommendations
• Conclusions based on the data collected
A good executive summary should answer the following questions:
• Who are the intended audiences?
• What information will they need to understand the project?
• How will this project add value to their lives?
You may find it helpful to set up a template before you start writing. You could even create several templates, so you don’t have to spend too much time coming up with new ones every time you start a project.
After you’ve summarized the results of your project, you’ll want to conclude the document.
The conclusion section helps readers see the big picture. It brings together everything you learned throughout the rest of your report.
So make sure you carefully plan this part of your writing process.
5. References & Resources
Finally, you should reference sources used in your project and list any resources (such as websites) that helped you complete it.
Make sure that you provide links to valuable resources whenever possible. Also, keep in mind that many academic institutions require referencing for projects completed outside of class.
Why should you write an executive summary?
First, you should write an executive summary if you have a goal or objective.
This means that you’re writing an executive summary because you want to accomplish something.
For example, maybe you want to apply to graduate school. Or perhaps you want to get a job after graduation.
Whatever your goal is, you must first decide it before you can write an executive summary.
Second, writing an executive summary makes you more marketable to potential employers and clients.
An executive summary gives the reader a quick overview of what you’ve done and who you are as a professional. This allows them to quickly learn about you and how you can benefit them.
Third, writing executive summaries teaches you the basics of effective communication. Your ability to communicate effectively will continue to grow as you work with different types of documents over the years.
What to Include in an Executive Summary:
An executive summary is a short document that summarizes what is included in a more extended report. It’s meant to be read quickly instead of wading through pages of text and charts.
An executive summary should address three main points:
• What is the purpose of the report?
• Who is the audience?
• Why does the reader care about the information?
When writing an executive summary, focus first on answering these questions.
1 . What Is The Purpose Of The Report?
A report summarizing an investment opportunity may explain the company’s business strategy or provide details about the specific project.
An executive summary may summarize the key findings that evaluated a product or service. A report about a scientific experiment may describe the results of the research.
2. Who Is The Audience?
The audience for an executive summary usually consists of people who have read the full report.
The summary must accurately reflect the original document’s content and answer the questions posed in the title of the report.
3. Why Does The Reader Care About The Information?
The report’s author wants readers to understand the importance of the information presented in the report.
To do this effectively, the executive summary should highlight the most critical aspects of the report.
This means focusing on the critical points of the report rather than repeating everything found in the original document.
For example, if the report explains why a particular financial instrument is attractive, the executive summary should state why investors should consider buying the security.
If the report provides background information about the company, the executive summary should give context so that readers understand why the information is essential.
4. Include Key Points In Your Executive Summary
Include some of the following elements in your executive summary:
• Title page
This part of the executive summary includes the name of the report, its title, author(s), publisher, publication date, and location.
The title page may also contain contact information and acknowledgments.
The abstract briefly describes the content of the report. It typically begins with a one-sentence summary of the report’s main points.
The introduction briefly states the report’s purpose and provides information about the subject matter.
Usually, it begins with a thesis statement that defines the key concepts and terms used in the report.
The background section describes the history of the subject being reported upon.
It also gives an overview of the organization or type of business involved in producing the report.
The conclusion presents a summary of the report’s major points. It should clearly show how the report answers the question that prompted its creation.
What to Avoid:
Many people still don’t realize what an executive summary really is. An executive summary is a short statement about your business proposal.
It’s a summary of everything in your report that helps the reader understand what you’re trying to do.
In fact, an executive summary is often one of the first things a client sees in your proposal.
So, what should you avoid in an executive summary?
Here are the top 5 mistakes you shouldn’t make:
1. Don’t Make Your Executive Summary Too Long
Most clients won’t read every word of the entire document. They’ll skim it, take notes, and then decide whether to hire you based on what they see.
Keep your executive summary under 1 page. The average person skims over a page and decides within 30 seconds if they want to continue reading.
If you write a more extended executive summary, you may cause the client to skip past you and go straight to the following proposal.
2. Don’t Include Unnecessary Details
Executive summaries aren’t meant to provide a full explanation of your project. Instead, you should include information that’s relevant to the reader.
For example, if you’re writing an executive summary for a marketing plan, don’t give details on your company’s history. That’s not relevant.
Instead, focus on what would interest your target audience most: your product, service, or idea.
3. Don’t Include Marketing Information
Don’t use your executive summary to promote yourself or your company. Focus instead on explaining your idea so that your potential customer understands why this is important to them.
Once you’ve done that, you can talk about yourself or your company later in the proposal.
4. Avoid Using Excessive Grammar Or Punctuation Marks
As mentioned earlier, your job isn’t to sell yourself or your company. Your goal is to convince your client that you’re the best person for the job.
You need to create a clear message that makes your case to accomplish this.
Avoid using words like “I,” “me,” “myself,” and “my” whenever possible. The same goes for the phrases “it was my idea” and “we did it.”
Use simple language that emphasizes the benefits of your proposal. You want to show that you’re capable of delivering results professionally.
5. Don’t Use Wordy Language
While you can add personality to your proposals, don’t use too many adjectives. Just stick to factual information.
Also, avoid using passive voice. For example, say: “We had a great experience working with X company.” Don’t say: “X company worked well with us.” Active voice is better than passive voice.
By avoiding these five common mistakes in your executive summary, you’ll increase your chances of getting hired.
Executive Summary Example 1: A Study of Obesity Among Adults With Low Income and Education Levels
Obesity is a significant public health concern affecting both children and adults worldwide. The World Health Organization estimates that approximately 2 billion adults are overweight and 400 million are obese. According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, obesity has increased from 30% of U.S. adults in 1980 to almost 40% today. While the prevalence of obesity among children has decreased since the late 1990s, the rate of increase among adults has been much higher. In fact, according to the CDC, the number of obese adults rose from 17.5% in 1999 to 29.6% in 2010.
To determine whether obesity rates differ among adults with different socioeconomic backgrounds, researchers used data collected during the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) conducted by the CDC from 2005 through 2007. These surveys consist of interviews and physical examinations administered to more than 20,000 participants aged 18 years and older. Participants completed questionnaires about their lifestyle habits, including diet, exercise, and alcohol intake. Researchers also measured height and weight to calculate body mass index (BMI), a measure of body fat based on height and weight. BMI was calculated using the formula: Weight in kilograms divided by height in meters squared.
From the NHANES survey, researchers identified 3,926 individuals who had low income and/or low educational status. Of these individuals, 1,879 (46%) were classified as obese. Compared to those with high incomes and/or college degrees, obese individuals with low incomes and/or low educational levels were significantly less likely. However, they did not have significantly different dietary patterns compared to other groups. They also reported exercising less frequently than others and consuming fewer fruits and vegetables. However, no significant differences were found regarding alcohol consumption.
While it is clear that obesity affects all social classes, lower socioeconomic status does not necessarily lead to poorer eating habits or lack of exercise. Further studies need to be done to identify the link between obesity and low socioeconomic status.
1. How long should an executive summary be?
An Executive Summary is a short document that summarizes the report’s main points. It’s usually around 500-1000 words.
2. What is an executive summary in a business plan?
An Executive Summary (ES) is your business plan’s first section. It’s designed to grab the reader’s attention and provide them with a quick overview of what you are doing, why you are doing it, who you are doing it for, and how you intend to achieve success.
3. What is the difference between an executive summary and a summary?
An executive summary is shorter than a summary. A summary is usually one page. It provides a brief description of the contents of the report. It contains information about the report’s purpose, its audience, and its structure. The executive summary is similar to a synopsis.
The Bottom Line:
An executive summary is the first paragraph of your Business Plan. This is where you introduce yourself and tell readers what you’re going to do. You can use this space to describe the problem you want to solve, the market opportunity you see, your target customer, your business objective, and your business model.
The executive summary should be written in the third person, passive voice, and present tense and should be concise.
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100+ Executive Summary Examples | MS Word, Google Docs, Pages, PDF
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- Google Docs
Step 1: Summarize the Overall Project
Step 2: explain the background of the project, step 3: write and describe the process of the project, step 4: indicate the results of the project and write the conclusion, more design, interview summary examples, free 9+ consulting report examples, free 8+ executive memo examples, 8+ case summary examples, research summary examples, meeting summary examples, 7+ executive agreement examples, how to write an evaluation report examples, 7+ event brief tips and examples, how to write an investment summary examples, movie summary examples in pdf examples, how to create a business plan examples.
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